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curl(1)				  curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool	for transferring data from or to a server. It supports
       these protocols:	DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS,	 HTTP,	HTTPS,
       IMAP,  IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS, MQTT, POP3,	POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP,
       SFTP, SMB, SMBS,	SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET or TFTP. The command  is  designed
       to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer resume and more. As you will	see below, the number of features will
       make your head spin.

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You find	a detailed description
       in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

	 "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched	in a sequential	manner in the specified	order. You can specify
       command line options and	URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

	 "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is fairly liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invocations.

OUTPUT
       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It  can
       be  instructed  to  instead save	that data into a local file, using the
       --output	or --remote-name options. If curl is given  multiple  URLs  to
       transfer	 on  the command line, it similarly needs multiple options for
       where to	save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise	"understand" the content  it  gets  or
       writes  as  output.  It does no encoding	or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to	with dedicated command line options.

PROTOCOLS
       curl supports numerous protocols, or put	in URL	terms:	schemes.  Your
       particular build	may not	support	them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read  or	write  local  files.  curl  does not support accessing
	      file:// URL remotely, but	when running on	Microsoft Windows  us-
	      ing the native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl  supports  the  File	Transfer Protocol with a lot of	tweaks
	      and levers. With or without using	TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
	      Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
	      curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It  can
	      speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1,	2 and 3	depending on build op-
	      tions and	the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
	      Using the	mail reading protocol, curl can	"download" emails  for
	      you. With	or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
	      curl can do directory lookups for	you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading	over MQTT equals "sub-
	      scribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals	"publish" on a
	      topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
	      Downloading  from	 a  pop3  server means getting a mail. With or
	      without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
	      The Realtime Messaging Protocol  is  primarily  used  to	server
	      streaming	media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH	version	2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft	5) done	over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB	version	1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
	      Uploading	 contents  to  an  SMTP	server means sending an	email.
	      With or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts	an interactive session
	      where  it	 sends	what  it  reads	 on stdin and outputs what the
	      server sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a	progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and	estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of	bytes and  the	speeds
       are  in	bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to	do an operation	and it is about	to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	the response output to	a  file,  using	 shell	redirect  (>),
       --output	or similar.

       This  does  not apply to	FTP upload as that operation does not spit out
       any response data to the	terminal.

       If  you	prefer	a  progress  "bar"  instead  of	 the  regular	meter,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the	progress meter
       completely with the --silent option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form	of the options,	-d for example,	may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	--data for ex-
       ample, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that do not need any  additional  values  can  be
       used  immediately  next to each other, like for example you can specify
       all the options -O, -L and -v at	once as	-OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	 with  --no-option.  That is, you use the same option name but
       prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we  mostly  only  list  and
       show the	--option version of them.

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix	domain socket, instead
	      of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path  of  an  ab-
	      stract  socket  prefixed	with  '@', however the <path> argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Example:
	       curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

	      See also --unix-socket. Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
	      (HTTPS) This option enables the alt-svc parser in	curl.  If  the
	      file name	points to an existing alt-svc cache file, that will be
	      used. After a completed transfer,	the cache will be saved	to the
	      file name	again if it has	been modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle the	cache in memory.

	      If this option is	used several times, curl  will	load  contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and --connect-to. Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method, which you	can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since it may require data	to be sent twice and then  the	client
	      must  be able to rewind. If the need should arise	when uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth,	--basic	and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target  file  instead of overwriting it. If the remote file does
	      not exist, it will be created. Note that this flag is ignored by
	      some SFTP	servers	(including OpenSSH).

	      Example:
	       curl --upload-file local	--append ftp://example.com/

	      See also -r, --range and -C, --continue-at.

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:provider2[:region[:service]]]>
	      Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

	      The  provider argument is	a string that is used by the algorithm
	      when creating outgoing authentication headers.

	      The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
	      of  a resources collection (region-code) when the	region name is
	      omitted from the endpoint.

	      The service argument is a	string that points to a	function  pro-
	      vided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is omitted
	      from the endpoint.

	      Example:
	       curl --aws-sigv4	"aws:amz:east-2:es" --user "key:secret"	https://example.com

	      See also --basic and -u, --user. Added in	7.75.0.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP Basic authentication with the  re-
	      mote host. This is the default and this option is	usually	point-
	      less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
	      sets  a  different  authentication method	(such as --ntlm, --di-
	      gest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<file>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in	PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  it  is  set,	and uses the given path	as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the	 NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be	available for this op-
	      tion to work properly.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then this	option is supported for	 backward  compatibility  with
	      other  SSL  engines,  but	it should not be set. If the option is
	      not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
	      user  Keychain to	verify the peer, which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      (Schannel	only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
	      7	 or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported
	      for backward compatibility with other SSL	engines; instead it is
	      recommended  to use Windows' store of root certificates (the de-
	      fault for	Schannel).

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

	      See also --capath	and -k,	--insecure.

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	 directory  to
	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be	provided by separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be  in PEM format, and if	curl is	built against OpenSSL, the di-
	      rectory must have	been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
	      plied  with  OpenSSL.  Using  --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
	      curl to make SSL-connections much	more  efficiently  than	 using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

	      See also --cacert	and -k,	--insecure.

       --cert-status
	      (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If this option is	enabled	and the	server sends an	invalid	 (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate has been	revoked, or no response	at  all	 is  received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This  is	currently  only	implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
	      NSS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-status https://example.com

	      See also --pinnedpubkey. Added in	7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided  client  certificate  is
	      using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types. If not	speci-
	      fied, PEM	is assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-type	PEM --cert file	https://example.com

	      See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col. The certificate must	be in PKCS#12 format if	 using	Secure
	      Transport,  or  PEM format if using any other engine. If the op-
	      tional password is not specified,	it will	be queried for on  the
	      terminal.	 Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
	      See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this	option
	      can tell curl the	nickname of the	certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable	SSL_DIR	(or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so)  is  available	 then  PEM files may be	loaded.	If you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to	be preceded by "\"  so
	      that it is not recognized	as password delimiter. If the nickname
	      contains "\", it needs to	be escaped as "\\" so that it  is  not
	      recognized as an escape character.

	      If  curl is built	against	OpenSSL	library, and the engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify  a  certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string	begin-
	      ning with	"pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.	 If  a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --cert-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private  key	in the system or user keychain,	or the path to
	      a	PKCS#12-encoded	certificate and	private	key. If	 you  want  to
	      use  a  file  from the current directory,	please precede it with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      (Schannel	only) Client certificates must be specified by a  path
	      expression  to  a	 certificate  store.  (Loading PFX is not sup-
	      ported; you can import it	to a store first). You can use "<store
	      location>\<store	name>\<thumbprint>"  to	refer to a certificate
	      in  the  system  certificates  store,  for   example,   "Curren-
	      tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
	      is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see  in  certificate
	      details.	Following  store locations are supported: CurrentUser,
	      LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,  CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
	      LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

	      See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3.

       --compressed-ssh
	      (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
	      not an order; the	server may or may not do it.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

	      See also --compressed. Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
	      are not modified.

	      If this option is	used and the server sends an  unsupported  en-
	      coding, curl will	report an error. This is a request, not	an or-
	      der; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed https://example.com

	      See also --compressed-ssh.

       -K, --config <file>
	      Specify a	text file to read curl	arguments  from.  The  command
	      line  arguments  found  in the text file will be used as if they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options and their	parameters must	be specified on	the same  line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long option names	can optionally be given	 in  the  config  file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with  one	or two dashes, there can be no colon or	equals charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter contains	whitespace (or starts with  :  or  =),
	      the  parameter  must  be	enclosed  within quotes. Within	double
	      quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:  \\,  \",
	      \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter	is ig-
	      nored.

	      If the first column of a config line is  a  '#'  character,  the
	      rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

	      Only write one option per	physical line in the config file.

	      Specify  the  filename  to --config as '-' to make curl read the
	      file from	stdin.

	      Note that	to be able to specify a	URL in the  config  file,  you
	      need  to	specify	 it  using the --url option, and not by	simply
	      writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

	       # --- Example file ---
	       # this is a comment
	       url = "example.com"
	       output =	"curlhere.html"
	       user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	       # and fetch another URL too
	       url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	       -O
	       referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	       # --- End of example file ---

	      When curl	is invoked, it (unless --disable is used) checks for a
	      default config file and uses it if found,	even when --config  is
	      used.  The  default  config file is checked for in the following
	      places in	this order:

	      1) "$CURL_HOME/.curlrc"

	      2) "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/.curlrc" (Added in 7.73.0)

	      3) "$HOME/.curlrc"

	      4) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\.curlrc"

	      5) Windows: "%APPDATA%\.curlrc"

	      6) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\.curlrc"

	      7) Non-Windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

	      8) On Windows, if	it finds no .curlrc file in the	 sequence  de-
	      scribed  above,  it checks for one in the	same dir the curl exe-
	      cutable is placed.

	      On Windows two filenames are checked per location:  .curlrc  and
	      _curlrc,	preferring  the	 former.  Older	 versions  on  Windows
	      checked for _curlrc only.

	      This option can be used multiple times to	load  multiple	config
	      files.

	      Example:
	       curl --config file.txt https://example.com

	      See also -q, --disable.

       --connect-timeout <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con-
	      nects  within the	given period it	will continue -	if not it will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
	       curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request  to  the	given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
	      HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option	is suitable to direct requests
	      at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
	      ter  of  servers.	This option is only used to establish the net-
	      work connection. It does NOT affect the  hostname/port  that  is
	      used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
	      application protocols. "HOST1" and  "PORT1"  may	be  the	 empty
	      string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
	      the  empty  string,  meaning   "use   the	  request's   original
	      host/port".

	      A	"host" specified to this option	is compared as a string, so it
	      needs to match the name used in request URL. It  can  be	either
	      numerical	such as	"127.0.0.1" or the full	host name such as "ex-
	      ample.org".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      Example:
	       curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it  is transferred to the	destination. If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -C - https://example.com
	       curl -C 400 https://example.com

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP) Specify to	which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a	completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
	      in-memory	cookie storage to the given file at the	end of	opera-
	      tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
	      file will	be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This command line	option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	cannot be created or  written  to,  the	 whole
	      curl  operation  will  not fail or even report an	error clearly.
	      Using --verbose will get a warning displayed, but	 that  is  the
	      only  visible feedback you get about this	possibly lethal	situa-
	      tion.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	 last  specified  file
	      name will	be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
	       curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

	      See also -b, --cookie.

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is supposedly the	data previously	received from the server in  a
	      "Set-Cookie:"   line.   The   data   should  be  in  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If no '='	symbol is used in the argument,	it is instead  treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which will make curl record in-
	      coming cookies, which may	be handy if you	are using this in com-
	      bination with the	--location option or do	multiple URL transfers
	      on  the  same invoke. If the file	name is	exactly	a minus	("-"),
	      curl will	instead	read the contents from stdin.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP  headers  (Set-Cookie style)	or the Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The file specified with --cookie is only used as input. No cook-
	      ies  will	 be  written  to  the  file. To	store cookies, use the
	      --cookie-jar option.

