Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
curl(1)				  curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool	for transferring data from or to a server. It supports
       these protocols:	DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, GOPHERS,	 HTTP,	HTTPS,
       IMAP,  IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS, MQTT, POP3,	POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP,
       SFTP, SMB, SMBS,	SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET or TFTP. The command  is  designed
       to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer resume and more. As you will	see below, the number of features will
       make your head spin.

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You find	a detailed description
       in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

	 "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched	in a sequential	manner in the specified	order. You can specify
       command line options and	URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

	 "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is fairly liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invocations.

OUTPUT
       If not told otherwise, curl writes the received data to stdout. It  can
       be  instructed  to  instead save	that data into a local file, using the
       --output	or --remote-name options. If curl is given  multiple  URLs  to
       transfer	 on  the command line, it similarly needs multiple options for
       where to	save them.

       curl does not parse or otherwise	"understand" the content  it  gets  or
       writes  as  output.  It does no encoding	or decoding, unless explicitly
       asked to	with dedicated command line options.

PROTOCOLS
       curl supports numerous protocols, or put	in URL	terms:	schemes.  Your
       particular build	may not	support	them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read  or	write  local  files.  curl  does not support accessing
	      file:// URL remotely, but	when running on	Microsoft Windows  us-
	      ing the native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl  supports  the  File	Transfer Protocol with a lot of	tweaks
	      and levers. With or without using	TLS.

       GOPHER(S)
	      Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
	      curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It  can
	      speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1,	2 and 3	depending on build op-
	      tions and	the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
	      Using the	mail reading protocol, curl can	"download" emails  for
	      you. With	or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
	      curl can do directory lookups for	you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading	over MQTT equals "sub-
	      scribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals	"publish" on a
	      topic. MQTT over TLS is not supported (yet).

       POP3(S)
	      Downloading  from	 a  pop3  server means getting a mail. With or
	      without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
	      The Realtime Messaging Protocol  is  primarily  used  to	server
	      streaming	media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH	version	2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft	5) done	over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB	version	1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
	      Uploading	 contents  to  an  SMTP	server means sending an	email.
	      With or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts	an interactive session
	      where  it	 sends	what  it  reads	 on stdin and outputs what the
	      server sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a	progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and	estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of	bytes and  the	speeds
       are  in	bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to	do an operation	and it is about	to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	the response output to	a  file,  using	 shell	redirect  (>),
       --output	or similar.

       This  does  not apply to	FTP upload as that operation does not spit out
       any response data to the	terminal.

       If  you	prefer	a  progress  "bar"  instead  of	 the  regular	meter,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the	progress meter
       completely with the --silent option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form	of the options,	-d for example,	may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	--data for ex-
       ample, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that do not need any  additional  values  can  be
       used  immediately  next to each other, like for example you can specify
       all the options -O, -L and -v at	once as	-OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	 with  --no-option.  That is, you use the same option name but
       prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we  mostly  only  list  and
       show the	--option version of them.

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix	domain socket, instead
	      of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path  of  an  ab-
	      stract  socket  prefixed	with  '@', however the <path> argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Example:
	       curl --abstract-unix-socket socketpath https://example.com

	      See also --unix-socket. Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
	      (HTTPS) This option enables the alt-svc parser in	curl.  If  the
	      file name	points to an existing alt-svc cache file, that will be
	      used. After a completed transfer,	the cache will be saved	to the
	      file name	again if it has	been modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle the	cache in memory.

	      If this option is	used several times, curl  will	load  contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --alt-svc svc.txt https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and --connect-to. Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method, which you	can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since it may require data	to be sent twice and then  the	client
	      must  be able to rewind. If the need should arise	when uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl --anyauth --user me:pwd https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth,	--basic	and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target  file  instead of overwriting it. If the remote file does
	      not exist, it will be created. Note that this flag is ignored by
	      some SFTP	servers	(including OpenSSH).

	      Example:
	       curl --upload-file local	--append ftp://example.com/

	      See also -r, --range and -C, --continue-at.

       --aws-sigv4 <provider1[:provider2[:region[:service]]]>
	      Use AWS V4 signature authentication in the transfer.

	      The  provider argument is	a string that is used by the algorithm
	      when creating outgoing authentication headers.

	      The region argument is a string that points to a geographic area
	      of  a resources collection (region-code) when the	region name is
	      omitted from the endpoint.

	      The service argument is a	string that points to a	function  pro-
	      vided by a cloud (service-code) when the service name is omitted
	      from the endpoint.

	      Example:
	       curl --aws-sigv4	"aws:amz:east-2:es" --user "key:secret"	https://example.com

	      See also --basic and -u, --user. Added in	7.75.0.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP Basic authentication with the  re-
	      mote host. This is the default and this option is	usually	point-
	      less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
	      sets  a  different  authentication method	(such as --ntlm, --di-
	      gest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --basic https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<file>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in	PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  it  is  set,	and uses the given path	as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the	 NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be	available for this op-
	      tion to work properly.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then this	option is supported for	 backward  compatibility  with
	      other  SSL  engines,  but	it should not be set. If the option is
	      not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
	      user  Keychain to	verify the peer, which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      (Schannel	only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
	      7	 or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is supported
	      for backward compatibility with other SSL	engines; instead it is
	      recommended  to use Windows' store of root certificates (the de-
	      fault for	Schannel).

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cacert CA-file.txt https://example.com

	      See also --capath	and -k,	--insecure.

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	 directory  to
	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be	provided by separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be  in PEM format, and if	curl is	built against OpenSSL, the di-
	      rectory must have	been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
	      plied  with  OpenSSL.  Using  --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
	      curl to make SSL-connections much	more  efficiently  than	 using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --capath /local/directory https://example.com

	      See also --cacert	and -k,	--insecure.

       --cert-status
	      (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If this option is	enabled	and the	server sends an	invalid	 (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate has been	revoked, or no response	at  all	 is  received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This  is	currently  only	implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
	      NSS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-status https://example.com

	      See also --pinnedpubkey. Added in	7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS) Tells curl what type the provided  client  certificate  is
	      using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.

	      The  default type	depends	on the TLS backend and is usually PEM,
	      however for Secure Transport and Schannel	it is P12.  If	--cert
	      is a pkcs11: URI then ENG	is the default type.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert-type	PEM --cert file	https://example.com

	      See also -E, --cert, --key and --key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use the specified client certificate file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col.  The	 certificate must be in	PKCS#12	format if using	Secure
	      Transport, or PEM	format if using	any other engine. If  the  op-
	      tional  password is not specified, it will be queried for	on the
	      terminal.	Note that this option assumes a	certificate file  that
	      is  the private key and the client certificate concatenated. See
	      --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      In the <certificate> portion of the argument,  you  must	escape
	      the  character  ":"  as "\:" so that it is not recognized	as the
	      password delimiter. Similarly, you must escape the character "\"
	      as "\\" so that it is not	recognized as an escape	character.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this	option
	      can tell curl the	nickname of the	certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable	SSL_DIR	(or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

	      If  you  provide	a  path	relative to the	current	directory, you
	      must prefix the path with	"./" in	order to avoid confusion  with
	      an NSS database nickname.

	      If  curl is built	against	OpenSSL	library, and the engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify  a  certificate located in a PKCS#11 device. A string	begin-
	      ning with	"pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.	 If  a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --cert-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private  key	in the system or user keychain,	or the path to
	      a	PKCS#12-encoded	certificate and	private	key. If	 you  want  to
	      use  a  file  from the current directory,	please precede it with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      (Schannel	only) Client certificates must be specified by a  path
	      expression  to  a	 certificate  store.  (Loading PFX is not sup-
	      ported; you can import it	to a store first). You can use "<store
	      location>\<store	name>\<thumbprint>"  to	refer to a certificate
	      in  the  system  certificates  store,  for   example,   "Curren-
	      tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
	      is usually a SHA-1 hex string which you can see  in  certificate
	      details.	Following  store locations are supported: CurrentUser,
	      LocalMachine, CurrentService, Services,  CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
	      LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certfile --key keyfile https://example.com

	      See also --cert-type, --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3.

       --compressed-ssh
	      (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
	      not an order; the	server may or may not do it.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed-ssh sftp://example.com/

	      See also --compressed. Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
	      are not modified.

	      If this option is	used and the server sends an  unsupported  en-
	      coding, curl will	report an error. This is a request, not	an or-
	      der; the server may or may not deliver data compressed.

	      Example:
	       curl --compressed https://example.com

	      See also --compressed-ssh.

       -K, --config <file>
	      Specify a	text file to read curl	arguments  from.  The  command
	      line  arguments  found  in the text file will be used as if they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options and their	parameters must	be specified on	the same  line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long option names	can optionally be given	 in  the  config  file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with  one	or two dashes, there can be no colon or	equals charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter contains	whitespace (or starts with  :  or  =),
	      the  parameter  must  be	enclosed  within quotes. Within	double
	      quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:  \\,  \",
	      \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter	is ig-
	      nored.

	      If the first column of a config line is  a  '#'  character,  the
	      rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

	      Only write one option per	physical line in the config file.

	      Specify  the  filename  to --config as '-' to make curl read the
	      file from	stdin.

	      Note that	to be able to specify a	URL in the  config  file,  you
	      need  to	specify	 it  using the --url option, and not by	simply
	      writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.se/docs/"

	       # --- Example file ---
	       # this is a comment
	       url = "example.com"
	       output =	"curlhere.html"
	       user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	       # and fetch another URL too
	       url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	       -O
	       referer = "http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	       # --- End of example file ---

	      When curl	is invoked, it (unless --disable is used) checks for a
	      default config file and uses it if found,	even when --config  is
	      used.  The  default  config file is checked for in the following
	      places in	this order:

	      1) "$CURL_HOME/.curlrc"

	      2) "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/.curlrc" (Added in 7.73.0)

	      3) "$HOME/.curlrc"

	      4) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\.curlrc"

	      5) Windows: "%APPDATA%\.curlrc"

	      6) Windows: "%USERPROFILE%\Application Data\.curlrc"

	      7) Non-Windows: use getpwuid to find the home directory

	      8) On Windows, if	it finds no .curlrc file in the	 sequence  de-
	      scribed  above,  it checks for one in the	same dir the curl exe-
	      cutable is placed.

	      On Windows two filenames are checked per location:  .curlrc  and
	      _curlrc,	preferring  the	 former.  Older	 versions  on  Windows
	      checked for _curlrc only.

	      This option can be used multiple times to	load  multiple	config
	      files.

	      Example:
	       curl --config file.txt https://example.com

	      See also -q, --disable.

       --connect-timeout <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con-
	      nects  within the	given period it	will continue -	if not it will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --connect-timeout 20 https://example.com
	       curl --connect-timeout 3.14 https://example.com

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request  to  the	given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
	      HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option	is suitable to direct requests
	      at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
	      ter  of  servers.	This option is only used to establish the net-
	      work connection. It does NOT affect the  hostname/port  that  is
	      used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
	      application protocols. "HOST1" and  "PORT1"  may	be  the	 empty
	      string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
	      the  empty  string,  meaning   "use   the	  request's   original
	      host/port".

	      A	"host" specified to this option	is compared as a string, so it
	      needs to match the name used in request URL. It  can  be	either
	      numerical	such as	"127.0.0.1" or the full	host name such as "ex-
	      ample.org".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      Example:
	       curl --connect-to example.com:443:example.net:8443 https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it  is transferred to the	destination. If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -C - https://example.com
	       curl -C 400 https://example.com

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP) Specify to	which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a	completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
	      in-memory	cookie storage to the given file at the	end of	opera-
	      tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
	      file will	be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This command line	option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	cannot be created or  written  to,  the	 whole
	      curl  operation  will  not fail or even report an	error clearly.
	      Using --verbose will get a warning displayed, but	 that  is  the
	      only  visible feedback you get about this	possibly lethal	situa-
	      tion.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	 last  specified  file
	      name will	be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -c store-here.txt https://example.com
	       curl -c store-here.txt -b read-these https://example.com

	      See also -b, --cookie.

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is supposedly the	data previously	received from the server in  a
	      "Set-Cookie:"   line.   The   data   should  be  in  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2". This makes	curl  use  the	cookie
	      header  with this	content	explicitly in all outgoing request(s).
	      If multiple requests are done due	 to  authentication,  followed
	      redirects	or similar, they will all get this cookie passed on.

	      If  no '=' symbol	is used	in the argument, it is instead treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which will make curl record in-
	      coming cookies, which may	be handy if you	are using this in com-
	      bination with the	--location option or do	multiple URL transfers
	      on the same invoke. If the file name is exactly a	 minus	("-"),
	      curl will	instead	read the contents from stdin.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the  Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The file specified with --cookie is only used as input. No cook-
	      ies will be written to the  file.	 To  store  cookies,  use  the
	      --cookie-jar option.

	      If  you  use the Set-Cookie file format and do not specify a do-
	      main then	the cookie is not sent since  the  domain  will	 never
	      match.  To  address this,	set a domain in	Set-Cookie line	(doing
	      that will	include	sub-domains) or	preferably: use	 the  Netscape
	      format.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Users  often want	to both	read cookies from a file and write up-
	      dated cookies back  to  a	 file,	so  using  both	 --cookie  and
	      --cookie-jar in the same command line is common.

	      Examples:
	       curl -b cookiefile https://example.com
	       curl -b cookiefile -c cookiefile	https://example.com

	      See also -c, --cookie-jar	and -j,	--junk-session-cookies.

       --create-dirs
	      When  used  in  conjunction  with	the --output option, curl will
	      create the necessary local directory hierarchy as	 needed.  This
	      option  creates  the directories mentioned with the --output op-
	      tion, nothing else. If the --output file name uses no directory,
	      or  if the directories it	mentions already exist,	no directories
	      will be created.

	      Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

	      To create	remote directories when	using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-dirs --output local/dir/file https://example.com

	      See also --ftp-create-dirs and --output-dir.

       --create-file-mode <mode>
	      (SFTP SCP	FILE) When curl	is used	to create files	remotely using
	      one of the supported protocols, this option allows the  user  to
	      set which	'mode' to set on the file at creation time, instead of
	      the default 0644.

	      This option takes	an octal number	as argument.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --create-file-mode 0777 -T localfile sftp://example.com/new

	      See also --ftp-create-dirs. Added	in 7.75.0.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF	 in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --crlf -T file ftp://example.com/

	      See also -B, --use-ascii.

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --crlfile rejects.txt https://example.com

	      See also --cacert	and --capath.

       --curves	<algorithm list>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to request specific curves to	use during SSL
	      session establishment according to RFC 8422, 5.1.	 Multiple  al-
	      gorithms	can  be	 provided  by  separating  them	with ":" (e.g.
	      "X25519:P-521").	The parameter is available identically in  the
	      "openssl s_client/s_server" utilities.

	      --curves	allows	a OpenSSL powered curl to make SSL-connections
	      with exactly the (EC) curve requested by	the  client,  avoiding
	      nontransparent client/server negotiations.

	      If  this	option	is  set,  the  default	curves list built into
	      openssl will be ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --curves X25519 https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers. Added	in 7.73.0.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-ascii @file https://example.com

	      See also --data-binary, --data-raw and --data-urlencode.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data exactly as	specified with no  extra  pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      filename.	Data is	posted in a similar manner as --data does, ex-
	      cept  that  newlines and carriage	returns	are preserved and con-
	      versions are never done.

	      Like --data the default content-type sent	to the server  is  ap-
	      plication/x-www-form-urlencoded.	If  you	 want  the  data to be
	      treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
	      tent-type	 to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type: application/octet-
	      stream".

	      If this option is	used several times,  the  ones	following  the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

	      Example:
	       curl --data-binary @filename https://example.com

	      See also --data-ascii.

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP)  This posts data similarly	to --data but without the spe-
	      cial interpretation of the @ character.

	      Examples:
	       curl --data-raw "hello" https://example.com
	       curl --data-raw "@at@at@" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data, similar to the other --data options with
	      the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with	a name
	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. Just be careful so that the content does not  contain
		     any  =  or	 @  symbols, as	that will then make the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
		     that on. Note that	the name part is expected to  be  URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	 in  the  POST.	 The  name part	gets an	equal sign ap-
		     pended, resulting in  name=urlencoded-file-content.  Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       Examples:
	curl --data-urlencode name=val https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode =encodethis https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode name@file	https://example.com
	curl --data-urlencode @fileonly	https://example.com

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP  MQTT)  Sends  the specified data in a POST	request	to the
	      HTTP server, in the same way that	a browser does when a user has
	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Compare to -F,	--form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	of the @ character. To post data  purely  binary,  you
	      should  instead  use the --data-binary option. To	URL-encode the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If any of	these options is used more than	once on	the same  com-
	      mand line, the data pieces specified will	be merged with a sepa-
	      rating &-symbol. Thus, using  '-d	 name=daniel  -d  skill=lousy'
	      would    generate	   a	post	chunk	 that	 looks	  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
	      the data from stdin. Posting data	from  a	 file  named  'foobar'
	      would  thus be done with -d, --data @foobar. When	--data is told
	      to read from a file like that,  carriage	returns	 and  newlines
	      will be stripped out. If you do not want the @ character to have
	      a	special	interpretation use --data-raw instead.

	      Examples:
	       curl -d "name=curl" https://example.com
	       curl -d "name=curl" -d "tool=cmdline" https://example.com
	       curl -d @filename https://example.com

	      See also --data-binary, --data-urlencode	and  --data-raw.  This
	      option  is  mutually  exclusive to -F, --form and	-I, --head and
	      -T, --upload-file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it  is  allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Do	not allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates	if  and	only if	the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag	is set
		     in	the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is	 a  matter  of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       Example:
	curl --delegation "none" https://example.com

       See also	-k, --insecure and --ssl.

       --digest
	      (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-
	      cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over
	      the  wire	in clear text. Use this	in combination with the	normal
	      --user option to set user	name and password.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u name:password --digest https://example.com

	      See  also	 -u, --user, --proxy-digest and	--anyauth. This	option
	      is mutually exclusive to --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPRT, then	LPRT before using PORT,	but with  this
	      option,  it  will	 use PORT right	away. EPRT and LPRT are	exten-
	      sions to the original FTP	protocol, and  may  not	 work  on  all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If  the  server is accessed using	IPv6, this option will have no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
	      switch  to  passive mode you need	to not use --ftp-port or force
	      it with --ftp-pasv.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-eprt ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-epsv and -P, --ftp-port.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPSV command when  do-
	      ing  passive  FTP	transfers. Curl	will normally always first at-
	      tempt to use EPSV	before PASV, but with this option, it will not
	      try using	EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have  no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

	      Example:
	       curl --disable-epsv ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-eprt and -P, --ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
	      If used as the first parameter on	the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file will	not be read and	used. See the --config for de-
	      tails on the default config file search path.

	      Example:
	       curl -q https://example.com

	      See also -K, --config.

       --disallow-username-in-url
	      (HTTP) This tells	curl to	exit if	 passed	 a  URL	 containing  a
	      username.	 This  is  probably  most useful when the URL is being
	      provided at runtime or similar.

	      Example:
	       curl --disallow-username-in-url https://example.com

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS  requests  through  <inter-
	      face>.  This  option is a	counterpart to --interface (which does
	      not affect DNS). The supplied string must	be an  interface  name
	      (not an address).

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-interface eth0 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-ipv4-addr  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv4-addr 10.1.2.3 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-ipv6-addr 2a04:4e42::561 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used instead of	the system de-
	      fault.  The list of IP addresses should be separated  with  com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dns-servers 192.168.0.1,192.168.0.2 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-servers  re-
	      quires  that the underlying libcurl was built to support c-ares.
	      Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-cert-status
	      Same as --cert-status but	used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-cert-status --doh-url	https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-insecure. Added in	7.76.0.

       --doh-insecure
	      Same as --insecure but used for DoH (DNS-over-HTTPS).

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-insecure --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-url. Added	in 7.76.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
	      Specifies	which DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) server to  use  to  resolve
	      hostnames, instead of using the default name resolver mechanism.
	      The URL must be HTTPS.

	      Some SSL options that you	set for	your transfer  will  apply  to
	      DoH  since  the  name  lookups take place	over SSL. However, the
	      certificate verification settings	are not	inherited and  can  be
	      controlled separately via	--doh-insecure and --doh-cert-status.

	      This  option  is unset if	an empty string	"" is used as the URL.
	      (Added in	7.85.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --doh-url https://doh.example https://example.com

	      See also --doh-insecure. Added in	7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to	the  specified
	      file.  If	 no  headers are received, the use of this option will
	      create an	empty file.

	      When used	in FTP,	the FTP	server response	lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --dump-header store.txt https://example.com

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Deprecated	 option.  This option is ignored by curl since
	      7.84.0. Prior to that it only had	an effect on curl if built  to
	      use old versions of OpenSSL.

	      Specify  the  path  name to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon socket.
	      The socket is used to seed the random  engine  for  SSL  connec-
	      tions.

	      Example:
	       curl --egd-file /random/here https://example.com

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	all (and possibly none)	of the engines
	      may be available at runtime.

	      Example:
	       curl --engine flavor https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers and --curves.

       --etag-compare <file>
	      (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the spe-
	      cific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-
	      Match header using the stored ETag.

	      For correct results, make	sure that the specified	file  contains
	      only  a  single  line  with  the	desired	ETag. An empty file is
	      parsed as	an empty ETag.

	      Use the option --etag-save to first save the  ETag  from	a  re-
	      sponse,  and  then  use this option to compare against the saved
	      ETag in a	subsequent request.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-compare etag.txt https://example.com

	      See also --etag-save and -z, --time-cond.	Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
	      (HTTP) This option saves an HTTP ETag to the specified file.  An
	      ETag  is	a  caching  related  header, usually returned in a re-
	      sponse.

	      If no ETag is sent by the	server,	an empty file is created.

	      Example:
	       curl --etag-save	storetag.txt https://example.com

	      See also --etag-compare. Added in	7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      Example:
	       curl --expect100-timeout	2.5 -T file https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one	by one.	By de-
	      fault, it	will ignore errors if there are	more  URLs  given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	will determine the error code curl re-
	      turns. So	early failures will be "hidden"	by subsequent success-
	      ful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two  options, however note --fail	is not global and is therefore
	      contained	by -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-early https://example.com https://two.example

	      See also -f, --fail and --fail-with-body.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --fail-with-body
	      (HTTP) Return an error on	server errors where the	HTTP  response
	      code  is	400  or	 greater). In normal cases when	an HTTP	server
	      fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
	      so  (which  often	 also  describes why and more).	This flag will
	      still allow curl to output and save that content but also	to re-
	      turn error 22.

	      This  is	an  alternative	option to --fail which makes curl fail
	      for the same circumstances but without saving the	content.

	      Example:
	       curl --fail-with-body https://example.com

	      See also -f, --fail. This	option is mutually  exclusive  to  -f,
	      --fail. Added in 7.76.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail fast with no output at all on	server errors. This is
	      useful to	enable scripts and users to better  deal  with	failed
	      attempts.	In normal cases	when an	HTTP server fails to deliver a
	      document,	it returns an HTML document stating  so	 (which	 often
	      also  describes  why and more). This flag	will prevent curl from
	      outputting that and return error 22.

	      This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where  non-
	      successful response codes	will slip through, especially when au-
	      thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

	      Example:
	       curl --fail https://example.com

	      See also --fail-with-body. This option is	mutually exclusive  to
	      --fail-with-body.