	      If you use the Set-Cookie	file format and	do not specify	a  do-
	      main  then  the  cookie  is not sent since the domain will never
	      match. To	address	this, set a domain in Set-Cookie  line	(doing
	      that  will  include sub-domains) or preferably: use the Netscape
	      format.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Users often want to both read cookies from a file	and write  up-
	      dated  cookies  back  to	a  file,  so  using  both --cookie and
	      --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

	      Examples:
	       curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
	       curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile	https://example.com

	      See also -c, --cookie-jar	and -j,	--junk-session-cookies.

       --create-dirs
	      When used	in conjunction with the	 --output  option,  curl  will
	      create  the  necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This
	      option creates the directories mentioned with the	 --output  op-
	      tion, nothing else. If the --output file name uses no directory,
	      or if the	directories it mentions	already	exist, no  directories
	      will be created.

	      Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

	      To  create remote	directories when using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

	      See also --ftp-create-dirs and --output-dir.

       --create-file-mode <mode>
	      (SFTP SCP	FILE) When curl	is used	to create files	remotely using
	      one  of  the supported protocols,	this option allows the user to
	      set which	'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of
	      the default 0644.

	      This option takes	an octal number	as argument.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

	      See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added	in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP  SMTP)  Convert  LF	to  CRLF  in  upload.  Useful  for MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

	      See also -B, --use-ascii.

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

	      See also --cacert	and --capath.

       --curves	<algorithm list>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to request specific curves to  use  during  SSL
	      session  establishment according to RFC 8422, 5.1.  Multiple al-
	      gorithms can be provided	by  separating	them  with  ":"	 (e.g.
	      "X25519:P-521").	 The parameter is available identically	in the
	      "openssl s_client/s_server" utilities.

	      --curves allows a	OpenSSL	powered	curl to	 make  SSL-connections
	      with  exactly  the  (EC) curve requested by the client, avoiding
	      nontransparent client/server negotiations.

	      If this option is	 set,  the  default  curves  list  built  into
	      openssl will be ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers. Added	in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

	      See also --data-binary, --data-raw and --data-urlencode.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data exactly as specified with no extra pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      filename.	Data is	posted in a similar manner as --data does, ex-
	      cept that	newlines and carriage returns are preserved  and  con-
	      versions are never done.

	      Like  --data  the	default	content-type sent to the server	is ap-
	      plication/x-www-form-urlencoded. If you  want  the  data	to  be
	      treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
	      tent-type	to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type:  application/octet-
	      stream".

	      If  this	option	is  used several times,	the ones following the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

	      See also --data-ascii.

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data similarly to --data but without the  spe-
	      cial interpretation of the @ character.

	      Examples:
	       curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
	       curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data, similar to the other --data options with
	      the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin	 with  a  name
	      followed	by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on.  Just be careful so that the content does not contain
		     any = or @	symbols, as that will  then  make  the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	part and  pass
		     that  on.	Note that the name part	is expected to be URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This will make curl load data from	the  given  file  (in-
		     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
		     on	in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This will make curl load data from	the  given  file  (in-
		     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
		     on	in the POST. The name part  gets  an  equal  sign  ap-
		     pended,  resulting	 in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       Examples:
	curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode name@file	https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode @fileonly	https://example.com

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP MQTT) Sends	the specified data in a	POST  request  to  the
	      HTTP server, in the same way that	a browser does when a user has
	      filled in	an HTML	form and presses the submit button. This  will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Compare to -F,	--form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	 of  the  @ character. To post data purely binary, you
	      should instead use the --data-binary option. To  URL-encode  the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com-
	      mand line, the data pieces specified will	be merged with a sepa-
	      rating  &-symbol.	 Thus,	using  '-d name=daniel -d skill=lousy'
	      would    generate	   a	post	chunk	 that	 looks	  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name	to read	the data from, or - if you want	curl  to  read
	      the  data	 from  stdin.  Posting data from a file	named 'foobar'
	      would thus be done with -d, --data @foobar. When --data is  told
	      to  read	from  a	 file like that, carriage returns and newlines
	      will be stripped out. If you do not want the @ character to have
	      a	special	interpretation use --data-raw instead.

	      Examples:
	       curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
	       curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
	       curl -d @filename https://example.com

	      See  also	 --data-binary,	 --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
	      option overrides -F, --form and -I,  --head  and	-T,  --upload-
	      file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos)  Set  LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Do	not allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag  is  set
		     in	 the  Kerberos	service	 ticket,  which	is a matter of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       Example:
	curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

       See also	-k, --insecure and --ssl.

       --digest
	      (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an  authenti-
	      cation  scheme  that  prevents the password from being sent over
	      the wire in clear	text. Use this in combination with the	normal
	      --user option to set user	name and password.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

	      See also -u, --user, --proxy-digest and --anyauth.  This	option
	      overrides	--basic	and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt  to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
	      option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT	and  LPRT  are	exten-
	      sions  to	 the  original	FTP  protocol, and may not work	on all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If the server is accessed	using IPv6, this option	will  have  no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	 EPRT only changes the active behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	passive	mode you need to not use --ftp-port  or	 force
	      it with --ftp-pasv.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-epsv and -P, --ftp-port.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP)  Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when do-
	      ing passive FTP transfers. Curl will normally always  first  at-
	      tempt to use EPSV	before PASV, but with this option, it will not
	      try using	EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If  the  server is an IPv6 host, this option will	have no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-eprt and -P, --ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
	      If  used	as the first parameter on the command line, the	curlrc
	      config file will not be read and used. See the --config for  de-
	      tails on the default config file search path.

	      Example:
	       curl -q https://example.com

	      See also -K, --config.

       --disallow-username-in-url
	      (HTTP)  This  tells  curl	 to  exit if passed a url containing a
	      username.	This is	probably most useful when  the	URL  is	 being
	      provided at run-time or similar.

	      Example:
	       curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS)  Tell  curl	 to send outgoing DNS requests through <inter-
	      face>. This option is a counterpart to --interface  (which  does
	      not  affect  DNS). The supplied string must be an	interface name
	      (not an address).

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-ipv4-addr	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-interface
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
	      quests,  so  that	 the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
	      quests,  so  that	 the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv4-addr.  --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used instead of	the system de-
	      fault.   The  list of IP addresses should	be separated with com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com

	      See  also	--dns-interface	and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-servers re-
	      quires that the underlying libcurl was built to support  c-ares.
	      Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-cert-status
	      Same as --cert-status but	used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url	https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-insecure. Added in	7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
	      Same as --insecure but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-url. Added	in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
	      Specifies	 which	DNS-over-HTTPS	(DoH) server to	use to resolve
	      hostnames, instead of using the default name resolver mechanism.
	      The URL must be HTTPS.

	      Some  SSL	 options  that you set for your	transfer will apply to
	      DoH since	the name lookups take place  over  SSL.	 However,  the
	      certificate  verification	 settings are not inherited and	can be
	      controlled separately via	--doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-insecure. Added in	7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to	the  specified
	      file.  If	 no  headers are received, the use of this option will
	      create an	empty file.

	      When used	in FTP,	the FTP	server response	lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections.

	      Example:
	       curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	all (and possibly none)	of the engines
	      may be available at run-time.

	      Example:
	       curl --engine flavor https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers and --curves.

       --etag-compare <file>
	      (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the spe-
	      cific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-
	      Match header using the stored ETag.

	      For correct results, make	sure that the specified	file  contains
	      only  a  single  line  with  the	desired	ETag. An empty file is
	      parsed as	an empty ETag.

	      Use the option --etag-save to first save the  ETag  from	a  re-
	      sponse,  and  then  use this option to compare against the saved
	      ETag in a	subsequent request.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

	      See also --etag-save and -z, --time-cond.	Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
	      (HTTP) This option saves an HTTP ETag to the specified file.  An
	      ETag  is	a  caching  related  header, usually returned in a re-
	      sponse.

	      If no ETag is sent by the	server,	an empty file is created.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-save	storetag.txt https://example.com

	      See also --etag-compare. Added in	7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      Example:
	       curl --expect100-timeout	2.5 -T file https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one	by one.	By de-
	      fault, it	will ignore errors if there are	more  URLs  given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	will determine the error code curl re-
	      turns. So	early failures will be "hidden"	by subsequent success-
	      ful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two  options, however note --fail	is not global and is therefore
	      contained	by -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

	      See also -f, --fail and --fail-with-body.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
	      (HTTP) Return an error on	server errors where the	HTTP  response
	      code  is	400  or	 greater). In normal cases when	an HTTP	server
	      fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
	      so  (which  often	 also  describes why and more).	This flag will
	      still allow curl to output and save that content but also	to re-
	      turn error 22.

	      This  is	an  alternative	option to --fail which makes curl fail
	      for the same circumstances but without saving the	content.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

	      See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to enable	scripts	etc to better deal with	failed
	      attempts.	In normal cases	when an	HTTP server fails to deliver a
	      document,	 it  returns  an HTML document stating so (which often
	      also describes why and more). This flag will prevent  curl  from
	      outputting that and return error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and	there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes	will slip through, especially when au-
	      thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

	      Example:
	       curl --fail https://example.com

	      See also --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a TLS	client will start sending  ap-
	      plication	 data  before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --false-start https://example.com

	      See also --tcp-fastopen. Added in	7.42.0.

       --form-escape
	      (HTTP)  Tells curl to pass on names of multipart form fields and
	      files using backslash-escaping instead of	percent-encoding.

	      Example:
	       curl --form-escape --form 'field\name=curl' 'file=@load"this' https://example.com

	      See also -F, --form. Added in 7.81.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP SMTP IMAP) Similar to --form except	that the value	string
	      for  the	named parameter	is used	literally. Leading '@' and '<'
	      characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special
	      meaning.	Use this in preference to --form if there's any	possi-
	      bility that the string value may accidentally trigger the	'@' or
	      '<' features of -F, --form.

	      Example:
	       curl --form-string "data" https://example.com

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP) For HTTP protocol family, this	lets curl emu-
	      late a filled-in form in which a user  has  pressed  the	submit
	      button.  This  causes  curl  to POST data	using the Content-Type
	      multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

	      For SMTP and IMAP	protocols, this	is the means to	compose	a mul-
	      tipart mail message to transmit.

	      This  enables  uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part	from a file, prefix the	file name with
	      the symbol <. The	difference between @ and  <  is	 then  that  @
	      makes  a	file  get attached in the post as a file upload, while
	      the < makes a text field and just	get the	contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Tell  curl to read content from stdin instead of a file by using
	      -	as filename. This goes for both	@ and <	constructs. When stdin
	      is used, the contents is buffered	in memory first	by curl	to de-
	      termine its size and allow a possible resend. Defining a	part's
	      data from	a named	non-regular file (such as a named pipe or sim-
	      ilar) is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will be  ef-
	      fectively	 read at transmission time; since the full size	is un-
	      known before the transfer	starts,	such data is sent as chunks by
	      HTTP and rejected	by IMAP.