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a TLS	client will start sending  ap-
	      plication	 data  before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --false-start https://example.com

	      See also --tcp-fastopen. Added in	7.42.0.

       --form-escape
	      (HTTP)  Tells curl to pass on names of multipart form fields and
	      files using backslash-escaping instead of	percent-encoding.

	      Example:
	       curl --form-escape -F 'field\name=curl' -F 'file=@load"this' https://example.com

	      See also -F, --form. Added in 7.81.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP SMTP IMAP) Similar to --form except	that the value	string
	      for  the	named parameter	is used	literally. Leading '@' and '<'
	      characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special
	      meaning.	Use this in preference to --form if there's any	possi-
	      bility that the string value may accidentally trigger the	'@' or
	      '<' features of -F, --form.

	      Example:
	       curl --form-string "data" https://example.com

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP) For HTTP protocol family, this	lets curl emu-
	      late a filled-in form in which a user  has  pressed  the	submit
	      button.  This  causes  curl  to POST data	using the Content-Type
	      multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

	      For SMTP and IMAP	protocols, this	is the means to	compose	a mul-
	      tipart mail message to transmit.

	      This  enables  uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part	from a file, prefix the	file name with
	      the symbol <. The	difference between @ and  <  is	 then  that  @
	      makes  a	file  get attached in the post as a file upload, while
	      the < makes a text field and just	get the	contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Tell  curl to read content from stdin instead of a file by using
	      -	as filename. This goes for both	@ and <	constructs. When stdin
	      is used, the contents is buffered	in memory first	by curl	to de-
	      termine its size and allow a possible resend. Defining a	part's
	      data from	a named	non-regular file (such as a named pipe or sim-
	      ilar) is unfortunately not subject to buffering and will be  ef-
	      fectively	 read at transmission time; since the full size	is un-
	      known before the transfer	starts,	such data is sent as chunks by
	      HTTP and rejected	by IMAP.

	      Example: send an image to	an HTTP	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name of the form-field to	which the file	portrait.jpg  will  be
	      the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      Example:	send your name and shoe	size in	two text fields	to the
	      server:

	       curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11	https://example.com/

	      Example: send your essay in a text field to the server. Send  it
	      as  a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a local
	      file:

	       curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

	      You can also  tell  curl	what  Content-Type  to	use  by	 using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You  can	also explicitly	change the name	field of a file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If filename/path contains	',' or ';', it must be quoted by  dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl -F "file=@\"local,file\";filename=\"name;in;post\""	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F 'file=@"local,file";filename="name;in;post"' example.com

	      Note  that  if  a	 filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      Quoting  must  also  be  applied to non-file data	if it contains
	      semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

	       curl -F 'colors="red; green; blue";type=text/x-myapp' example.com

	      You can add custom headers to the	 field	by  setting  headers=,
	      like

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

	      or

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=@headerfile"	example.com

	      The  headers=  keyword may appear	more that once and above notes
	      about quoting apply. When	headers	are read from  a  file,	 Empty
	      lines and	lines starting with '#'	are comments and ignored; each
	      header can be folded by splitting	between	two words and starting
	      the  continuation	 line  with a space; embedded carriage-returns
	      and trailing spaces are stripped.	  Here	is  an	example	 of  a
	      header file contents:

		# This file contain two	headers.
		X-header-1: this is a header

		# The following	header is folded.
		X-header-2: this is
		 another header

	      To  support  sending  multipart mail messages, the syntax	is ex-
	      tended as	follows:
	      -	name can be omitted: the equal sign is the first character  of
	      the argument,
	      -	 if  data  starts with '(', this signals to start a new	multi-
	      part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
	      -	a multipart can	be terminated with a '=)' argument.

	      Example: the following command sends an SMTP mime	email consist-
	      ing in an	inline part in two alternative formats:	plain text and
	      HTML. It attaches	a text file:

	       curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
		    -F '=plain text message' \
		    -F '= <body>HTML message</body>;type=text/html' \
		    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt'	...  smtp://example.com

	      Data can be encoded for transfer using encoder=.	Available  en-
	      codings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
	      corresponding Content-Transfer-Encoding header, 7bit  that  only
	      rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
	      and base64 that encodes  data  according	to  the	 corresponding
	      schemes, limiting	lines length to	76 characters.

	      Example:	send  multipart	mail with a quoted-printable text mes-
	      sage and a base64	attached file:

	       curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable'	\
		    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ...	smtp://example.com

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      Example:
	       curl --form "name=curl" --form "file=@loadthis" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data, --form-string and --form-escape.  This  op-
	      tion  is mutually	exclusive to -d, --data	and -I,	--head and -T,
	      --upload-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and  password has	been provided, this data is sent off using the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-account "mr.robot" ftp://example.com/

	      See also -u, --user.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and	PASS  commands	fails,
	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,	 using
	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
	      the certificate.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-alternative-to-user "U53r" ftp://example.com

	      See also --ftp-account and -u, --user.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or	SFTP URL/operation uses	 a  path  that
	      does not currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-create-dirs -T file ftp://example.com/remote/path/file

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
	      FTP(S) server. The method	argument should	be one of the  follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl  does	 a  single CWD operation for each path part in
		     the given URL. For	deep hierarchies this means many  com-
		     mands.  This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This
		     is	the default but	the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will	do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Examples:
	curl --ftp-method multicwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method nocwd	ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file
	curl --ftp-method singlecwd ftp://example.com/dir1/dir2/file

       See also	-l, --list-only.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection.	Passive	is the
	      internal default behavior, but using this	option can be used  to
	      override a previous --ftp-port option.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. Undoing an enforced	passive	really is not doable  but  you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct --ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pasv ftp://example.com/

	      See also --disable-epsv.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
	      necting  with  FTP. This option makes curl use active mode. curl
	      then tells the server to connect back to the client's  specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP address and port for it to connect to.	 <address>  should  be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     e.g.  "eth0"  to specify which interface's	IP address you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the	exact IP address

	      host name
		     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make curl pick the	same IP	address	that is	 already  used
		     for the control connection

       If  this	 option	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used. Dis-
       able the	use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using	--disable-eprt.	EPRT is	really
       PORT++.

       You can also append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of  the  address,  to
       tell  curl  what	 TCP  port range to use. That means you	specify	a port
       range, from a lower to a	higher number. A single	number works as	 well,
       but  do	note  that it increases	the risk of failure since the port may
       not be available.

       Examples:
	curl -P	- ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	eth0 ftp:/example.com
	curl -P	192.168.0.2 ftp:/example.com

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a	PRET command before PASV  (and	EPSV).
	      Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
	      command for directory listings as	well as	up  and	 downloads  in
	      PASV mode.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-pret ftp://example.com/

	      See also -P, --ftp-port and --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
	      connection.  Instead curl	will re-use the	same IP	address	it al-
	      ready uses for the control connection.

	      Since curl 7.74.0	this option is enabled by default.

	      This option has no effect	if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
	      of PASV.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-skip-pasv-ip ftp://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-pasv.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP)  Sets the CCC mode.	The passive mode will not initiate the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode active --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP) Use	CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-ccc ftps://example.com/

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the	FTP login, clear for transfer.
	      Allows secure authentication, but	non-encrypted  data  transfers
	      for  efficiency.	Fails the transfer if the server does not sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Example:
	       curl --ftp-ssl-control ftp://example.com

	      See also --ssl.

       -G, --get
	      When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
	      --data,  --data-binary or	--data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
	      GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If  used	in combination with -I,	--head,	the POST data will in-
	      stead be appended	to the URL with	a HEAD request.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used. This is because undoing a GET does not make	sense, but you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

	      Examples:
	       curl --get https://example.com
	       curl --get -d "tool=curl" -d "age=old" https://example.com
	       curl --get -I -d	"tool=curl" https://example.com

	      See also -d, --data and -X, --request.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this  option, you	can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
	      without having curl itself interpret them. Note that these  let-
	      ters  are	 not  normal legal URL contents	but they should	be en-
	      coded according to the URI standard.

	      Example:
	       curl -g "https://example.com/{[]}}}}"

	      See also -K, --config and	-q, --disable.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
	      Happy Eyeballs is	an algorithm that attempts to connect to  both
	      IPv4  and	 IPv6  addresses  for  dual-stack hosts, giving	IPv6 a
	      head-start of the	specified number of milliseconds. If the  IPv6
	      address  cannot be connected to within that time,	then a connec-
	      tion attempt is made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The	 first
	      connection to be established is the one that is used.

	      The  range of suggested useful values is limited.	Happy Eyeballs
	      RFC 6555 says "It	is RECOMMENDED	that  connection  attempts  be
	      paced  150-250 ms	apart to balance human factors against network
	      load." libcurl currently defaults	to 200 ms. Firefox and	Chrome
	      currently	default	to 300 ms.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms	500 https://example.com

	      See also -m, --max-time and --connect-timeout. Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
	      (HTTP)  Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the beginning
	      of the connection. This is used by some load balancers  and  re-
	      verse proxies to indicate	the client's true IP address and port.

	      This  option is primarily	useful when sending test requests to a
	      service that expects this	header.

	      Example:
	       curl --haproxy-protocol https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command  HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
	      document.	When used on an	FTP or FILE file,  curl	 displays  the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

	      Example:
	       curl -I https://example.com

	      See also -G, --get, -v, --verbose	and --trace-ascii.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a server. You may specify any number of extra	headers.  Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one of the internal ones curl would  use,	 your  externally  set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to make even trickier stuff than curl  would  normally  do.  You
	      should  not  replace internally set headers without knowing per-
	      fectly well what you are doing. Remove  an  internal  header  by
	      giving  a	 replacement  without content on the right side	of the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value  then its header must be terminated	with a semicolon, such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      This  option can take an argument	in @filename style, which then
	      adds a header for	each line in the input	file.  Using  @-  will
	      make curl	read the header	file from stdin. Added in 7.55.0.

	      You  need	 --proxy-header	to send	custom headers intended	for an
	      HTTP proxy. Added	in 7.37.0.

	      Passing on a "Transfer-Encoding: chunked"	header when  doing  an
	      HTTP  request  with a request body, will make curl send the data
	      using chunked encoding.

	      WARNING: headers set with	this option will be  set  in  all  re-
	      quests  -	even after redirects are followed, like	when told with
	      -L, --location. This can lead to the header being	sent to	 other
	      hosts  than  the	original  host,	so sensitive headers should be
	      used with	caution	combined with following	redirects.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" https://example.com
	       curl -H "User-Agent: yes-please/2000" https://example.com
	       curl -H "Host:" https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -e,	--referer.

       -h, --help <category>
	      Usage  help.  This  lists	all commands of	the <category>.	 If no
	      arg was provided,	curl will display the most  important  command
	      line  arguments.	 If the	argument "all" was provided, curl will
	      display all options available.  If the argument  "category"  was
	      provided,	curl will display all categories and their meanings.

	      Example:
	       curl --help all

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP  SCP)  Pass	a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
	      string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum	of the	remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Example:
	       curl --hostpubmd5 e5c1c49020640a5ab0f2034854c321a8 sftp://example.com/

	      See also --hostpubsha256.

       --hostpubsha256 <sha256>
	      (SFTP SCP) Pass a	string containing a Base64-encoded SHA256 hash
	      of the remote host's public key. Curl will refuse	the connection
	      with the host unless the hashes match.

	      Example:
	       curl --hostpubsha256 NDVkMTQxMGQ1ODdmMjQ3MjczYjAyOTY5MmRkMjVmNDQ= sftp://example.com/

	      See also --hostpubmd5. Added in 7.80.0.

       --hsts <file name>
	      (HTTPS) This option enables HSTS for the transfer. If  the  file
	      name  points  to an existing HSTS	cache file, that will be used.
	      After a completed	transfer, the cache will be saved to the  file
	      name again if it has been	modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle HSTS in memory.

	      If this option is	used several times, curl  will	load  contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Example:
	       curl --hsts cache.txt https://example.com

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.74.0.

       --http0.9
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to be fine with	HTTP version 0.9 response.

	      HTTP/0.9	is  a completely headerless response and therefore you
	      can also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still	get  a
	      response since curl will simply transparently downgrade -	if al-
	      lowed.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

	      Example:
	       curl --http0.9 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1, --http2 and --http3. Added in	7.64.0.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.0	instead	of  using  its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.0 https://example.com

	      See also --http0.9 and --http1.1.	This option is mutually	exclu-
	      sive to --http1.1	and --http2  and  --http2-prior-knowledge  and
	      --http3.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --http1.1 https://example.com

	      See  also	 -0,  --http1.0	and --http0.9. This option is mutually
	      exclusive	to -0, --http1.0 and --http2 and  --http2-prior-knowl-
	      edge and --http3.	Added in 7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  non-TLS HTTP	requests using
	      HTTP/2 without HTTP/1.1 Upgrade.	It  requires  prior  knowledge
	      that  the	 server	 supports HTTP/2 straight away.	HTTPS requests
	      will still do HTTP/2 the standard	way with  negotiated  protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2-prior-knowledge https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http2 and --http3. --http2-prior-knowledge requires
	      that the underlying libcurl was built to	support	 HTTP/2.  This
	      option  is mutually exclusive to --http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and
	      --http2 and --http3. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      For HTTPS, this means curl will attempt to negotiate  HTTP/2  in
	      the TLS handshake. curl does this	by default.

	      For HTTP,	this means curl	will attempt to	upgrade	the request to
	      HTTP/2 using the Upgrade:	request	header.

	      When curl	uses HTTP/2 over HTTPS,	it does	not itself  insist  on
	      TLS 1.2 or higher	even though that is required by	the specifica-
	      tion. A user can add this	version	requirement with --tlsv1.2.

	      Example:
	       curl --http2 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the	under-
	      lying  libcurl was built to support HTTP/2. This option is mutu-
	      ally exclusive to	--http1.1 and -0, --http1.0 and	--http2-prior-
	      knowledge	and --http3. Added in 7.33.0.

       --http3
	      (HTTP)  WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in pro-
	      duction.

	      Tells curl to use	HTTP version 3 directly	to the host  and  port
	      number used in the URL. A	normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
	      to a host	and then get redirected	via Alt-Svc, but  this	option
	      allows  a	 user to circumvent that when you know that the	target
	      speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

	      This option will make curl fail if a QUIC	connection  cannot  be
	      established,  it cannot fall back	to a lower HTTP	version	on its
	      own.

	      Example:
	       curl --http3 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the	under-
	      lying  libcurl was built to support HTTP/3. This option is mutu-
	      ally exclusive to	--http1.1 and -0, --http1.0  and  --http2  and
	      --http2-prior-knowledge. Added in	7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP  HTTP)  For HTTP, Ignore the	Content-Length header. This is
	      particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x,  which  will
	      report  incorrect	 Content-Length	 for files larger than 2 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out  the
	      size before downloading a	file.

	      This  option  does not work for HTTP if libcurl was built	to use
	      hyper.

	      Example:
	       curl --ignore-content-length https://example.com

	      See also --ftp-skip-pasv-ip.

       -i, --include
	      Include the HTTP response	headers	in the output.	The  HTTP  re-
	      sponse  headers  can  include  things like server	name, cookies,
	      date of the document, HTTP version and more...

	      To view the request headers, consider the	--verbose option.

	      Example:
	       curl -i https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS SFTP	SCP) By	default, every secure connection curl makes is
	      verified	to be secure before the	transfer takes place. This op-
	      tion makes curl skip the verification step and  proceed  without
	      checking.

	      When this	option is not used for protocols using TLS, curl veri-
	      fies the server's	TLS certificate	before it continues: that  the
	      certificate  contains the	right name which matches the host name
	      used in the URL and that the certificate has been	signed by a CA
	      certificate present in the cert store.  See this online resource
	      for further details:
	       https://curl.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      For SFTP and SCP,	this option makes curl	skip  the  known_hosts
	      verification.   known_hosts  is  a  file	normally stored	in the
	      user's home directory in the ".ssh" subdirectory,	which contains
	      host names and their public keys.

	      WARNING: using this option makes the transfer insecure.

	      Example:
	       curl --insecure https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-insecure, --cacert and --capath.

       --interface <name>
	      Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
	      interface	name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      On  Linux	 it can	be used	to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
	      to either	have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root.	More  informa-
	      tion   about  Linux  VRF:	 https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
	      tion/networking/vrf.txt

	      Example:
	       curl --interface	eth0 https://example.com

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells	curl to	use IPv4 addresses only, and  not  for
	      example try IPv6.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv4 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1 and --http2.	This option is mutually	exclu-
	      sive to -6, --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This option tells	curl to	use IPv6 addresses only, and  not  for
	      example try IPv4.

	      Example:
	       curl --ipv6 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1 and --http2.	This option is mutually	exclu-
	      sive to -4, --ipv4.

       --json <data>
	      (HTTP) Sends the specified JSON data in a	POST  request  to  the
	      HTTP  server.  --json  works  as a shortcut for passing on these
	      three options:

	       --data [arg]
	       --header	"Content-Type: application/json"
	       --header	"Accept: application/json"

	      There is no verification that the	passed in data is actual  JSON
	      or that the syntax is correct.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name	to read	the data from, or a single  dash  (-)  if  you
	      want  curl to read the data from stdin. Posting data from	a file
	      named 'foobar' would thus	be done	with --json @foobar and	to in-
	      stead read the data from stdin, use --json @-.

	      If  this option is used more than	once on	the same command line,
	      the additional data pieces will be concatenated to the  previous
	      before sending.

	      The  headers this	option sets can	be overridden with --header as
	      usual.

	      Examples:
	       curl --json '{ "drink": "coffe" }' https://example.com
	       curl --json '{ "drink":'	--json ' "coffe" }' https://example.com
	       curl --json @prepared https://example.com
	       curl --json @- https://example.com < json.txt

	      See also --data-binary and --data-raw. This option  is  mutually
	      exclusive	 to  -F,  --form and -I, --head	and -T,	--upload-file.
	      Added in 7.82.0.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
	      sically have the same effect as if a  new	 session  is  started.
	      Typical  browsers	 always	 discard session cookies when they are
	      closed down.

	      Example:
	       curl --junk-session-cookies -b cookies.txt https://example.com

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This option sets the time	a connection needs to remain idle  be-
	      fore  sending  keepalive	probes and the time between individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX	 and  more).   Keepalives  are
	      used  by the TCP stack to	detect broken networks on idle connec-
	      tions. The number	of missed keepalive  probes  before  declaring
	      the  connection  down  is	 OS dependent and is commonly 9	or 10.
	      This option has no effect	if --no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Example:
	       curl --keepalive-time 20	https://example.com

	      See also --no-keepalive and -m, --max-time.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS)  Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro-
	      vided private key	is. DER, PEM, and ENG are  supported.  If  not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --key-type DER --key here https://example.com

	      See also --key.

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate key in this separate	file. For SSH, if not specified,  curl
	      tries   the  following  candidates  in  order:  '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
	      '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

	      If curl is built against OpenSSL library,	and the	engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify a private key	located	in a PKCS#11 device. A	string	begin-
	      ning  with  "pkcs11:" will be interpreted	as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11"	if none	was provided and the --key-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      If curl is built against Secure Transport	or Schannel then  this
	      option is	ignored	for TLS	protocols (HTTPS, etc).	Those backends
	      expect the private key to	be already present in the keychain  or
	      PKCS#12 file containing the certificate.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --cert certificate --key here https://example.com

	      See also --key-type and -E, --cert.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP)  Enable Kerberos authentication and	use. The level must be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'.  Should  you  use  a  level that is not one of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --krb clear	ftp://example.com/

	      See also --delegation and	--ssl. --krb requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append  this  option  to any ordinary curl command line, and you
	      will get libcurl-using C source code written to  the  file  that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last given  file  name
	      will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --libcurl client.c https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you	want curl to use - for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited  pipe  and  you would like your transfer not to use your
	      entire bandwidth.	To make	it slower than it otherwise would be.

	      The given	speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K'	will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or 'M'	makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes  it
	      gigabytes.  The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based. For ex-
	      ample 1k is 1024.	Examples: 200K,	3m and 1G.

	      The rate limiting	logic works on averaging the transfer speed to
	      no  more	than  the set threshold	over a period of multiple sec-
	      onds.

	      If you also use the --speed-limit	option,	that option will  take
	      precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help
	      keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --limit-rate 100K https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 1000 https://example.com
	       curl --limit-rate 10M https://example.com

	      See also -Y, --speed-limit and -y, --speed-time.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP POP3) (FTP) When listing  an	 FTP  directory,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 name-only view. This is especially useful if the user
	      wants to machine-parse the contents of an	 FTP  directory	 since
	      the  normal  directory view does not use a standard look or for-
	      mat. When	used like this,	the option causes an NLST  command  to
	      be sent to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note:  Some  FTP	servers	 list  only files in their response to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3) When retrieving a specific	email from POP3,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
	      particularly useful if the user wants to see if a	specific  mes-
	      sage-id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note:  When combined with	-X, --request, this option can be used
	      to send a	UIDL command instead, so the user may use the  email's
	      unique  identifier  rather  than	its message-id to make the re-
	      quest.

	      Example:
	       curl --list-only	ftp://example.com/dir/

	      See also -Q, --quote and -X, --request.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of  local  port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature are a scarce resource that	will be	busy at	times so  set-
	      ting  this range to something too	narrow might cause unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Example:
	       curl --local-port 1000-3000 https://example.com

	      See also -g, --globoff.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending  the  name  +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	site to	which you will send your authentication	info (which is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      Example:
	       curl --location-trusted -u user:password	https://example.com

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP) If	the server reports that	the requested page  has	 moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX response code), this option will make	curl redo the  request
	      on the new place.	If used	together with --include	or -I, --head,
	      headers from all requested pages will be shown. When authentica-
	      tion  is	used,  curl  only sends	its credentials	to the initial
	      host. If a redirect takes	curl to	a different host, it will  not
	      be  able	to  intercept  the user+password. See also --location-
	      trusted on how to	change this. You can limit the amount of redi-
	      rects to follow by using the --max-redirs	option.

	      When  curl  follows  a redirect and if the request is a POST, it
	      will send	the following request with a GET if the	HTTP  response
	      was  301,	 302,  or  303.	If the response	code was any other 3xx
	      code, curl will re-send the following request using the same un-
	      modified method.

	      You can tell curl	to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
	      response by using	the dedicated  options	for  that:  --post301,
	      --post302	and --post303.

	      The  method  set	with --request overrides the method curl would
	      otherwise	select to use.

	      Example:
	       curl -L https://example.com

	      See also --resolve and --alt-svc.

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP LDAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the	login options  to  use	during
	      server authentication.

	      You  can	use login options to specify protocol specific options
	      that may be used during authentication. At  present  only	 IMAP,
	      POP3  and	SMTP support login options. For	more information about
	      login options please see RFC  2384,  RFC	5092  and  IETF	 draft
	      draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --login-options 'AUTH=*' imap://example.com

	      See also -u, --user. Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
	      the authentication address (identity)  of	 a  submitted  message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-auth	user@example.come -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a single	address	that the given mail should get
	      sent from.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-from	user@example.com -T mail smtp://example.com/

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
	      (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
	      will  abort  SMTP	conversation if	at least one of	the recipients
	      causes RCPT TO command to	return an error.

	      The default behavior can be changed by  passing  --mail-rcpt-al-
	      lowfails	command-line option which will make curl ignore	errors
	      and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

	      If all recipients	trigger	RCPT TO	 failures  and	this  flag  is
	      specified,  curl	will still abort the SMTP conversation and re-
	      turn the error received from to the last RCPT TO command.