	      Example: send an image to	an HTTP	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name of the form-field to	which the file	portrait.jpg  will  be
	      the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      Example:	send your name and shoe	size in	two text fields	to the
	      server:

	       curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11	https://example.com/

	      Example: send your essay in a text field to the server. Send  it
	      as  a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a local
	      file:

	       curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

	      You can also  tell  curl	what  Content-Type  to	use  by	 using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You  can	also explicitly	change the name	field of a file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If filename/path contains	',' or ';', it must be quoted by  dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\""	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F 'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"' example.com

	      Note  that  if  a	 filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      Quoting  must  also  be  applied to non-file data	if it contains
	      semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

	       curl -F 'colors="red; green; blue";type=text/x-myapp' example.com

	      You can add custom headers to the	 field	by  setting  headers=,
	      like

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

	      or

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=@headerfile"	example.com

	      The  headers=  keyword may appear	more that once and above notes
	      about quoting apply. When	headers	are read from  a  file,	 Empty
	      lines and	lines starting with '#'	are comments and ignored; each
	      header can be folded by splitting	between	two words and starting
	      the  continuation	 line  with a space; embedded carriage-returns
	      and trailing spaces are stripped.	  Here	is  an	example	 of  a
	      header file contents:

		# This file contain two	headers.
		X-header-1: this is a header

		# The following	header is folded.
		X-header-2: this is
		 another header

	      To  support  sending  multipart mail messages, the syntax	is ex-
	      tended as	follows:
	      -	name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character  of
	      the argument,
	      -	 if  data  starts with '(', this signals to start a new	multi-
	      part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
	      -	a multipart can	be terminated with a '=)' argument.

	      Example: the following command sends an SMTP mime	email consist-
	      ing in an	inline part in two alternative formats:	plain text and
	      HTML. It attaches	a text file:

	       curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
		    -F '=plain text message' \
		    -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
		    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt'	...  smtp://example.com

	      Data can be encoded for transfer using encoder=.	Available  en-
	      codings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
	      corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding header, 7bit  that  only
	      rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
	      and base64 that encodes  data  according	to  the	 corresponding
	      schemes, limiting	lines length to	76 characters.

	      Example:	send  multipart	mail with a quoted-printable text mes-
	      sage and a base64	attached file:

	       curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable'	\
		    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ...	smtp://example.com

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Example:
	       curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data, --form-string and --form-escape.  This  op-
	      tion overrides -d, --data	and -I,	--head and -T, --upload-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and password has been provided, this data	is sent	off using  the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

	      See also -u, --user.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP)  If	 authenticating	with the USER and PASS commands	fails,
	      send this	 command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	 server	 over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
	      "SITE AUTH" will tell the	server to retrieve the	username  from
	      the certificate.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

	      See also --ftp-account and -u, --user.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP  SFTP)  When	 an FTP	or SFTP	URL/operation uses a path that
	      does not currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP) Control what method	curl should use	to reach a file	on  an
	      FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one	of the follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl does a single	CWD operation for each	path  part  in
		     the  given	URL. For deep hierarchies this means many com-
		     mands. This is how	RFC 1738 says it should	be done.  This
		     is	the default but	the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl  does	 no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in	 the  multicwd
		     case).  This  is  somewhat	 more standards	compliant than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Examples:
	curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method nocwd	ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

       See also	-l, --list-only.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP) Use	passive	mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the
	      internal	default	behavior, but using this option	can be used to
	      override a previous --ftp-port option.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.  Undoing  an enforced passive really is not	doable but you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct --ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-epsv.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP)  Reverses  the  default initiator/listener roles when con-
	      necting with FTP.	This option makes curl use active  mode.  curl
	      then  tells the server to	connect	back to	the client's specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP  address  and	port for it to connect to. <address> should be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     e.g. "eth0" to specify which interface's IP  address  you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the	exact IP address

	      host name
		     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make  curl	 pick the same IP address that is already used
		     for the control connection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be  used.  Dis-
       able  the  use  of PORT with --ftp-pasv.	Disable	the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt.  EPRT  is	really
       PORT++.

       You  can	 also  append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to
       tell curl what TCP port range to	use. That means	 you  specify  a  port
       range,  from a lower to a higher	number.	A single number	works as well,
       but do note that	it increases the risk of failure since	the  port  may
       not be available.

       Examples:
	curl -P	- ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	eth0 ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP)  Tell  curl	to send	a PRET command before PASV (and	EPSV).
	      Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
	      command  for  directory  listings	as well	as up and downloads in
	      PASV mode.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

	      See also -P, --ftp-port and --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its  response to curl's PASV command when	curl connects the data
	      connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it  al-
	      ready uses for the control connection.

	      Since curl 7.74.0	this option is enabled by default.

	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
	      of PASV.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode	will not initiate  the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel)	Shuts down the SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for	the FTP	 login,	 clear	for  transfer.
	      Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted	data transfers
	      for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server	does not  sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

	      See also --ssl.

       -G, --get
	      When  used,  this	 option	 will make all data specified with -d,
	      --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode	to be used in an  HTTP
	      GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If used in combination with -I, --head, the POST data  will  in-
	      stead be appended	to the URL with	a HEAD request.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. This is because undoing a GET does not make	sense, but you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

	      Examples:
	       curl --get https://example.com
	       curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
	       curl --get -I -d	"tool=curl" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data and -X, --request.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this option, you can specify URLs	that contain the letters  {}[]
	      without  having curl itself interpret them. Note that these let-
	      ters are not normal legal	URL contents but they  should  be  en-
	      coded according to the URI standard.

	      Example:
	       curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

	      See also -K, --config and	-q, --disable.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
	      Happy  Eyeballs is an algorithm that attempts to connect to both
	      IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for  dual-stack  hosts,  giving  IPv6  a
	      head-start  of the specified number of milliseconds. If the IPv6
	      address cannot be	connected to within that time, then a  connec-
	      tion  attempt is made to the IPv4	address	in parallel. The first
	      connection to be established is the one that is used.

	      The range	of suggested useful values is limited. Happy  Eyeballs
	      RFC  6555	 says  "It  is RECOMMENDED that	connection attempts be
	      paced 150-250 ms apart to	balance	human factors against  network
	      load."  libcurl currently	defaults to 200	ms. Firefox and	Chrome
	      currently	default	to 300 ms.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms	500 https://example.com

	      See also -m, --max-time and --connect-timeout. Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
	      (HTTP) Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at	the  beginning
	      of  the  connection. This	is used	by some	load balancers and re-
	      verse proxies to indicate	the client's true IP address and port.

	      This option is primarily useful when sending test	requests to  a
	      service that expects this	header.

	      Example:
	       curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of  a
	      document.	 When  used  on	an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

	      Example:
	       curl -I https://example.com

	      See also -G, --get, -v, --verbose	and --trace-ascii.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to  a  server. You may specify any number	of extra headers. Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one  of  the  internal  ones curl	would use, your	externally set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to  make	even  trickier	stuff than curl	would normally do. You
	      should not replace internally set	headers	without	 knowing  per-
	      fectly  well  what  you  are doing. Remove an internal header by
	      giving a replacement without content on the right	 side  of  the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,  such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      This option can take an argument in @filename style, which  then
	      adds  a  header  for  each line in the input file. Using @- will
	      make curl	read the header	file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

	      You need --proxy-header to send custom headers  intended	for  a
	      HTTP proxy. Added	in 7.37.0.

	      Passing  on  a  "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" header when doing a
	      HTTP request with	a request body,	will make curl send  the  data
	      using chunked encoding.

	      WARNING:	headers	 set  with  this option	will be	set in all re-
	      quests - even after redirects are	followed, like when told  with
	      -L,  --location. This can	lead to	the header being sent to other
	      hosts than the original host, so	sensitive  headers  should  be
	      used with	caution	combined with following	redirects.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
	       curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
	       curl -H "Host:" https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -e,	--referer.

       -h, --help <category>
	      Usage help. This lists all commands of the  <category>.	If  no
	      arg  was	provided, curl will display the	most important command
	      line arguments.  If the argument "all" was provided,  curl  will
	      display  all  options available.	If the argument	"category" was
	      provided,	curl will display all categories and their meanings.

	      Example:
	       curl --help all

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP SCP) Pass a	string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
	      string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Example:
	       curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

	      See also --hostpubsha256.

       --hostpubsha256 <sha256>
	      (SFTP SCP) Pass a	string containing a Base64-encoded SHA256 hash
	      of the remote host's public key. Curl will refuse	the connection
	      with the host unless the hashes match.

	      Example:
	       curl --hostpubsha256 NDVkMTQxMGQ1ODdmMjQ3MjczYjAyOTY5MmRkMjVmNDQ= sftp://example.com/

	      See also --hostpubmd5. Added in 7.80.0.

       --hsts <file name>
	      (HTTPS)  This  option enables HSTS for the transfer. If the file
	      name points to an	existing HSTS cache file, that will  be	 used.
	      After  a completed transfer, the cache will be saved to the file
	      name again if it has been	modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle HSTS in memory.

	      If  this	option	is used	several	times, curl will load contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to be fine with	HTTP version 0.9 response.

	      HTTP/0.9 is a completely headerless response and	therefore  you
	      can  also	 connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still get a
	      response since curl will simply transparently downgrade -	if al-
	      lowed.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

	      Example:
	       curl --http0.9 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1, --http2 and --http3. Added in	7.64.0.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.0 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http0.9  and	 --http1.1.  This   option   overrides
	      --http1.1	and --http2 and	--http2-prior-knowledge	and --http3.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.1 https://example.com

	      See  also	-0, --http1.0 and --http0.9. This option overrides -0,
	      --http1.0	and --http2 and	--http2-prior-knowledge	 and  --http3.
	      Added in 7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  non-TLS HTTP	requests using
	      HTTP/2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade.	It  requires  prior  knowledge
	      that  the	 server	 supports HTTP/2 straight away.	HTTPS requests
	      will still do HTTP/2 the standard	way with  negotiated  protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http2 and --http3. --http2-prior-knowledge requires
	      that the underlying libcurl was built to	support	 HTTP/2.  This
	      option  overrides	 --http1.1  and	 -0, --http1.0 and --http2 and
	      --http3. Added in	7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      For HTTPS, this means curl will attempt to negotiate  HTTP/2  in
	      the TLS handshake. curl does this	by default.

	      For HTTP,	this means curl	will attempt to	upgrade	the request to
	      HTTP/2 using the Upgrade:	request	header.

	      When curl	uses HTTP/2 over HTTPS,	it does	not itself  insist  on
	      TLS 1.2 or higher	even though that is required by	the specifica-
	      tion. A user can add this	version	requirement with --tlsv1.2.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	and  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2-prior-knowledge  and
	      --http3. Added in	7.33.0.