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt-allowfails --mail-rcpt dest@example.com	smtp://example.com

	      See also --mail-rcpt. Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single email address, user name or mailing list
	      name.  Repeat  this option several times to send to multiple re-
	      cipients.

	      When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the  re-
	      cipient  should  be  specified as	the user name or user name and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient  should  be	specified using	the mailing list name, such as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Example:
	       curl --mail-rcpt	user@example.net smtp://example.com

	      See also --mail-rcpt-allowfails.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

	      Example:
	       curl --manual

	      See also -v, --verbose, --libcurl	and --trace.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      (FTP HTTP	MQTT) Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to
	      download.	 If  the file requested	is larger than this value, the
	      transfer will not	start and curl will return with	exit code 63.

	      A	size modifier may be used. For example,	Appending 'k'  or  'K'
	      will  count  the	number	as  kilobytes,	'm'  or	 'M'  makes it
	      megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes	it gigabytes. Examples:	 200K,
	      3m and 1G. (Added	in 7.58.0)

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known	prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer ends up being	larger than this given limit.  Example:
	       curl --max-filesize 100K	https://example.com

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP)  Set maximum number of redirections to follow. When --lo-
	      cation is	used, to prevent curl from following  too  many	 redi-
	      rects,  by  default,  the	limit is set to	50 redirects. Set this
	      option to	-1 to make it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --max-redirs 3 --location https://example.com

	      See also -L, --location.

       -m, --max-time <fractional seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow each  transfer  to	 take.
	      This  is	useful for preventing your batch jobs from hanging for
	      hours due	to slow	networks or links going	down.	Since  7.32.0,
	      this  option accepts decimal values, but the actual timeout will
	      decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in deci-
	      mal precision.

	      If  you  enable retrying the transfer (--retry) then the maximum
	      time counter is reset each time the transfer is retried. You can
	      use --retry-max-time to limit the	retry time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --max-time 10 https://example.com
	       curl --max-time 2.92 https://example.com

	      See also --connect-timeout and --retry-max-time.

       --metalink
	      This  option was previously used to specify a metalink resource.
	      Metalink support has been	disabled in curl since 7.78.0 for  se-
	      curity reasons.

	      Example:
	       curl --metalink file https://example.com

	      See also -Z, --parallel.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This  option  requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup-
	      port. Use	--version to see if your curl supports GSS-API/SSPI or
	      SPNEGO.

	      When  using this option, you must	also provide a fake --user op-
	      tion to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u
	      :'  is  enough as	the user name and password from	the --user op-
	      tion are not actually used.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --negotiate	-u : https://example.com

	      See also --basic,	--ntlm,	--anyauth and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This  option  is similar to -n, --netrc, except that you provide
	      the path (absolute or relative) to  the  netrc  file  that  curl
	      should  use. You can only	specify	one netrc file per invocation.
	      If several --netrc-file options are provided, the	last one  will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-file netrc https://example.com

	      See  also	 -n, --netrc, -u, --user and -K, --config. This	option
	      is mutually exclusive to -n, --netrc.

       --netrc-optional
	      Similar to -n, --netrc, but this option makes the	 .netrc	 usage
	      optional and not mandatory as the	--netrc	option does.

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc-optional https://example.com

	      See  also	--netrc-file. This option is mutually exclusive	to -n,
	      --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user  authentication. See	netrc(5) and ftp(1) for	details	on the
	      file format. Curl	will not complain if that file does  not  have
	      the  right  permissions  (it should be neither world- nor	group-
	      readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the
	      home directory.

	      A	 quick	and  simple  example of	how to setup a .netrc to allow
	      curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user  name  'my-
	      self' and	password 'secret' could	look similar to:

	       machine host.domain.com
	       login myself
	       password	secret

	      Example:
	       curl --netrc https://example.com

	      See also --netrc-file, -K, --config and -u, --user.

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated options. This allows you  to  send  several  URL  re-
	      quests,  each with their own specific options, for example, such
	      as different user	names or custom	requests for each.

	      --next will reset	all local options and only  global  ones  will
	      have  their  values  survive over	to the operation following the
	      --next  instruction.  Global  options  include  -v,   --verbose,
	      --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For  example,  you can do	both a GET and a POST in a single com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Examples:
	       curl https://example.com	--next -d postthis www2.example.com
	       curl -I https://example.com --next https://example.net/

	      See also -Z, --parallel and -K, --config.	Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  de-
	      fault  if	 libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports
	      ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to  negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-alpn https://example.com

	      See  also	 --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use	a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-buffer	https://example.com

	      See also -#, --progress-bar.

       --no-clobber
	      When  used  in  conjunction with the -o, --output, -J, --remote-
	      header-name, -O, --remote-name,  or  --remote-name-all  options,
	      curl avoids overwriting files that already exist.	Instead, a dot
	      and a number gets	appended to the	name of	the file that would be
	      created,	up  to filename.100 after which	it will	not create any
	      file.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	documented.   You  can
	      thus  use	--clobber to enforce the clobbering, even if --remote-
	      header-name or -J	is specified.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-clobber --output local/dir/file https://example.com

	      See also -o, --output and	-O, --remote-name. Added in 7.83.0.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables the use of keepalive messages on	 the  TCP  connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-keepalive https://example.com

	      See also --keepalive-time.

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if  libcurl was built with an SSL	library	that supports NPN. NPN
	      is used by a libcurl that	supports HTTP/2	 to  negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-npn https://example.com

	      See  also	 --no-alpn and --http2.	--no-npn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
	      Option to	switch off the progress	meter output without muting or
	      otherwise	 affecting  warning  and  informational	 messages like
	      --silent does.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --progress-meter	to enable the progress meter again.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-progress-meter	-o store https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in	7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS)  Disable  curl's use of SSL	session-ID caching. By default
	      all transfers are	done using the cache. Note that	while  nothing
	      should  ever  get	 hurt  by attempting to	reuse SSL session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Example:
	       curl --no-sessionid https://example.com

	      See also -k, --insecure.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated list of hosts for	which not to use a  proxy,  if
	      one  is  specified.  The	only wildcard is a single * character,
	      which matches all	hosts, and  effectively	 disables  the	proxy.
	      Each  name in this list is matched as either a domain which con-
	      tains the	hostname, or the hostname  itself.  For	 example,  lo-
	      cal.com  would match local.com, local.com:80, and	www.local.com,
	      but not www.notlocal.com.

	      Since 7.53.0, This option	overrides  the	environment  variables
	      that  disable  the proxy ('no_proxy' and 'NO_PROXY'). If there's
	      an environment variable disabling	a proxy, you can set  the  no-
	      proxy list to "" to override it.

	      Example:
	       curl --noproxy "www.example" https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the authentication to the	separate binary	 ntlmauth  application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm-wb -u user:password https://example.com

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered	by clever peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior	should	not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
	      who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      Example:
	       curl --ntlm -u user:password https://example.com

	      See  also	 --proxy-ntlm.	--ntlm	requires  that	the underlying
	      libcurl was built	to support TLS.	This option is mutually	exclu-
	      sive to --basic and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP  LDAP  POP3	 SMTP HTTP) Specify the	Bearer Token for OAUTH
	      2.0 server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in  conjunc-
	      tion  with  the  user name which can be specified	as part	of the
	      --url or --user options.

	      The Bearer Token and user	name are formatted  according  to  RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --oauth2-bearer "mF_9.B5f-4.1JqM" https://example.com

	      See also --basic,	--ntlm and --digest. Added in 7.33.0.

       --output-dir <dir>

	      This  option  specifies  the  directory in which files should be
	      stored, when --remote-name or --output are used.

	      The given	output directory is used for all URLs and  output  op-
	      tions on the command line, up until the first -:,	--next.

	      If  the specified	target directory does not exist, the operation
	      will fail	unless --create-dirs is	also used.

	      If this option is	used multiple times, the last specified	direc-
	      tory will	be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --output-dir "tmp" -O https://example.com

	      See  also	 -O, --remote-name and -J, --remote-header-name. Added
	      in 7.73.0.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
	      can use '#' followed by a	number in the <file>  specifier.  That
	      variable	will  be  replaced with	the current string for the URL
	      being fetched. Like in:

	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.  For  example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and the order of the -o options and the URLs  does  not  matter,
	      just  that  the  first -o	is for the first URL and so on,	so the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See also the --create-dirs option	to create the  local  directo-
	      ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output	as '-' (a single dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      To  suppress  response  bodies,  you  can	 redirect  output   to
	      /dev/null:

		curl example.com -o /dev/null

	      Or for Windows use nul:

		curl example.com -o nul

	      Examples:
	       curl -o file https://example.com
	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"
	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"
	       curl -o file https://example.com	-o file2 https://example.net

	      See  also	-O, --remote-name, --remote-name-all and -J, --remote-
	      header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
	      When doing parallel transfers, this option  will	instruct  curl
	      that it should rather prefer opening up more connections in par-
	      allel at once rather than	waiting	to see if new transfers	can be
	      added as multiplexed streams on another connection.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-immediate -Z https://example.com	-o file1 https://example.com -o	file2

	      See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added	in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max <num>
	      When asked to do parallel	transfers, using -Z, --parallel,  this
	      option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do simultane-
	      ously.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      The default is 50.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel-max 100 -Z https://example.com ftp://example.com/

	      See also -Z, --parallel. Added in	7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
	      Makes  curl perform its transfers	in parallel as compared	to the
	      regular serial manner.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --parallel https://example.com -o file1 https://example.com	-o file2

	      See also -:, --next and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --pass secret --key	file https://example.com

	      See also --key and -u, --user.

       --path-as-is
	      Tell  curl  to  not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given
	      URL path.	Normally curl will squash or merge them	 according  to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Example:
	       curl --path-as-is https://example.com/../../etc/passwd

	      See also --request-target. Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the	specified  public key file (or
	      hashes) to verify	the peer. This can be a	path to	a  file	 which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'.

	      When  negotiating	 a  TLS	 or SSL	connection, the	server sends a
	      certificate indicating its identity. A public key	 is  extracted
	      from  this certificate and if it does not	exactly	match the pub-
	      lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:

	      7.39.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit

	      7.43.0: NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      sha256 support:

	      7.44.0: OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL

	      7.47.0: mbedtls

	      Other SSL	backends not supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc'	https://example.com

	      See also --hostpubsha256.	Added in 7.39.0.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may  require  a  POST to remain a	POST after such	a redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post301 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post302, --post303 and	-L, --location.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behavior is ubiquitous in	web browsers, so curl does the
	      conversion by default to maintain	consistency. However, a	server
	      may require a POST to remain a POST after	 such  a  redirection.
	      This option is meaningful	only when using	-L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post302 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post301, --post303 and	-L, --location.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	 303  redirections.  A
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
	      ion. This	option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

	      Example:
	       curl --post303 --location -d "data" https://example.com

	      See also --post302, --post301 and	-L, --location.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	SOCKS proxy before connecting to  an  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS  -x,  --proxy.  In	such a case curl first connects	to the
	      SOCKS proxy and then connects (through SOCKS)  to	 the  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix to  specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use  socks4://,
	      socks4a://,  socks5://  or  socks5h://  to  request the specific
	      SOCKS version to be used.	No protocol specified will  make  curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL  decoded by curl. This allows	you to pass in special charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --preproxy socks5://proxy.example -x http://http.example https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --socks5. Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl	display	transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
	      stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This  progress  bar draws	a single line of '#' characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For  transfers  without  a  known	size, there will be space ship
	      (-=o=-) that moves back and forth	but only while data  is	 being
	      transferred, with	a set of flying	hash sign symbols on top.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl -# -O https://example.com

	      See also --styled-output.

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      An unknown or unsupported	 protocol  causes  error  CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without this option set, curl guesses protocol based on the host
	      name, see	--url for details.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-default https ftp.example.com

	      See also --proto and --proto-redir. Added	in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells curl to limit what protocols it may	use on redirect.  Pro-
	      tocols  denied by	--proto	are not	overridden by this option. See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will only	allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS	on re-
	      direct (since 7.65.2). Specifying	all or +all enables all	proto-
	      cols on redirects, which is not good for security.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto-redir =http,https https://example.com

	      See also --proto.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells curl to limit what protocols it  may  use  for  transfers.
	      Protocols	 are evaluated left to right, are comma	separated, and
	      are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed  by  zero
	      or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list	 of  protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	 only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
		 ted), though subject to later modification by subsequent  en-
		 tries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

	      Unknown  protocols  produce  a  warning.	This allows scripts to
	      safely rely on being able	to disable potentially dangerous  pro-
	      tocols,  without	relying	 upon  support for that	protocol being
	      built into curl to avoid an error.

	      This option can be used multiple times, in which case the	effect
	      is  the same as concatenating the	protocols into one instance of
	      the option.

	      Example:
	       curl --proto =http,https,sftp https://example.com

	      See also --proto-redir and --proto-default.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating	with  the  given HTTP proxy. This might	cause an extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-anyauth --proxy-user user:passwd -x	proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Basic authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote host. Basic is the	 default  authentication  method  curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-basic --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cacert CA-file.txt -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      See  also	 --proxy-capath,  --cacert,  --capath and -x, --proxy.
	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-capath /local/directory -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cacert, -x,  --proxy  and  --capath.  Added  in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert-type PEM --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cert. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-cert file -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-cert-type. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers, --curves and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-crlfile rejects.txt	-x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile and -x, --proxy. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-digest --proxy-user	user:passwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --proxy-anyauth and	--proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the equivalent option to --header	but is for proxy communication
	      only like	in CONNECT requests when you want  a  separate	header
	      sent to the proxy	to what	is sent	to the actual remote host.

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers specified	with this option will not be included  in  re-
	      quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      Starting	in  7.55.0, this option	can take an argument in	@file-
	      name style, which	then adds a header for each line in the	 input
	      file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-header "X-First-Name: Joe" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "User-Agent:	surprise" -x http://proxy https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-header "Host:" -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-insecure -x	https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and -k, --insecure. Added in	7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key-type DER --proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-key and -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-key	here -x	https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-key-type	and -x,	--proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Negotiate	(SPNEGO)  authentication  when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-negotiate --proxy-user user:passwd -x proxy	https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP NTLM  authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ntlm --proxy-user user:passwd -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-pass secret	--proxy-key here -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-key. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to verify the proxy. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'.

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey keyfile https://example.com
	       curl --proxy-pinnedpubkey 'sha256//ce118b51897f4452dc' https://example.com

	      See also --pinnedpubkey and -x, --proxy. Added in	7.59.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for proxy  ne-
	      gotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-service-name "shrubbery" -x	proxy https://example.com

	      See also --service-name and -x, --proxy. Added in	7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-allow-beast -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also --ssl-allow-beast and -x, --proxy. Added	in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Same as --ssl-auto-client-cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See  also	 --ssl-auto-client-cert	 and  -x,  --proxy.  Added  in
	      7.77.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS) Specifies which cipher suites to use in the	connection  to
	      your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
	      suites must specify valid	ciphers. Read up  on  TLS  1.3	cipher
	      suite details on this URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This  option  is	currently  used	only when curl is built	to use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you  can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites by using the --proxy-
	      ciphers option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also --tls13-ciphers and --curves. Added in 7.61.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsauthtype	SRP -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlspassword	passwd -x https://proxy	https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlsuser.	Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsuser smith -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-tlspassword. Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS	proxy context.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-tlsv1 -x https://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy. Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for proxy  authentica-
	      tion.

	      If  you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Ne-
	      gotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to	select
	      the user name and	password from your environment by specifying a
	      single colon with	this option: "-U :".

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment  from  process listings. This is not	enough to protect cre-
	      dentials from possibly getting seen by other users on  the  same
	      system  as  they	will  still  be	 visible  for  a moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy-user name:pwd -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-pass.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The  proxy string	can be specified with a	protocol:// prefix. No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.

	      Unix domain sockets are supported	for socks proxy. Set localhost
	      for the host part. e.g. socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

	      HTTPS  proxy  support  via https:// protocol prefix was added in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized and unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause  an	 error
	      since  7.52.0.   Prior  versions may ignore the protocol and use
	      http:// instead.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This  option  overrides  existing	environment variables that set
	      the proxy	to use.	If there's an environment variable  setting  a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently be converted to HTTP. It	means  that  certain  protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the --proxytun-
	      nel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The  proxy host can be specified the same	way as the proxy envi-
	      ronment variables, including the protocol	prefix	(http://)  and
	      the embedded user	+ password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy http://proxy.example https://example.com

	      See also --socks5	and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  HTTP	 1.0  proxy. If	the port number	is not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy  option  -x,
	      --proxy,	is that	attempts to use	CONNECT	through	the proxy will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxy1.0 -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy, --socks5 and --preproxy.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy, this  option  will  make
	      curl  tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel approach is made with
	      the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the  proxy  al-
	      lows direct connect to the remote	port number curl wants to tun-
	      nel through to.

	      To suppress proxy	CONNECT	response headers when curl is  set  to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      Example:
	       curl --proxytunnel -x http://proxy https://example.com

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key  from	the private key	file, so passing this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

	      Example:
	       curl --pubkey file.pub sftp://example.com/

	      See also --pass.

       -Q, --quote <command>
	      (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
	      server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
	      (just after the initial PWD command in an	FTP  transfer,	to  be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix them with a dash '-'.

	      (FTP only) To make commands be sent after	curl has  changed  the
	      working  directory,  just	 before	 the file transfer command(s),
	      prefix the command with a	'+'. This is not performed when	a  di-
	      rectory listing is performed.

	      You may specify any number of commands.

	      By  default  curl	 will stop at first failure. To	make curl con-
	      tinue even if the	command	fails, prefix the command with an  as-
	      terisk  (*). Otherwise, if the server returns failure for	one of
	      the commands, the	entire operation will be aborted.

	      You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959  de-
	      fines  to	 FTP  servers,	or one of the commands listed below to
	      SFTP servers.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      SFTP is a	binary protocol. Unlike	for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
	      quote  commands  itself  before sending them to the server. File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.  Following  is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
	      mands:

	      atime date file
		     The atime command sets the	last access time of  the  file
		     named  by	the file operand. The <date expression>	can be
		     all sorts of date strings,	see  the  curl_getdate(3)  man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      chgrp group file
		     The  chgrp	command	sets the group ID of the file named by
		     the file operand to the group ID specified	by  the	 group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	command	creates	the directory named by the di-
		     rectory_name operand.

	      mtime date file
		     The mtime command sets the	last modification time of  the
		     file named	by the file operand. The <date expression> can
		     be	all sorts of date strings, see the curl_getdate(3) man
		     page for date expression details. (Added in 7.73.0)

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the  source  operand to the destination path named	by the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The  rmdir	 command removes the directory entry specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       Example:
	curl --quote "DELE file" ftp://example.com/foo

       See also	-X, --request.

       --random-file <file>
	      Deprecated option. This option is	ignored	by curl	since  7.84.0.
	      Prior  to	that it	only had an effect on curl if built to use old
	      versions of OpenSSL.

	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as  random  data.	The data may be	used to	seed the random	engine
	      for SSL connections.

	      Example:
	       curl --random-file rubbish https://example.com

	      See also --egd-file.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP FTP	SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
	      ment)  from  an  HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*) = NOTE that this will	cause the server to reply with a  mul-
	      tipart  response,	 which will be returned	as-is by curl! Parsing
	      or otherwise transforming	this response is the responsibility of
	      the caller.

	      Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in	the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields of	the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit  charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not  have
	      this  feature  enabled, so that when you attempt to get a	range,
	      you will instead get the whole document.

	      FTP and SFTP range downloads only	 support  the  simple  'start-
	      stop'  syntax  (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --range 22-44 https://example.com

	      See also -C, --continue-at and -a, --append.

       --rate <max request rate>
	      Specify the maximum transfer frequency you allow curl to	use  -
	      in number	of transfer starts per time unit (sometimes called re-
	      quest rate). Without this	 option,  curl	will  start  the  next
	      transfer as fast as possible.

	      If  given	 several URLs and a transfer completes faster than the
	      allowed rate, curl will wait until the next transfer is  started
	      to  maintain  the	requested rate.	This option has	no effect when
	      --parallel is used.

	      The request rate is provided as "N/U" where N is an integer num-
	      ber  and U is a time unit. Supported units are 's' (second), 'm'
	      (minute),	'h' (hour) and 'd' /(day, as in	a 24 hour  unit).  The
	      default  time  unit, if no "/U" is provided, is number of	trans-
	      fers per hour.

	      If curl is told to allow 10 requests per	minute,	 it  will  not
	      start  the  next	request	until 6	seconds	have elapsed since the
	      previous transfer	was started.

	      This function uses millisecond resolution. If the	 allowed  fre-
	      quency is	set more than 1000 per second, it will instead run un-
	      restricted.

	      When retrying transfers,	enabled	 with  --retry,	 the  separate
	      retry delay logic	is used	and not	this setting.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --rate 2/s https://example.com
	       curl --rate 3/h https://example.com
	       curl --rate 14/m	https://example.com

	      See also --limit-rate and	--retry-delay. Added in	7.84.0.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent or transfer encodings and instead makes them	passed on  un-
	      altered, raw.

	      Example:
	       curl --raw https://example.com

	      See also --tr-encoding.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the --header flag of course. When used
	      with  --location	you can	append ";auto" to the --referer	URL to
	      make curl	automatically set the previous URL when	it  follows  a
	      Location:	 header. The ";auto" string can	be used	alone, even if
	      you do not set an	initial	-e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example" https://example.com
	       curl --referer "https://fake.example;auto" -L https://example.com
	       curl --referer ";auto" -L https://example.com

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the --remote-name  option  to  use  the
	      server-specified	Content-Disposition  filename  instead	of ex-
	      tracting a filename from the URL.	If  the	 server-provided  file
	      name  contains a path, that will be stripped off before the file
	      name is used.

	      The file is saved	in the current directory, or in	the  directory
	      specified	with --output-dir.

	      If  the  server  specifies a file	name and a file	with that name
	      already exists in	the destination	 directory,  it	 will  not  be
	      overwritten  and	an  error  will	 occur.	If the server does not
	      specify a	file name then this option has no effect.

	      There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in	 the  provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING: Exercise	judicious use of this  option,	especially  on
	      Windows.	A  rogue  server  could	 send you the name of a	DLL or
	      other file that could be loaded automatically by Windows or some
	      third party software.

	      Example:
	       curl -OJ	https://example.com/file

	      See also -O, --remote-name.

       --remote-name-all
	      This  option changes the default action for all given URLs to be
	      dealt with as if --remote-name were used for each	one. So	if you
	      want  to disable that for	a specific URL after --remote-name-all
	      has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-name-all ftp://example.com/file1 ftp://example.com/file2

	      See also -O, --remote-name.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write output to a	local file named like the remote file we  get.
	      (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path	is cut
	      off.)

	      The file will be saved in	the current working directory. If  you
	      want  the	 file  saved  in  a different directory, make sure you
	      change the current working directory before invoking  curl  with
	      this option or use --output-dir.

	      The  remote  file	 name  to use for saving is extracted from the
	      given URL, nothing else, and if it already  exists  it  will  be
	      overwritten.  If	you  want  the server to be able to choose the
	      file name	refer to --remote-header-name which can	be used	in ad-
	      dition  to  this	option.	 If the	server chooses a file name and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other  URL  encoded parts	of the name, they will end up as-is as
	      file name.