       --http3
	      (HTTP)  WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in pro-
	      duction.

	      Tells curl to use	HTTP version 3 directly	to the host  and  port
	      number used in the URL. A	normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
	      to a host	and then get redirected	via Alt-Svc, but  this	option
	      allows  a	 user to circumvent that when you know that the	target
	      speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

	      This option will make curl fail if a QUIC	connection  cannot  be
	      established,  it cannot fall back	to a lower HTTP	version	on its
	      own.

	      Example:
	       curl --http3 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/3. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	and -0,	--http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowl-
	      edge. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP  HTTP)  For HTTP, Ignore the	Content-Length header. This is
	      particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x,  which  will
	      report  incorrect	 Content-Length	 for files larger than 2 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out  the
	      size before downloading a	file.

	      This  option  does not work for HTTP if libcurl was built	to use
	      hyper.

	      Example:
	       curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

	      See also --ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

       -i, --include
	      Include the HTTP response	headers	in the output.	The  HTTP  re-
	      sponse  headers  can  include  things like server	name, cookies,
	      date of the document, HTTP version and more...

	      To view the request headers, consider the	--verbose option.

	      Example:
	       curl -i https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS SFTP	SCP) By	default, every secure connection curl makes is
	      verified	to be secure before the	transfer takes place. This op-
	      tion makes curl skip the verification step and  proceed  without
	      checking.

	      When this	option is not used for protocols using TLS, curl veri-
	      fies the server's	TLS certificate	before it continues: that  the
	      certificate  contains the	right name which matches the host name
	      used in the URL and that the certificate has been	signed by a CA
	      certificate present in the cert store.  See this online resource
	      for further details:
	       https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      For SFTP and SCP,	this option makes curl	skip  the  known_hosts
	      verification.   known_hosts  is  a  file	normally stored	in the
	      user's home directory in the .ssh	subdirectory,  which  contains
	      host names and their public keys.

	      WARNING: using this option makes the transfer insecure.

	      Example:
	       curl --insecure https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-insecure, --cacert and --capath.

       --interface <name>
	      Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
	      interface	name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      On  Linux	 it can	be used	to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
	      to either	have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root.	More  informa-
	      tion   about  Linux  VRF:	 https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
	      tion/networking/vrf.txt

	      Example:
	       curl --interface	eth0 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv4 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv4 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv6 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv6 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -4,
	      --ipv4.

       --json <data>
	      (HTTP) Sends the specified JSON data in a	POST  request  to  the
	      HTTP  server.  --json  works  as a shortcut for passing on these
	      three options:

	       --data [arg]
	       --header	"Content-Type: application/json"
	       --header	"Accept: application/json"

	      There is no verification that the	passed in data is actual  JSON
	      or that the syntax is correct.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name	to read	the data from, or a single  dash  (-)  if  you
	      want  curl to read the data from stdin. Posting data from	a file
	      named 'foobar' would thus	be done	with --json @foobar and	to in-
	      stead read the data from stdin, use --json @-.

	      If  this option is used more than	once on	the same command line,
	      the additional data pieces will be concatenated to the  previous
	      before sending.

	      The  headers  this option	sets can be overriden with --header as
	      usual.

	      Examples:
	       curl --json '{ "drink": "coffe" }' https://example.com
	       curl --json '{ "drink":'	--json ' "coffe" }' https://example.com
	       curl --json @prepared https://example.com
	       curl --json @- https://example.com < json.txt

	      See also --data-binary and --data-raw. This option overrides -F,
	      --form and -I, --head and	-T, --upload-file. Added in 7.82.0.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
	      sically  have  the  same	effect as if a new session is started.
	      Typical browsers always discard session cookies  when  they  are
	      closed down.

	      Example:
	       curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This  option sets	the time a connection needs to remain idle be-
	      fore sending keepalive probes and	the  time  between  individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning	Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option	has no
	      effect if	--no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Example:
	       curl --keepalive-time 20	https://example.com

	      See also --no-keepalive and -m, --max-time.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS)  Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro-
	      vided private key	is. DER, PEM, and ENG are  supported.  If  not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

	      See also --key.

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate key in this separate	file. For SSH, if not specified,  curl
	      tries   the  following  candidates  in  order:  '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
	      '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

	      If curl is built against OpenSSL library,	and the	engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify a private key	located	in a PKCS#11 device. A	string	begin-
	      ning  with  "pkcs11:" will be interpreted	as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11"	if none	was provided and the --key-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

	      See also --key-type and -E, --cert.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The	level must  be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'. Should	you use	a level	that  is  not  one  of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --krb clear	ftp://example.com/

	      See  also	--delegation and --ssl.	--krb requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append this option to any	ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
	      will  get	 libcurl-using	C source code written to the file that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If  this	option is used several times, the last given file name
	      will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify the maximum transfer rate	you want curl  to  use	-  for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited pipe and you would like your transfer not	 to  use  your
	      entire bandwidth.	To make	it slower than it otherwise would be.

	      The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
	      appended.	 Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number  as	 kilo-
	      bytes,  'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it
	      gigabytes. The suffixes (k, M, G,	T, P) are 1024 based. For  ex-
	      ample 1k is 1024.	Examples: 200K,	3m and 1G.

	      The rate limiting	logic works on averaging the transfer speed to
	      no more than the set threshold over a period  of	multiple  sec-
	      onds.

	      If  you also use the --speed-limit option, that option will take
	      precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help
	      keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

	      See also -Y, --speed-limit and -y, --speed-time.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP  POP3)  (FTP)  When	listing	 an FTP	directory, this	switch
	      forces a name-only view. This is especially useful if  the  user
	      wants  to	 machine-parse	the contents of	an FTP directory since
	      the normal directory view	does not use a standard	look  or  for-
	      mat.  When  used like this, the option causes an NLST command to
	      be sent to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note: Some FTP servers list only	files  in  their  response  to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email	from POP3, this	switch
	      forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
	      particularly  useful if the user wants to	see if a specific mes-
	      sage-id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be  used
	      to  send a UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
	      unique identifier	rather than its	message-id  to	make  the  re-
	      quest.

	      Example:
	       curl --list-only	ftp://example.com/dir/

	      See also -Q, --quote and -X, --request.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set  a  preferred	single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature  are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so set-
	      ting this	range to something too narrow might cause  unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Example:
	       curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

	      See also -g, --globoff.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP)  Like  -L,	 --location, but will allow sending the	name +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	site to	which you will send your authentication	info (which is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      Example:
	       curl --location-trusted -u user:password	https://example.com

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP)  If  the server reports that the requested	page has moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX  response code), this	option will make curl redo the request
	      on the new place.	If used	together with --include	or -I, --head,
	      headers from all requested pages will be shown. When authentica-
	      tion is used, curl only sends its	 credentials  to  the  initial
	      host.  If	a redirect takes curl to a different host, it will not
	      be able to intercept the	user+password.	See  also  --location-
	      trusted on how to	change this. You can limit the amount of redi-
	      rects to follow by using the --max-redirs	option.

	      When curl	follows	a redirect and if the request is  a  POST,  it
	      will  send the following request with a GET if the HTTP response
	      was 301, 302, or 303. If the response code  was  any  other  3xx
	      code, curl will re-send the following request using the same un-
	      modified method.

	      You can tell curl	to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
	      response	by  using  the	dedicated options for that: --post301,
	      --post302	and --post303.

	      The method set with --request overrides the  method  curl	 would
	      otherwise	select to use.

	      Example:
	       curl -L https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and --alt-svc.

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP  LDAP  POP3	 SMTP) Specify the login options to use	during
	      server authentication.

	      You can use login	options	to specify protocol  specific  options
	      that  may	 be  used during authentication. At present only IMAP,
	      POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information	 about
	      login  options  please  see  RFC	2384,  RFC 5092	and IETF draft
	      draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

	      See also -u, --user. Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be  used  to  specify
	      the  authentication  address  (identity)	of a submitted message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-auth	user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail  should  get
	      sent from.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-from	user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
	      (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
	      will abort SMTP conversation if at least one of  the  recipients
	      causes RCPT TO command to	return an error.

	      The  default  behavior can be changed by passing --mail-rcpt-al-
	      lowfails command-line option which will make curl	ignore	errors
	      and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

	      If  all  recipients  trigger  RCPT  TO failures and this flag is
	      specified, curl will still abort the SMTP	conversation  and  re-
	      turn the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com	smtp://example.com

	      See also --mail-rcpt. Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single email address, user name or mailing list
	      name. Repeat this	option several times to	send to	 multiple  re-
	      cipients.

	      When  performing an address verification (VRFY command), the re-
	      cipient should be	specified as the user name or  user  name  and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient should be specified using the mailing list  name,  such  as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt	user@example.net smtp://example.com

	      See also --mail-rcpt-allowfails.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

	      Example:
	       curl --manual

	      See also -v, --verbose, --libcurl	and --trace.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      (FTP HTTP	MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
	      download.	If the file requested is larger	than this  value,  the
	      transfer will not	start and curl will return with	exit code 63.

	      A	 size  modifier	may be used. For example, Appending 'k'	or 'K'
	      will count  the  number  as  kilobytes,  'm'  or	'M'  makes  it
	      megabytes,  while	'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K,
	      3m and 1G. (Added	in 7.58.0)

	      NOTE: The	file size is not always	known prior to	download,  and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer ends up being	larger than this given limit.  Example:
	       curl --max-filesize 100K	https://example.com

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP) Set maximum number	of redirections	to follow. When	 --lo-
	      cation  is  used,	 to prevent curl from following	too many redi-
	      rects, by	default, the limit is set to 50	 redirects.  Set  this
	      option to	-1 to make it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

	      See also -L, --location.

       -m, --max-time <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds that you allow	the whole operation to
	      take.  This is useful for	preventing your	batch jobs from	 hang-
	      ing  for	hours due to slow networks or links going down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease	in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
	       curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
	      This option was previously used to specify a metalink  resource.
	      Metalink	support	has been disabled in curl since	7.78.0 for se-
	      curity reasons.

	      Example:
	       curl --metalink file https://example.com

	      See also -Z, --parallel.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This option requires a library built with	GSS-API	or  SSPI  sup-
	      port. Use	--version to see if your curl supports GSS-API/SSPI or
	      SPNEGO.

	      When using this option, you must also provide a fake --user  op-
	      tion to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u
	      :' is enough as the user name and	password from the  --user  op-
	      tion are not actually used.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --negotiate	-u : https://example.com

	      See also --basic,	--ntlm,	--anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This option is similar to	-n, --netrc, except that  you  provide
	      the  path	 (absolute  or	relative)  to the netrc	file that curl
	      should use. You can only specify one netrc file per  invocation.
	      If  several --netrc-file options are provided, the last one will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

	      See also -n, --netrc, -u,	--user and -K, --config.  This	option
	      overrides	-n, --netrc.