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.

	      Example:
	       curl -O https://example.com/filename

	      See  also	 --remote-name-all,  --output-dir  and	-J,  --remote-
	      header-name.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make	curl attempt to	figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	the remote file, and if	that is	available make the lo-
	      cal file get that	same timestamp.

	      Example:
	       curl --remote-time -o foo https://example.com

	      See also -O, --remote-name and -z, --time-cond.

       --remove-on-error
	      When curl	returns	an error when told to save output in  a	 local
	      file,  this  option removes that saved file before exiting. This
	      prevents curl from leaving a partial file	in the case of an  er-
	      ror during transfer.

	      If the output is not a file, this	option has no effect.

	      Example:
	       curl --remove-on-error -o output	https://example.com

	      See also -f, --fail. Added in 7.83.0.

       --request-target	<path>
	      (HTTP)  Tells curl to use	an alternative "target"	(path) instead
	      of using the path	as provided in the  URL.  Particularly	useful
	      when  wanting  to	 issue	HTTP requests without leading slash or
	      other data that does not follow the regular  URL	pattern,  like
	      "OPTIONS *".

	      Example:
	       curl --request-target "*" -X OPTIONS https://example.com

	      See also -X, --request. Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <method>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing with the HTTP	server.	The specified request method  will  be
	      used  instead  of	 the  method otherwise used (which defaults to
	      GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for	details	 and  explana-
	      tions.  Common  additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally	you  do	 not need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This  option  only  changes the actual word used in the HTTP re-
	      quest, it	does not alter the way curl behaves. So	for example if
	      you  want	 to make a proper HEAD request,	using -X HEAD will not
	      suffice. You need	to use the --head option.

	      The method string	you set	with --request will be	used  for  all
	      requests,	 which if you for example use --location may cause un-
	      intended side-effects when curl does not change  request	method
	      according	to the HTTP 30x	response codes - and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR.

	      (IMAP)  Specifies	 a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -X "DELETE"	https://example.com
	       curl -X NLST ftp://example.com/

	      See also --request-target.

       --resolve <[+]host:port:addr[,addr]...>
	      Provide  a custom	address	for a specific host and	port pair. Us-
	      ing this,	you can	make the curl requests(s) use a	specified  ad-
	      dress  and prevent the otherwise normally	resolved address to be
	      used. Consider it	a sort of /etc/hosts alternative  provided  on
	      the  command line. The port number should	be the number used for
	      the specific protocol the	host will be used for.	It  means  you
	      need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
	      host but different ports.

	      By specifying '*'	as host	you can	tell curl to resolve any  host
	      and specific port	pair to	the specified address. Wildcard	is re-
	      solved last so any --resolve with	a specific host	and port  will
	      be used first.

	      The  provided  address  set  by this option will be used even if
	      --ipv4 or	--ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      By prefixing the host with a '+' you can make the	entry time out
	      after  curl's  default  timeout  (1 minute). Note	that this will
	      only make	sense for long running parallel	transfers with	a  lot
	      of files.	In such	cases, if this option is used curl will	try to
	      resolve the host as it normally would once the timeout  has  ex-
	      pired.

	      Support for providing the	IP address within [brackets] was added
	      in 7.57.0.

	      Support for providing multiple IP	addresses per entry was	 added
	      in 7.59.0.

	      Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

	      Support for the '+' prefix was was added in 7.75.0.

	      This option can be used many times to add	many host names	to re-
	      solve.

	      Example:
	       curl --resolve example.com:443:127.0.0.1	https://example.com

	      See also --connect-to and	--alt-svc.

       --retry-all-errors
	      Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

	      This option is the "sledgehammer"	of retrying. Do	not  use  this
	      option by	default	(eg in curlrc),	there may be unintended	conse-
	      quences such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not  use
	      with  redirected	input or output. You'd be much better off han-
	      dling your unique	problems in shell script. Please read the  ex-
	      ample below.

	      WARNING:	For server compatibility curl attempts to retry	failed
	      flaky transfers as close as possible to how they	were  started,
	      but  this	 is  not possible with redirected input	or output. For
	      example, before retrying it removes output data  from  a	failed
	      partial  transfer	 that  was  written to an output file. However
	      this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
	      are  not	reset.	We strongly suggest you	do not parse or	record
	      output via redirect in combination with this option,  since  you
	      may receive duplicate data.

	      By default curl will not error on	an HTTP	response code that in-
	      dicates an HTTP error, if	the transfer was successful. For exam-
	      ple,  if	a  server replies 404 Not Found	and the	reply is fully
	      received then that is not	an error. When --retry	is  used  then
	      curl  will retry on some HTTP response codes that	indicate tran-
	      sient HTTP errors, but that does not include most	 4xx  response
	      codes  such  as  404. If you want	to retry on all	response codes
	      that indicate HTTP errors	(4xx and 5xx) then  combine  with  -f,
	      --fail.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry 5 --retry-all-errors https://example.com

	      See also --retry.	Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In  addition to the other	conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
	      transient	error too for --retry. This option  is	used  together
	      with --retry.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-connrefused	--retry	https://example.com

	      See also --retry and --retry-all-errors. Added in	7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep	 this  amount of time before each retry	when a
	      transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes  the  de-
	      fault  backoff  time  algorithm between retries).	This option is
	      only interesting if --retry is also used.	Setting	this delay  to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-delay 5 --retry https://example.com

	      See also --retry.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The  retry timer is reset	before the first transfer attempt. Re-
	      tries will be done as usual (see --retry)	as long	as  the	 timer
	      has  not	reached	this given limit. Notice that if the timer has
	      not reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  per-
	      forming,	it  may	 take  longer  than this given time period. To
	      limit a single request's maximum time, use -m,  --max-time.  Set
	      this option to zero to not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry-max-time 30	--retry	10 https://example.com

	      See also --retry.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer,	it will	retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0	makes curl do no retries (which	is the
	      default).	Transient error	means either: a	timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 408, 429, 500, 502, 503 or 504 response
	      code.

	      When curl	is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
	      second  and  then	for all	forthcoming retries it will double the
	      waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
	      delay  between  the  rest	of the retries.	By using --retry-delay
	      you  disable  this  exponential  backoff	algorithm.  See	  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      Since  curl  7.66.0,  curl will comply with the Retry-After: re-
	      sponse header if one was present to know when to issue the  next
	      retry.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --retry 7 https://example.com

	      See also --retry-max-time.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
	      Use this authorization identity (authzid), during	SASL PLAIN au-
	      thentication, in addition	to the authentication identity	(auth-
	      cid) as specified	by -u, --user.

	      If  the  option is not specified,	the server will	derive the au-
	      thzid from the authcid, but if specified,	and depending  on  the
	      server  implementation,  it may be used to access	another	user's
	      inbox, that the user has been granted access  to,	 or  a	shared
	      mailbox for example.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-authzid zid imap://example.com/

	      See also --login-options.	Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Example:
	       curl --sasl-ir imap://example.com/

	      See also --sasl-authzid. Added in	7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	   --negotiate	  --service-name   sockd   would   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Example:
	       curl --service-name sockd/server	https://example.com

	      See also --negotiate and --proxy-service-name. Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --show-error --silent https://example.com

	      See also --no-progress-meter.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent or	quiet mode. Do not show	progress meter or  error  mes-
	      sages.  Makes  Curl  mute. It will still output the data you ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use  --show-error	in addition to this option to disable progress
	      meter but	still show error messages.

	      Example:
	       curl -s https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose, --stderr and --no-progress-meter.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied,  it	 is  assumed at	port 1080. Using this socket type make
	      curl resolve the host name and passing the  address  on  to  the
	      proxy.

	      To  specify  proxy  on  a	 unix domain socket, use localhost for
	      host, e.g.  socks4://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This  option is superfluous since	you can	specify	a socks4 proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks4a, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it	is assumed at port 1080. This asks the	proxy  to  re-
	      solve the	host name.

	      To  specify  proxy  on  a	 unix domain socket, use localhost for
	      host, e.g.  socks4a://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks4a hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks4, --socks5 and --socks5-hostname.

       --socks5-basic
	      Tells curl to use	username/password authentication when connect-
	      ing to a SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication  is
	      enabled  by  default.   Use --socks5-gssapi to force GSS-API au-
	      thentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-basic --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is  negoti-
	      ated.  RFC  1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected,
	      but the  NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.  The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec  allows the unprotected exchange of the pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-nec	--socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	  --socks5  proxy-name	--socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would use	sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-
	      service  sockd/real-name	would  use  sockd/real-name  for cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi-service sockd --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5.

       --socks5-gssapi
	      Tells curl to use	GSS-API	authentication when  connecting	 to  a
	      SOCKS5  proxy.  The GSS-API authentication is enabled by default
	      (if curl is compiled with	GSS-API	support).  Use	--socks5-basic
	      to force username/password authentication	to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-gssapi --socks5 hostname:4096 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5. Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy	(and let the proxy resolve the
	      host name). If the port number is	not specified, it  is  assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      To  specify  proxy  on  a	 unix domain socket, use localhost for
	      host, e.g.  socks5h://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This  option is superfluous since	you can	specify	a socks5 host-
	      name proxy with --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5-hostname proxy.example:7000 https://example.com

	      See also --socks5	and --socks4a.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name lo-
	      cally. If	the port number	is not specified,  it  is  assumed  at
	      port 1080.

	      To  specify  proxy  on  a	 unix domain socket, use localhost for
	      host, e.g.  socks5://localhost/path/to/socket.sock

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      This  option is superfluous since	you can	specify	a socks5 proxy
	      with --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	time --proxy is	used with an HTTP/HTTPS	proxy. In such
	      a	case curl first	connects to the	SOCKS proxy and	then  connects
	      (through SOCKS) to the HTTP or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This  option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Example:
	       curl --socks5 proxy.example:7000	https://example.com

	      See also --socks5-hostname and --socks4a.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a transfer is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond)  for	 speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time	is set
	      with --speed-time	and is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

	      See also -y, --speed-time, --limit-rate and -m, --max-time.

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a transfer runs slower	than speed-limit bytes per second dur-
	      ing  a speed-time	period,	the transfer is	aborted. If speed-time
	      is used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless	set  with  -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This option controls transfers (in both directions) but will not
	      affect slow connects etc.	If this	is a concern for you, try  the
	      --connect-timeout	option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --speed-limit 300 --speed-time 10 https://example.com

	      See also -Y, --speed-limit and --limit-rate.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols	known as BEAST.	 If this option	is not
	      used,  the SSL layer may use workarounds known to	cause interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations.

	      WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
	      flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-allow-beast https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-ssl-allow-beast and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-auto-client-cert
	      Tell  libcurl  to	automatically locate and use a client certifi-
	      cate for authentication, when requested by the server. This  op-
	      tion  is only supported for Schannel (the	native Windows SSL li-
	      brary). Prior to 7.77.0 this was the default behavior in libcurl
	      with Schannel. Since the server can request any certificate that
	      supports client authentication in	the OS	certificate  store  it
	      could be a privacy violation and unexpected.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-auto-client-cert https://example.com

	      See also --proxy-ssl-auto-client-cert. Added in 7.77.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to disable certificate revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-no-revoke https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile. Added	in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP  IMAP  POP3	SMTP LDAP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.
	      Terminates  the  connection  if  the  server  does  not  support
	      SSL/TLS.

	      This option is handled in	LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
	      supported	by the openldap	backend	and rejected  by  the  generic
	      ldap backend if explicit TLS is required.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-reqd ftp://example.com

	      See also --ssl and -k, --insecure.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
	      (Schannel)  This option tells curl to ignore certificate revoca-
	      tion checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution
	      points for the revocation	check lists.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl-revoke-best-effort https://example.com

	      See also --crlfile and -k, --insecure. Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP LDAP)	Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.
	      Reverts to a non-secure connection if the	server does  not  sup-
	      port SSL/TLS. See	also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for dif-
	      ferent levels of encryption required.