       --netrc-optional
	      Similar  to  -n, --netrc,	but this option	makes the .netrc usage
	      optional and not mandatory as the	--netrc	option does.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

	      See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user  authentication. See	netrc(5) and ftp(1) for	details	on the
	      file format. Curl	will not complain if that file does  not  have
	      the  right  permissions  (it should be neither world- nor	group-
	      readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the
	      home directory.

	      A	 quick	and  simple  example of	how to setup a .netrc to allow
	      curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user  name  'my-
	      self' and	password 'secret' could	look similar to:

	       machine host.domain.com
	       login myself
	       password	secret"

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc https://example.com

	      See also --netrc-file, -K, --config and -u, --user.

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated options. This allows you  to  send  several  URL  re-
	      quests,  each with their own specific options, for example, such
	      as different user	names or custom	requests for each.

	      --next will reset	all local options and only  global  ones  will
	      have  their  values  survive over	to the operation following the
	      --next  instruction.  Global  options  include  -v,   --verbose,
	      --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For  example,  you can do	both a GET and a POST in a single com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Examples:
	       curl https://example.com	--next -d postthis www2.example.com
	       curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

	      See also -Z, --parallel and -K, --config.	Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  de-
	      fault  if	 libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports
	      ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to  negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-alpn https://example.com

	      See  also	 --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use	a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-buffer	https://example.com

	      See also -#, --progress-bar.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables	the  use  of keepalive messages	on the TCP connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

	      See also --keepalive-time.

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if libcurl was built with	an SSL library that supports NPN.  NPN
	      is  used	by  a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-npn https://example.com

	      See also --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires	that  the  un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
	      Option to	switch off the progress	meter output without muting or
	      otherwise	affecting  warning  and	 informational	messages  like
	      --silent does.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --progress-meter	to enable the progress meter again.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-progress-meter	-o store https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in	7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By  default
	      all  transfers are done using the	cache. Note that while nothing
	      should ever get hurt by attempting  to  reuse  SSL  session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

	      See also -k, --insecure.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated  list  of	hosts for which	not to use a proxy, if
	      one is specified.	The only wildcard is  a	 single	 *  character,
	      which  matches  all  hosts,  and effectively disables the	proxy.
	      Each name	in this	list is	matched	as either a domain which  con-
	      tains  the  hostname,  or	 the hostname itself. For example, lo-
	      cal.com would match local.com, local.com:80, and	www.local.com,
	      but not www.notlocal.com.

	      Since  7.53.0,  This  option overrides the environment variables
	      that disable the proxy ('no_proxy' and 'NO_PROXY').  If  there's
	      an  environment  variable	disabling a proxy, you can set the no-
	      proxy list to "" to override it.

	      Example:
	       curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the  authentication  to the separate binary ntlmauth application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever  peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone
	      who  uses	 NTLM to switch	to a public and	documented authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy	 authentication,  then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

	      See also	--proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires	 that  the  underlying
	      libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option overrides --basic
	      and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP HTTP) Specify the Bearer  Token  for	 OAUTH
	      2.0  server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunc-
	      tion with	the user name which can	be specified as	 part  of  the
	      --url or --user options.

	      The  Bearer  Token  and user name	are formatted according	to RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

	      See also --basic,	--ntlm and --digest. Added in 7.33.0.

       --output-dir <dir>

	      This option specifies the	directory in  which  files  should  be
	      stored, when --remote-name or --output are used.

	      The  given  output directory is used for all URLs	and output op-
	      tions on the command line, up until the first -:,	--next.

	      If the specified target directory	does not exist,	the  operation
	      will fail	unless --create-dirs is	also used.

	      If this option is	used multiple times, the last specified	direc-
	      tory will	be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

	      See also -O, --remote-name and -J,  --remote-header-name.	 Added
	      in 7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
	      can  use	'#' followed by	a number in the	<file> specifier. That
	      variable will be replaced	with the current string	 for  the  URL
	      being fetched. Like in:

	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have. For	example, if you	specify	two URLs on the	 same  command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and  the	order  of the -o options and the URLs does not matter,
	      just that	the first -o is	for the	first URL and so  on,  so  the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See  also	 the --create-dirs option to create the	local directo-
	      ries dynamically.	Specifying the output as '-' (a	 single	 dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      To   suppress  response  bodies,	you  can  redirect  output  to
	      /dev/null:

		curl example.com -o /dev/null

	      Or for Windows use nul:

		curl example.com -o nul

	      Examples:
	       curl -o file https://example.com
	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"
	       curl -o file https://example.com	-o file2 https://example.net

	      See also -O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and	-J,  --remote-
	      header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
	      When  doing  parallel  transfers,	this option will instruct curl
	      that it should rather prefer opening up more connections in par-
	      allel at once rather than	waiting	to see if new transfers	can be
	      added as multiplexed streams on another connection.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com	-o file1 https://example.com -o	file2

	      See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added	in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
	      When  asked to do	parallel transfers, using -Z, --parallel, this
	      option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do simultane-
	      ously.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      The default is 50.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

	      See also -Z, --parallel. Added in	7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
	      Makes curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to  the
	      regular serial manner.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com	-o file2

	      See also -:, --next and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --pass secret --key	file https://example.com

	      See also --key and -u, --user.

       --path-as-is
	      Tell curl	to not handle sequences	of /../	or /./	in  the	 given
	      URL  path.  Normally curl	will squash or merge them according to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Example:
	       curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

	      See also --request-target. Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to  verify the peer. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'.

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:

	      7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit

	      7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      sha256 support:

	      7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      Other SSL	backends not supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc'	https://example.com

	      See also --hostpubsha256.	Added in 7.39.0.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may require a POST to remain a POST after	 such  a  redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post302, --post303 and	-L, --location.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may  require  a  POST to remain a	POST after such	a redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post301, --post303 and	-L, --location.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests	into  GET  requests when following 303 redirections. A
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
	      ion. This	option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post302, --post301 and	-L, --location.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
	      HTTPS -x,	--proxy. In such a case	curl  first  connects  to  the
	      SOCKS  proxy  and	 then  connects	(through SOCKS)	to the HTTP or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix  to  specify	alternative  proxy  protocols.	Use socks4://,
	      socks4a://, socks5:// or	socks5h://  to	request	 the  specific
	      SOCKS  version  to be used. No protocol specified	will make curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --socks5. Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl	display	transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
	      stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This progress bar	draws a	single line of '#'  characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For transfers without a known size, there	 will  be  space  ship
	      (-=o=-)  that  moves back	and forth but only while data is being
	      transferred, with	a set of flying	hash sign symbols on top.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl -# -O https://example.com

	      See also --styled-output.

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      An  unknown  or  unsupported  protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the host
	      name, see	--url for details.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

	      See also --proto and --proto-redir. Added	in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells  curl to limit what	protocols it may use on	redirect. Pro-
	      tocols denied by --proto are not overridden by this option.  See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will only	allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS	on re-
	      direct (since 7.65.2). Specifying	all or +all enables all	proto-
	      cols on redirects, which is not good for security.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

	      See also --proto.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to  limit  what protocols it	may use	for transfers.
	      Protocols	are evaluated left to right, are comma separated,  and
	      are  each	 a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero
	      or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny  this  protocol,	removing it from the list of protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	only this protocol (ignoring the list already  permit-
		 ted),	though subject to later	modification by	subsequent en-
		 tries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

	      Unknown protocols	produce	a  warning.  This  allows  scripts  to
	      safely  rely on being able to disable potentially	dangerous pro-
	      tocols, without relying upon support  for	 that  protocol	 being
	      built into curl to avoid an error.

	      This option can be used multiple times, in which case the	effect
	      is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance  of
	      the option.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

	      See also --proto-redir and --proto-default.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating with the	given HTTP proxy. This might  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x	proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote  host.  Basic  is	the default authentication method curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-capath, --cacert,  --capath  and	 -x,  --proxy.
	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See  also	 --proxy-cacert,  -x,  --proxy	and --capath. Added in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cert. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cert-type. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers, --curves and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt	-x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile and -x, --proxy. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Digest authentication when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user	user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the equivalent option to --header	but is for proxy communication
	      only  like  in  CONNECT requests when you	want a separate	header
	      sent to the proxy	to what	is sent	to the actual remote host.

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers  specified  with this option will	not be included	in re-
	      quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      Starting in 7.55.0, this option can take an argument  in	@file-
	      name  style, which then adds a header for	each line in the input
	      file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "User-Agent:	surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-insecure -x	https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and -k, --insecure. Added in	7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-key and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key	here -x	https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-key-type	and -x,	--proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy	https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	NTLM authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-pass secret	--proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-key. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the	specified  public key file (or
	      hashes) to verify	the proxy. This	can be a path to a file	 which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'.

	      When  negotiating	 a  TLS	 or SSL	connection, the	server sends a
	      certificate indicating its identity. A public key	 is  extracted
	      from  this certificate and if it does not	exactly	match the pub-
	      lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

	      See also --pinnedpubkey and -x, --proxy. Added in	7.59.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This  option allows you to change	the service name for proxy ne-
	      gotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x	proxy https://example.com

	      See also --service-name and -x, --proxy. Added in	7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --ssl-allow-beast and -x, --proxy. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See  also	 --ssl-auto-client-cert	 and  -x,  --proxy.  Added  in
	      7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection to
	      your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
	      suites  must  specify  valid  ciphers. Read up on	TLS 1.3	cipher
	      suite details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This option is currently used only when curl  is	built  to  use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the  --proxy-
	      ciphers option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also --tls13-ciphers and --curves. Added in 7.61.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsauthtype	SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlspassword	passwd -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlspassword. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS	proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify  the user	name and password to use for proxy authentica-
	      tion.

	      If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled	curl binary and	do either  Ne-
	      gotiate  or NTLM authentication then you can tell	curl to	select
	      the user name and	password from your environment by specifying a
	      single colon with	this option: "-U :".

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment from	process	listings. This is not enough to	 protect  cre-
	      dentials	from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
	      system as	they  will  still  be  visible	for  a	moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-user name:pwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-pass.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The proxy	string can be specified	with a protocol:// prefix.  No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.

	      HTTPS  proxy  support  via https:// protocol prefix was added in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized and unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause  an	 error
	      since  7.52.0.   Prior  versions may ignore the protocol and use
	      http:// instead.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This  option  overrides  existing	environment variables that set
	      the proxy	to use.	If there's an environment variable  setting  a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently be converted to HTTP. It	means  that  certain  protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the --proxytun-
	      nel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The  proxy host can be specified the same	way as the proxy envi-
	      ronment variables, including the protocol	prefix	(http://)  and
	      the embedded user	+ password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

	      See also --socks5	and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  HTTP	 1.0  proxy. If	the port number	is not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy  option  -x,
	      --proxy,	is that	attempts to use	CONNECT	through	the proxy will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy1.0 -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --socks5 and --preproxy.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this  option  will  make
	      curl  tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel approach is made with
	      the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the  proxy  al-
	      lows direct connect to the remote	port number curl wants to tun-
	      nel through to.

	      To suppress proxy	CONNECT	response headers when curl is  set  to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key  from	the private key	file, so passing this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

	      Example:
	       curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

	      See also --pass.

       -Q, --quote <command>
	      (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
	      server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
	      (just after the initial PWD command in an	FTP  transfer,	to  be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix them with a dash '-'. To make commands be sent after curl
	      has changed the working directory, just before the transfer com-
	      mand(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is  only  supported
	      for FTP).	You may	specify	any number of commands.

	      By  default  curl	 will stop at first failure. To	make curl con-
	      tinue even if the	command	fails, prefix the command with an  as-
	      terisk  (*). Otherwise, if the server returns failure for	one of
	      the commands, the	entire operation will be aborted.

	      You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959  de-
	      fines  to	 FTP  servers,	or one of the commands listed below to
	      SFTP servers.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      SFTP is a	binary protocol. Unlike	for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
	      quote  commands  itself  before sending them to the server. File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.  Following  is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
	      mands:

	      atime date file
		     The atime command sets the	last access time of  the  file
		     named  by	the file operand. The <date expression>	can be
		     all sorts of date strings,	see  the  curl_getdate(3)  man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      chgrp group file
		     The  chgrp	command	sets the group ID of the file named by
		     the file operand to the group ID specified	by  the	 group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	command	creates	the directory named by the di-
		     rectory_name operand.

	      mtime date file
		     The mtime command sets the	last modification time of  the
		     file named	by the file operand. The <date expression> can
		     be	all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the  source  operand to the destination path named	by the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The  rmdir	 command removes the directory entry specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       Example:
	curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

       See also	-X, --request.

       --random-file <file>
	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as  random  data.	The data may be	used to	seed the random	engine
	      for SSL connections. See also the	--egd-file option.

	      Example:
	       curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

	      See also --egd-file.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP FTP	SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
	      ment)  from  an  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*) = NOTE that this will	cause the server to reply with a  mul-
	      tipart  response,	 which will be returned	as-is by curl! Parsing
	      or otherwise transforming	this response is the responsibility of
	      the caller.

	      Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in	the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields of	the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit  charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not  have
	      this  feature  enabled, so that when you attempt to get a	range,
	      you will instead get the whole document.

	      FTP and SFTP range downloads only	 support  the  simple  'start-
	      stop'  syntax  (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

	      See also -C, --continue-at and -a, --append.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent  or transfer	encodings and instead makes them passed	on un-
	      altered, raw.

	      Example:
	       curl --raw https://example.com

	      See also --tr-encoding.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the --header flag of course. When used
	      with --location you can append ";auto" to	the --referer  URL  to
	      make  curl  automatically	set the	previous URL when it follows a
	      Location:	header.	The ";auto" string can be used alone, even  if
	      you do not set an	initial	-e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
	       curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP)  This  option  tells  the --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified Content-Disposition  filename  instead  of  ex-
	      tracting	a  filename  from the URL. If the server-provided file
	      name contains a path, that will be stripped off before the  file
	      name is used.

	      The  file	is saved in the	current	directory, or in the directory
	      specified	with --output-dir.

	      If the server specifies a	file name and a	file  with  that  name
	      already  exists  in  the	destination  directory,	it will	not be
	      overwritten and an error will occur.  If	the  server  does  not
	      specify a	file name then this option has no effect.

	      There's  no  attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING:	Exercise  judicious  use of this option, especially on
	      Windows. A rogue server could send you the  name	of  a  DLL  or
	      other file that could be loaded automatically by Windows or some
	      third party software.

	      Example:
	       curl -OJ	https://example.com/file

	      See also -O, --remote-name.

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs	to  be
	      dealt with as if --remote-name were used for each	one. So	if you
	      want to disable that for a specific URL after  --remote-name-all
	      has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

	      See also -O, --remote-name.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
	      (Only the	file part of the remote	file is	used, the path is  cut
	      off.)

	      The  file	will be	saved in the current working directory.	If you
	      want the file saved in a	different  directory,  make  sure  you
	      change  the  current working directory before invoking curl with
	      this option.

	      The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
	      given  URL,  nothing  else,  and if it already exists it will be
	      overwritten. If you want the server to be	 able  to  choose  the
	      file name	refer to --remote-header-name which can	be used	in ad-
	      dition to	this option. If	the server chooses  a  file  name  and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other URL	encoded	parts of the name, they	will end up  as-is  as
	      file name.

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have.

	      Example:
	       curl -O https://example.com/filename

	      See also --remote-name-all.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make	curl attempt to	figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	the remote file, and if	that is	available make the lo-
	      cal file get that	same timestamp.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

	      See also -O, --remote-name and -z, --time-cond.

       --request-target	<path>
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use an alternative "target" (path)  instead
	      of  using	 the  path as provided in the URL. Particularly	useful
	      when wanting to issue HTTP requests  without  leading  slash  or
	      other  data  that	 does not follow the regular URL pattern, like
	      "OPTIONS *".

	      Example:
	       curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

	      See also -X, --request. Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <method>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing  with	 the HTTP server. The specified	request	method will be
	      used instead of the method otherwise  used  (which  defaults  to
	      GET).  Read  the HTTP 1.1	specification for details and explana-
	      tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT  and  DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally you do not need this option. All	sorts  of  GET,	 HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This option only changes the actual word used in	the  HTTP  re-
	      quest, it	does not alter the way curl behaves. So	for example if
	      you want to make a proper	HEAD request, using -X HEAD  will  not
	      suffice. You need	to use the --head option.

	      The  method  string  you set with	--request will be used for all
	      requests,	which if you for example use --location	may cause  un-
	      intended	side-effects  when curl	does not change	request	method
	      according	to the HTTP 30x	response codes - and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR.

	      (IMAP) Specifies a custom	IMAP command to	use instead  of	 LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -X "DELETE"	https://example.com
	       curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

	      See also --request-target.

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
	      Provide a	custom address for a specific host and port pair.  Us-
	      ing  this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified ad-
	      dress and	prevent	the otherwise normally resolved	address	to  be
	      used.  Consider  it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on
	      the command line.	The port number	should be the number used  for
	      the  specific  protocol  the host	will be	used for. It means you
	      need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
	      host but different ports.

	      By  specifying '*' as host you can tell curl to resolve any host
	      and specific port	pair to	the specified address. Wildcard	is re-
	      solved  last so any --resolve with a specific host and port will
	      be used first.

	      The provided address set by this option will  be	used  even  if
	      --ipv4 or	--ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the	entry time out
	      after curl's default timeout (1 minute).	Note  that  this  will
	      only  make  sense	for long running parallel transfers with a lot
	      of files.	In such	cases, if this option is used curl will	try to
	      resolve  the  host as it normally	would once the timeout has ex-
	      pired.

	      Support for providing the	IP address within [brackets] was added
	      in 7.57.0.

	      Support  for providing multiple IP addresses per entry was added
	      in 7.59.0.

	      Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

	      Support for the '+' prefix was was added in 7.75.0.

	      This option can be used many times to add	many host names	to re-
	      solve.

	      Example:
	       curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1	https://example.com

	      See also --connect-to and	--alt-svc.

       --retry-all-errors
	      Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

	      This  option  is the "sledgehammer" of retrying. Do not use this
	      option by	default	(eg in curlrc),	there may be unintended	conse-
	      quences  such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not use
	      with redirected input or output. You'd be	much better  off  han-
	      dling  your unique problems in shell script. Please read the ex-
	      ample below.

	      WARNING: For server compatibility	curl attempts to retry	failed
	      flaky  transfers	as close as possible to	how they were started,
	      but this is not possible with redirected input  or  output.  For
	      example,	before	retrying  it removes output data from a	failed
	      partial transfer that was	written	to  an	output	file.  However
	      this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
	      are not reset. We	strongly suggest you do	not  parse  or	record
	      output  via  redirect in combination with	this option, since you
	      may receive duplicate data.

	      By default curl will not error on	an HTTP	response code that in-
	      dicates an HTTP error, if	the transfer was successful. For exam-
	      ple, if a	server replies 404 Not Found and the  reply  is	 fully
	      received	then  that  is not an error. When --retry is used then
	      curl will	retry on some HTTP response codes that indicate	 tran-
	      sient  HTTP  errors, but that does not include most 4xx response
	      codes such as 404. If you	want to	retry on  all  response	 codes
	      that  indicate  HTTP  errors (4xx	and 5xx) then combine with -f,
	      --fail.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry 5 --retry-all-errors https://example.com

	      See also --retry.	Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In addition to the other conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as  a
	      transient	 error	too  for --retry. This option is used together
	      with --retry.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-connrefused	--retry	https://example.com

	      See also --retry and --retry-all-errors. Added in	7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make curl	sleep this amount of time before  each	retry  when  a
	      transfer	has  failed with a transient error (it changes the de-
	      fault backoff time algorithm between retries).  This  option  is
	      only  interesting	if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-delay 5 --retry https://example.com

	      See also --retry.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The retry	timer is reset before the first	transfer attempt.  Re-
	      tries  will  be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
	      has not reached this given limit.	Notice that if the  timer  has
	      not  reached  the	limit, the request will	be made	and while per-
	      forming, it may take longer than	this  given  time  period.  To
	      limit  a	single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time. Set
	      this option to zero to not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-max-time 30	--retry	10 https://example.com

	      See also --retry.

       --retry <num>
	      If a transient error is returned when curl tries	to  perform  a
	      transfer,	 it  will retry	this number of times before giving up.
	      Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which  is  the
	      default).	 Transient  error  means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
	      code.

	      When  curl  is about to retry a transfer,	it will	first wait one
	      second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
	      waiting  time until it reaches 10	minutes	which then will	be the
	      delay between the	rest of	the retries.  By  using	 --retry-delay
	      you   disable  this  exponential	backoff	 algorithm.  See  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, curl will comply with	the  Retry-After:  re-
	      sponse  header if	one was	present	to know	when to	issue the next
	      retry.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry 7 https://example.com

	      See also --retry-max-time.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
	      Use this authorisation identity (authzid), during	SASL PLAIN au-
	      thentication,  in	addition to the	authentication identity	(auth-
	      cid) as specified	by -u, --user.

	      If the option is not specified, the server will derive  the  au-
	      thzid  from  the authcid,	but if specified, and depending	on the
	      server implementation, it	may be used to access  another	user's
	      inbox,  that  the	 user  has been	granted	access to, or a	shared
	      mailbox for example.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

	      See also --login-options.	Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

	      See also --sasl-authzid. Added in	7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	  --negotiate	--service-name	 sockd	  would	   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --service-name sockd/server	https://example.com

	      See also --negotiate and --proxy-service-name. Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

	      See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent  or  quiet	mode. Do not show progress meter or error mes-
	      sages. Makes Curl	mute. It will still output the	data  you  ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use --show-error in addition to this option to disable  progress
	      meter but	still show error messages.

	      Example:
	       curl -s https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080.	Using this  socket  type  make
	      curl  resolve  the  host	name and passing the address on	to the
	      proxy.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This  option is superfluous since	you can	specify	a socks4 proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks4a, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it	is assumed at port 1080. This asks the	proxy  to  re-
	      solve the	host name.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In  such
	      a	 case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks4, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks5-basic
	      Tells curl to use	username/password authentication when connect-
	      ing  to a	SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication is
	      enabled by default.  Use --socks5-gssapi to  force  GSS-API  au-
	      thentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
	      ated. RFC	1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it	should	be  protected,
	      but  the	NEC  reference	implementation	does  not.  The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-nec	--socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	 --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
	      service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for	 cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi
	      Tells  curl  to  use GSS-API authentication when connecting to a
	      SOCKS5 proxy.  The GSS-API authentication	is enabled by  default
	      (if  curl	is compiled with GSS-API support).  Use	--socks5-basic
	      to force username/password authentication	to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS5 proxy (and let the  proxy  resolve  the
	      host  name).  If the port	number is not specified, it is assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This  option is superfluous since	you can	specify	a socks5 host-
	      name proxy with --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5	and --socks4a.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name lo-
	      cally. If	the port number	is not specified,  it  is  assumed  at
	      port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5	 proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In  such
	      a	 case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option (as well as --socks4)	does not work with IPV6,  FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000	https://example.com

	      See also --socks5-hostname and --socks4a.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
	      with --speed-time	and is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

	      See also -y, --speed-time, --limit-rate and -m, --max-time.

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second	during
	      a	speed-time period, the download	gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used,  the  default  speed-limit	will  be 1 unless set with -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This option controls transfers and thus  will  not  affect  slow
	      connects	etc.  If this is a concern for you, try	the --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

	      See also -Y, --speed-limit and --limit-rate.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols	known as BEAST.	 If this option	is not
	      used, the	SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause  interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations.

	      WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
	      flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-ssl-allow-beast and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Tell libcurl to automatically locate and use a  client  certifi-
	      cate  for	authentication,	when requested by the server. This op-
	      tion is only supported for Schannel (the native Windows SSL  li-
	      brary). Prior to 7.77.0 this was the default behavior in libcurl
	      with Schannel. Since the server can request any certificate that
	      supports	client	authentication	in the OS certificate store it
	      could be a privacy violation and unexpected.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to disable certificate revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile. Added	in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP LDAP)	Require	SSL/TLS	 for  the  connection.
	      Terminates  the  connection  if  the  server  does  not  support
	      SSL/TLS.

	      This option is handled in	LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
	      supported	 by  the  openldap backend and rejected	by the generic
	      ldap backend if explicit TLS is required.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

	      See also --ssl and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to ignore certificate  revoca-
	      tion checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution
	      points for the revocation	check lists.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP LDAP)	Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.
	      Reverts  to  a non-secure	connection if the server does not sup-
	      port SSL/TLS. See	also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for dif-
	      ferent levels of encryption required.

	      This option is handled in	LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
	      supported	by the openldap	backend	and  ignored  by  the  generic
	      ldap backend.

	      Please  note that	a server may close the connection if the nego-
	      tiation does not succeed.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl.  That  option  name
	      can still	be used	but will be removed in a future	version.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

	      See also -k, --insecure and --ciphers.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but	start-
	      ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv2 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv2 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -3,	--sslv3	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but	start-
	      ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv3 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv3 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -2,	--sslv2	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr	<file>
	      Redirect	all writes to stderr to	the specified file instead. If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --stderr output.txt	https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
	      Enables  the automatic use of bold font styles when writing HTTP
	      headers to the terminal. Use --no-styled-output to  switch  them
	      off.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

	      See also -I, --head and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When --proxytunnel is used and a CONNECT request is made do  not
	      output  proxy  CONNECT response headers. This option is meant to
	      be used with --dump-header or --include which are	used  to  show
	      protocol	headers	 in  the output. It has	no effect on debug op-
	      tions such as --verbose or --trace, or any statistics.

	      Example:
	       curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include	and -p,	--proxytunnel.
	      Added in 7.54.0.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

	      See also --false-start. Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since 7.50.2, curl sets this option by default and you  need  to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you do not want it on.

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

	      See also -N, --no-buffer.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

	      Example:
	       curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

	      See also -K, --config.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-blksize 1024	tftp://example.com/file

	      See also --tftp-no-options.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This  option  improves  interop with some	legacy servers that do
	      not acknowledge or properly implement TFTP  options.  When  this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

	      See also --tftp-blksize. Added in	7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP  FTP) Request a file that has been modified	later than the
	      given time and date, or one that has been	modified  before  that
	      time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
	      if it does not match any internal	ones, it is taken as  a	 file-
	      name  and	tries to get the modification date (mtime) from	<file>
	      instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression
	      details.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	document that is older than the	given date/time, default is  a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021	12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z "-Wed 01	Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z file https://example.com

	      See also --etag-compare and -R, --remote-time.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
	      acceptable version  is  set  by  tlsv1.0,	 tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2  or
	      tlsv1.3.

	      If  the  connection  is done without TLS,	this option has	no ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       Examples:
	curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
	curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

       See also	--tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1, --tlsv1.2	and --tlsv1.3.	--tls-max  re-
       quires  that  the underlying libcurl was	built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the	connection  if
	      it  negotiates  TLS 1.3. The list	of ciphers suites must specify
	      valid ciphers. Read up on	TLS 1.3	cipher suite details  on  this
	      URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This  option  is	currently  used	only when curl is built	to use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the --ciphers
	      option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers and --curves. Added in	7.61.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only	supported  op-
	      tion  is	"SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword are	specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
	      option defaults to "SRP".	This option works only if the underly-
	      ing libcurl  is  built  with  TLS-SRP  support,  which  requires
	      OpenSSL or GnuTLS	with TLS-SRP support.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

	      See also --tlsuser.

       --tlspassword <string>
	      Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      This option does not work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      See also --tlsuser.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set username for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
	      set.

	      This option does not work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      See also --tlspassword.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.0 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.0.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3. Added	in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.1 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.1.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3. Added	in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.2 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In  old  versions	 of  curl  this	option was documented to allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.2.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3. Added	in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.3 or later	when  connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      If  the  connection  is done without TLS,	this option has	no ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is not supported by all	TLS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.2. Added	in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use at least TLS version 1.x when  negotiat-
	      ing  with	 a  remote  TLS	 server. That means TLS	version	1.0 or
	      higher

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and	--tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress	the data while
	      receiving	it.

	      Example:
	       curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

	      See also --compressed.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding  descriptive  information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only
	      shows  the  ASCII	part of	the dump. It makes smaller output that
	      might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

	      See  also	 -v,  --verbose	 and  --trace.	This  option overrides
	      --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl
	      displays.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

	      See also --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding  descriptive  information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.  Use  "%"  as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

	      See also --trace-ascii and --trace-time. This  option  overrides
	      -v, --verbose and	--trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Example:
	       curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

	      See also --abstract-unix-socket. Added in	7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This transfers the specified local file to the  remote  URL.  If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	 to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use  the file name "-" (a	single dash) to	use stdin instead of a
	      given file.  Alternately,	the file name "."  (a  single  period)
	      may  be  specified  instead  of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking
	      mode to allow reading server output while	 stdin	is  being  up-
	      loaded.

	      You  can	specify	 one --upload-file for each URL	on the command
	      line. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies	what to	upload
	      and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the --upload-file
	      argument,	meaning	that you can upload multiple files to a	single
	      URL by using the same URL	globbing style supported in the	URL.

	      When  uploading  to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers  and  mail  body formatted correctly by the user as curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

	      Examples:
	       curl -T file https://example.com
	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

	      See also -G, --get and -I, --head.

       --url <url>
	      Specify a	URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If  the given URL	is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
	      "ftp://" etc) then curl will make	a guess	based on the host.  If
	      the  outermost  sub-domain  name	matches	DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP,
	      POP3 or SMTP then	that protocol will  be	used,  otherwise  HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This option may be used any number of times.  To	control	 where
	      this  URL	 is written, use the --output or the --remote-name op-
	      tions.

	      WARNING: On Windows, particular file://  accesses	 can  be  con-
	      verted to	network	accesses by the	operating system. Beware!

	      Example:
	       curl --url https://example.com

	      See also -:, --next and -K, --config.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP  LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also	be en-
	      forced by	using a	URL that  ends	with  ";type=A".  This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

	      Example:
	       curl -B ftp://example.com/README

	      See also --crlf and --data-ascii.

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To encode	blanks in the string, surround the string with	single
	      quote  marks.  This  header can also be set with the --header or
	      the --proxy-header options.

	      If you give an empty argument to -A, --user-agent	(""), it  will
	      remove  the  header completely from the request. If you prefer a
	      blank header, you	can set	it to a	single space ("	").

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

	      See also -H, --header and	--proxy-header.

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If  you  simply  specify	the  user name,	curl will prompt for a
	      password.

	      The user name and	passwords are split up	on  the	 first	colon,
	      which  makes  it impossible to use a colon in the	user name with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment  from  process listings. This is not	enough to protect cre-
	      dentials from possibly getting seen by other users on  the  same
	      system  as  they	will  still  be	 visible  for  a moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      When  using  Kerberos  V5	with a Windows based server you	should
	      include the Windows domain name in the user name,	in  order  for
	      the  server  to successfully obtain a Kerberos Ticket. If	you do
	      not, then	the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When using NTLM, the user	name can be specified  simply  as  the
	      user  name,  without the domain, if there	is a single domain and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon  Name  or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled	curl binary and	 perform  Ker-
	      beros  V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can
	      tell curl	to select the user name	and password from  your	 envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u user:secret https://example.com

	      See also -n, --netrc and -K, --config.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes  curl  verbose  during the operation. Useful for debugging
	      and seeing what's	going on "under	the  hood".  A	line  starting
	      with  '>'	 means	"header	 data" sent by curl, '<' means "header
	      data" received by	curl that is hidden in	normal	cases,	and  a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If  you only want	HTTP headers in	the output, --include might be
	      the option you are looking for.

	      If you think this	option still does not give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Use --silent to make curl	really quiet.

	      Example:
	       curl --verbose https://example.com

	      See also	-i,  --include.	 This  option  overrides  --trace  and
	      --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The  first  line	includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows	all  protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      alt-svc
		     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is	provided.

	      AsynchDNS
		     This curl uses asynchronous name  resolves.  Asynchronous
		     name  resolves can	be done	using either the c-ares	or the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

	      CharConv
		     curl was built with support for character set conversions
		     (like EBCDIC)

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a	libcurl	built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers	only!

	      gsasl  The  built-in  SASL authentication	includes extensions to
		     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      HSTS   HSTS support is present.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      Kerberos
		     Kerberos V5 authentication	is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      libz   Automatic decompression (via gzip,	deflate) of compressed
		     files over	HTTP is	supported.

	      MultiSSL
		     This curl supports	multiple TLS backends.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      NTLM_WB
		     NTLM delegation to	winbind	helper is supported.

	      PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means  that  this
		     curl  has	been  built  with knowledge about "public suf-
		     fixes".

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      SSL    SSL versions of various protocols are supported, such  as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP  (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported
		     for TLS.

	      TrackMemory
		     Debug memory tracking is supported.

	      Unicode
		     Unicode support on	Windows.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

	      zstd   Automatic decompression (via zstd)	 of  compressed	 files
		     over HTTP is supported.

       Example:
	curl --version

       See also	-h, --help and -M, --manual.

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer. The format is a string that may contain  plain  text	 mixed
	      with  any	 number	of variables. The format can be	specified as a
	      literal "string",	or you can have	curl read the  format  from  a
	      file  with  "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The variables present in the output format will  be  substituted
	      by  the  value or	text that curl thinks fit, as described	below.
	      All variables are	specified as %{variable_name} and to output  a
	      normal  %	you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      The output will be written to standard output, but this  can  be
	      switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where all	occurrences of % must be doubled when using  this  op-
	      tion.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the	requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      errormsg	     The error message.	(Added in 7.75.0)

	      exitcode	     The numerical exitcode of the transfer. (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      filename_effective
			     The  ultimate  filename  that curl	writes out to.
			     This is only meaningful if	curl is	told to	 write
			     to	 a file	with the --remote-name or --output op-
			     tion. It's	most useful in	combination  with  the
			     --remote-header-name option.

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server.

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer.

	      http_connect   The numerical code	that was found in the last re-
			     sponse (from a proxy) to a	curl CONNECT request.

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      json	     A JSON object with	all available keys.

	      local_ip	     The  IP  address of the local end of the most re-
			     cently done connection - can be  either  IPv4  or
			     IPv6.

	      local_port     The  local	 port number of	the most recently done
			     connection.

	      method	     The http method used in the most recent HTTP  re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.72.0)

	      num_connects   Number  of	new connects made in the recent	trans-
			     fer.

	      num_headers    The number	of response headers in the most	recent
			     request  (restarted  at each redirect). Note that
			     the status	 line  IS  NOT	a  header.  (Added  in
			     7.73.0)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
			     quest.

	      onerror	     The rest of the  output  is  only	shown  if  the
			     transfer  returned	 a  non-zero  error  (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without  --location
			     to	 follow	 redirects  (or	 when  --max-redirs is
			     met), this	variable will show the	actual	URL  a
			     redirect would have gone to.

	      referer	     The  Referer: header, if there was	any. (Added in
			     7.76.0)

	      remote_ip	     The remote	IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection	- can be either	IPv4 or	IPv6.

	      remote_port    The  remote port number of	the most recently done
			     connection.

	      response_code  The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last transfer (formerly known as "http_code").

	      scheme	     The  URL  scheme (sometimes called	protocol) that
			     was effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that  were  downloaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     ferred, excluding headers.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The  total	 amount	of bytes that were sent	in the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of  bytes	 that  were  uploaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     ferred, excluding headers.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The  average  upload speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the SSL peer	certificate  verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful.

	      stderr	     From this point on, the --write-out  output  will
			     be	written	to standard error. (Added in 7.63.0)

	      stdout	     From  this	 point on, the --write-out output will
			     be	written	to standard output.  This is  the  de-
			     fault,  but  can  be  used	 to  switch back after
			     switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the re-
			     mote host was completed.

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the TCP connect to the	remote host (or	proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the name resolving was	completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the file transfer was just  about  to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before  the	 final transaction was
			     started. time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion time for multiple redirections.

	      time_starttransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the first byte	was just about	to  be	trans-
			     ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
			     the time the server needed	to calculate  the  re-
			     sult.

	      time_total     The  total	time, in seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url	     The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      urlnum	     The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
			     De-globbed	 URLs  share  the same index number as
			     the origin	globbed	URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful  if	you have told curl to follow location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -w '%{http_code}\n'	https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -I, --head.

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option	tells  curl  to	 store
	      certain  file  metadata  in extended file	attributes. Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute.	If the
	      file system does not support extended attributes,	a  warning  is
	      issued.

	      Example:
	       curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

	      See also -R, --remote-time, -w, --write-out and -v, --verbose.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see --config	for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment variable to set the proxy	has the	same effect as
       using the --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the  pro-
	      tocol  is	 a  protocol  that curl	supports and as	specified in a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP, etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use if no  protocol-specific  proxy  is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
	      list  of host names that should not go through any proxy.	If set
	      to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
	      list is matched as either	a domain name which contains the host-
	      name, or the hostname itself.

	      This environment variable	disables use of	the  proxy  even  when
	      specified	with the --proxy option. That is NO_PROXY=direct.exam-
	      ple.com  curl  -x	 http://proxy.example.com  http://direct.exam-
	      ple.com  accesses	 the  target  URL  directly,  and NO_PROXY=di-
	      rect.example.com curl -x	http://proxy.example.com  http://some-
	      where.example.com	accesses the target URL	through	the proxy.

	      The  list	 of  host  names  can also be include numerical	IP ad-
	      dresses, and IPv6	versions should	then be	given without  enclos-
	      ing brackets.

	      IPv6  numerical  addresses are compared as strings, so they will
	      only match if the	representations	are the	 same:	"::1"  is  the
	      same as "::0:1" but they do not match.

       APPDATA <dir>
	      On  Windows,  this variable is used when trying to find the home
	      directory. If the	primary	home variable are all unset.

       COLUMNS <terminal width>
	      If set, the specified number of characters will be used  as  the
	      terminal	width  when  the alternative progress-bar is shown. If
	      not set, curl will try to	figure it out using other ways.

       CURL_CA_BUNDLE <file>
	      If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       CURL_HOME <dir>
	      If set, is the first variable curl checks	when  trying  to  find
	      its  home	 directory. If not set,	it continues to	check XDG_CON-
	      FIG_HOME.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND	<TLS backend>
	      If curl was built	with support for "MultiSSL", meaning  that  it
	      has  built-in  support for more than one TLS backend, this envi-
	      ronment variable can be set to the case insensitive name of  the
	      particular  backend  to use when curl is invoked.	Setting	a name
	      that is not a built-in alternative will make curl	stay with  the
	      default.

	      SSL  backend  names  (case-insensitive): bearssl,	gnutls,	gskit,
	      mbedtls, nss, openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-transport, wolf-
	      ssl

       HOME <dir>
	      If  set,	this  is  used to find the home	directory when that is
	      needed. Like when	looking	for the	default	.curlrc. CURL_HOME and
	      XDG_CONFIG_HOME have preference.

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
	      If  curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this environment
	      variable to a local directory will make curl  produce  qlogs  in
	      that  directory,	using  file  names named after the destination
	      connection id (in	hex). Do note  that  these  files  can	become
	      rather large. Works with both QUIC backends.

       SHELL  Used  on	VMS  when  trying to detect if using a DCL or a	"unix"
	      shell.

       SSL_CERT_DIR <dir>
	      If set, will be used as the --capath value.

       SSL_CERT_FILE <path>
	      If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
	      If you set this environment variable to a	file name,  curl  will
	      store TLS	secrets	from its connections in	that file when invoked
	      to enable	you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using net-
	      work analyzing tools such	as Wireshark. This works with the fol-
	      lowing TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL,  GnuTLS,  NSS
	      and wolfSSL.

       USERPROFILE <dir>
	      On  Windows,  this variable is used when trying to find the home
	      directory. If the	other, primary,	variable  are  all  unset.  If
	      set, curl	will use the path "$USERPROFILE\Application Data".

       XDG_CONFIG_HOME <dir>
	      If  CURL_HOME  is	not set, this variable is checked when looking
	      for a default .curlrc file.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       The proxy string	may be specified with a	protocol:// prefix to  specify
       alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no  protocol	is specified in	the proxy string or if the string does
       not match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
	      Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy.	The default if no scheme  pre-
	      fix is used.

       https://
	      Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding er-
       ror messages that may appear under error	conditions.  At	 the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	feature	or option that was needed to perform the  desired  re-
	      quest  was not enabled or	was explicitly disabled	at build-time.
	      To make curl able	to do this, you	probably need another build of
	      libcurl.

       5      Could  not  resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not	be re-
	      solved.

       6      Could not	resolve	host. The given	remote host could not  be  re-
	      solved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl could not parse.

       9      FTP  access  denied. The server denied login or denied access to
	      the particular resource or directory you wanted to  reach.  Most
	      often  you tried to change to a directory	that does not exist on
	      the server.

       10     FTP accept failed. While waiting for the server to connect  back
	      when  an active FTP session is used, an error code was sent over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP weird	PASS reply. Curl could not parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During  an  active  FTP  session while waiting for the server to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP weird	PASV reply, Curl could not parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.	Curl  could not	parse the 227-line the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP cannot use host. Could not resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP  could  not  set binary. Could not change transfer method to
	      binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP could	not download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page not retrieved.	The requested url was not found	or re-
	      turned another error with	the  HTTP  error  code	being  400  or
	      above. This return code only appears if --fail is	used.

       23     Write  error. Curl could not write data to a local filesystem or
	      similar.

       25     FTP could	not STOR file. The server denied the  STOR  operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	timeout. The specified time-out	period was reached ac-
	      cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT	command	failed.	Not  all  FTP  servers
	      support  the  PORT  command, try doing a transfer	using PASV in-
	      stead!

       31     FTP could	not use	REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" did	not work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Could not continue an earlier aborted down-
	      load.

       37     FILE could not read file.	Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	 error.	 A  specified  outgoing	interface could	not be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you
	      passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH	MD5 fingerprint	was not	OK.

       52     The  server  did not reply anything, which here is considered an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Could not	use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user	 name,	password, or similar was not accepted and curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character	conversion failed.

       76     Character	conversion functions required.

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not	load CRL file, missing or wrong	format.

       83     Issuer check failed.

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to	parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication	function returned an error.

       95     A	problem	was detected in	the HTTP/3  layer.  This  is  somewhat
	      generic  and  can	 be one	out of several problems, see the error
	      message for details.

       96     QUIC connection error. This error	may be caused by  an  SSL  li-
	      brary error. QUIC	is the protocol	used for HTTP/3	transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

BUGS
       If you experience any problems  with  curl,  submit  an	issue  in  the
       project's bug tracker on	GitHub:	https://github.com/curl/curl/issues

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg	is the main author, but	the whole list of contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

curl 7.82.0			 March 05 2022			       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | OUTPUT | PROTOCOLS | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | BUGS | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

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