	      This option is handled in	LDAP since version 7.81.0. It is fully
	      supported	 by  the  openldap  backend and	ignored	by the generic
	      ldap backend.

	      Please note that a server	may close the connection if the	 nego-
	      tiation does not succeed.

	      This  option  was	 formerly known	as --ftp-ssl. That option name
	      can still	be used	but will be removed in a future	version.

	      Example:
	       curl --ssl pop3://example.com/

	      See also -k, --insecure and --ciphers.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv2, but	start-
	      ing  in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv2 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 6176).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv2 https://example.com

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -2, --sslv2  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl was built to support TLS. This option	is mu-
	      tually exclusive to -3, --sslv3 and -1,  --tlsv1	and  --tlsv1.1
	      and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) This option	previously asked curl to use SSLv3, but	start-
	      ing in curl 7.77.0 this instruction is ignored. SSLv3 is	widely
	      considered insecure (see RFC 7568).

	      Example:
	       curl --sslv3 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	option is  mu-
	      tually  exclusive	 to  -2, --sslv2 and -1, --tlsv1 and --tlsv1.1
	      and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr	<file>
	      Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead.  If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --stderr output.txt	https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
	      Enables the automatic use	of bold	font styles when writing  HTTP
	      headers  to  the terminal. Use --no-styled-output	to switch them
	      off.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --styled-output -I https://example.com

	      See also -I, --head and -v, --verbose. Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When  --proxytunnel is used and a	CONNECT	request	is made	do not
	      output proxy CONNECT response headers. This option is  meant  to
	      be  used	with --dump-header or --include	which are used to show
	      protocol headers in the output. It has no	effect	on  debug  op-
	      tions such as --verbose or --trace, or any statistics.

	      Example:
	       curl --suppress-connect-headers --include -x proxy https://example.com

	      See also -D, --dump-header, -i, --include	and -p,	--proxytunnel.
	      Added in 7.54.0.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-fastopen https://example.com

	      See also --false-start. Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since  7.50.2,  curl sets	this option by default and you need to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you do not want it on.

	      Example:
	       curl --tcp-nodelay https://example.com

	      See also -N, --no-buffer.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

	      Example:
	       curl -t TTYPE=vt100 telnet://example.com/

	      See also -K, --config.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-blksize 1024	tftp://example.com/file

	      See also --tftp-no-options.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This option improves interop with	some legacy  servers  that  do
	      not  acknowledge	or  properly implement TFTP options. When this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Example:
	       curl --tftp-no-options tftp://192.168.0.1/

	      See also --tftp-blksize. Added in	7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP FTP) Request a file	that has been modified later than  the
	      given  time  and date, or	one that has been modified before that
	      time. The	<date expression> can be all sorts of date strings  or
	      if  it  does not match any internal ones,	it is taken as a file-
	      name and tries to	get the	modification date (mtime) from	<file>
	      instead.	See  the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression
	      details.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	 document that is older	than the given date/time, default is a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Examples:
	       curl -z "Wed 01 Sep 2021	12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z "-Wed 01	Sep 2021 12:18:00" https://example.com
	       curl -z file https://example.com

	      See also --etag-compare and -R, --remote-time.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
	      acceptable  version  is  set  by	tlsv1.0,  tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2 or
	      tlsv1.3.

	      If the connection	is done	without	TLS, this option  has  no  ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       Examples:
	curl --tls-max 1.2 https://example.com
	curl --tls-max 1.3 --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

       See  also  --tlsv1.0, --tlsv1.1,	--tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3. --tls-max re-
       quires that the underlying libcurl was built to support TLS.  Added  in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection if
	      it negotiates TLS	1.3. The list of ciphers suites	 must  specify
	      valid  ciphers.  Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details on this
	      URL:

	       https://curl.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This option is currently used only when curl  is	built  to  use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the --ciphers
	      option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --tls13-ciphers TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 https://example.com

	      See also --ciphers and --curves. Added in	7.61.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set  TLS	authentication type. Currently,	the only supported op-
	      tion  is	"SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword  are specified but --tlsauthtype is	not, then this
	      option defaults to "SRP".	This option works only if the underly-
	      ing  libcurl  is	built  with  TLS-SRP  support,	which requires
	      OpenSSL or GnuTLS	with TLS-SRP support.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsauthtype SRP https://example.com

	      See also --tlsuser.

       --tlspassword <string>
	      Set password for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      This option does not work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      See also --tlsuser.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set  username  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	 that  --tlspassword  also  is
	      set.

	      This option does not work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlspassword pwd --tlsuser	user https://example.com

	      See also --tlspassword.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.0	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.0.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.0 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3. Added	in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.1	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.1.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.1 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max.	Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.2	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_ TLS 1.2.  That behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.2 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.3 and --tls-max.	Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.3	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      If the connection	is done	without	TLS, this option  has  no  ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is not supported by all	TLS backends.

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1.3 https://example.com

	      See also --tlsv1.2 and --tls-max.	Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL)  Tells curl	to use at least	TLS version 1.x	when negotiat-
	      ing with a remote	TLS server. That  means	 TLS  version  1.0  or
	      higher

	      Example:
	       curl --tlsv1 https://example.com

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -1, --tlsv1 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	option is  mu-
	      tually exclusive to --tlsv1.1 and	--tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of the algorithms	curl supports, and uncompress the  data	 while
	      receiving	it.

	      Example:
	       curl --tr-encoding https://example.com

	      See also --compressed.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only
	      shows the	ASCII part of the dump.	It makes smaller  output  that
	      might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-ascii log.txt https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and --trace. This option is mutually  ex-
	      clusive to --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a  time	 stamp to each trace or	verbose	line that curl
	      displays.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace-time --trace-ascii output https://example.com

	      See also --trace and -v, --verbose.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
	      "-"  as  filename	 to have the output sent to stdout. Use	"%" as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl --trace log.txt https://example.com

	      See also --trace-ascii and --trace-time. This option is mutually
	      exclusive	to -v, --verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Example:
	       curl --unix-socket socket-path https://example.com

	      See also --abstract-unix-socket. Added in	7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This  transfers  the  specified local file to the	remote URL. If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	to really prove	to Curl	that there is no file name  or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use the file name	"-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
	      given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a	single period)
	      may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
	      mode  to	allow  reading	server output while stdin is being up-
	      loaded.

	      You can specify one --upload-file	for each URL  on  the  command
	      line. Each -T, --upload-file + URL pair specifies	what to	upload
	      and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the --upload-file
	      argument,	meaning	that you can upload multiple files to a	single
	      URL by using the same URL	globbing style supported in the	URL.

	      When uploading to	an SMTP	server:	the uploaded data  is  assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers and mail body formatted correctly	by the	user  as  curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

	      Examples:
	       curl -T file https://example.com
	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/
	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" https://example.com

	      See also -G, --get and -I, --head.

       --url <url>
	      Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly	handy when you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If the given URL is missing a scheme name	(such as "http://"  or
	      "ftp://"	etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If
	      the outermost sub-domain name matches  DICT,  FTP,  IMAP,	 LDAP,
	      POP3  or	SMTP  then  that protocol will be used,	otherwise HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This  option  may	 be used any number of times. To control where
	      this URL is written, use the --output or the  --remote-name  op-
	      tions.

	      WARNING:	On  Windows,  particular  file:// accesses can be con-
	      verted to	network	accesses by the	operating system. Beware!

	      Example:
	       curl --url https://example.com

	      See also -:, --next and -K, --config.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP LDAP) Enable	ASCII transfer.	For FTP, this can also be  en-
	      forced  by  using	 a  URL	 that ends with	";type=A". This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

	      Example:
	       curl -B ftp://example.com/README

	      See also --crlf and --data-ascii.

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To  encode blanks	in the string, surround	the string with	single
	      quote marks. This	header can also	be set with  the  --header  or
	      the --proxy-header options.

	      If  you give an empty argument to	-A, --user-agent (""), it will
	      remove the header	completely from	the request. If	you  prefer  a
	      blank header, you	can set	it to a	single space ("	").

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -A "Agent 007" https://example.com

	      See also -H, --header and	--proxy-header.

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you simply specify the	user name,  curl  will	prompt	for  a
	      password.

	      The  user	 name  and  passwords are split	up on the first	colon,
	      which makes it impossible	to use a colon in the user  name  with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment from	process	listings. This is not enough to	 protect  cre-
	      dentials	from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
	      system as	they  will  still  be  visible	for  a	moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based  server  you	should
	      include  the  Windows domain name	in the user name, in order for
	      the server to successfully obtain	a Kerberos Ticket. If  you  do
	      not, then	the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When  using  NTLM,  the user name	can be specified simply	as the
	      user name, without the domain, if	there is a single  domain  and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To  specify  the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If  you  use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Ker-
	      beros V5,	Negotiate, NTLM	or Digest authentication then you  can
	      tell  curl  to select the	user name and password from your envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -u user:secret https://example.com

	      See also -n, --netrc and -K, --config.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes curl verbose during	the operation.	Useful	for  debugging
	      and  seeing  what's  going  on "under the	hood". A line starting
	      with '>' means "header data" sent	by  curl,  '<'	means  "header
	      data"  received  by  curl	 that is hidden	in normal cases, and a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If you only want HTTP headers in the output, --include might  be
	      the option you are looking for.

	      If you think this	option still does not give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      Use --silent to make curl	really quiet.

	      Example:
	       curl --verbose https://example.com

	      See  also	 -i,  --include.  This option is mutually exclusive to
	      --trace and --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The first	line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The  second  line	(starts	with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      alt-svc
		     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is	provided.

	      AsynchDNS
		     This  curl	 uses asynchronous name	resolves. Asynchronous
		     name resolves can be done using either the	c-ares or  the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

	      CharConv
		     curl was built with support for character set conversions
		     (like EBCDIC)

	      Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug.	 This  enables
		     more  error-tracking  and memory debugging	etc. For curl-
		     developers	only!

	      gsasl  The built-in SASL authentication includes	extensions  to
		     support SCRAM because libcurl was built with libgsasl.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      HSTS   HSTS support is present.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      Kerberos
		     Kerberos V5 authentication	is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      libz   Automatic decompression (via gzip,	deflate) of compressed
		     files over	HTTP is	supported.

	      MultiSSL
		     This curl supports	multiple TLS backends.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      NTLM_WB
		     NTLM delegation to	winbind	helper is supported.

	      PSL    PSL  is  short for	Public Suffix List and means that this
		     curl has been built with  knowledge  about	 "public  suf-
		     fixes".

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols	are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote	Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      TrackMemory
		     Debug memory tracking is supported.

	      Unicode
		     Unicode support on	Windows.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

	      zstd   Automatic	decompression  (via  zstd) of compressed files
		     over HTTP is supported.

       Example:
	curl --version

       See also	-h, --help and -M, --manual.

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer.  The	 format	 is a string that may contain plain text mixed
	      with any number of variables. The	format can be specified	 as  a
	      literal  "string",  or  you can have curl	read the format	from a
	      file with	"@filename" and	to tell	curl to	read the  format  from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will	be substituted
	      by the value or text that	curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
	      normal % you just	write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      The  output  will	be written to standard output, but this	can be
	      switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

	      Output HTTP headers  from	 the  most  recent  request  by	 using
	      %header{name}  where  name  is  the case insensitive name	of the
	      header (without the trailing colon). The header contents are ex-
	      actly as sent over the network, with leading and trailing	white-
	      space trimmed. Added in curl 7.84.0.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where  all  occurrences of % must	be doubled when	using this op-
	      tion.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The Content-Type of the  requested	 document,  if
			     there was any.

	      errormsg	     The error message.	(Added in 7.75.0)

	      exitcode	     The numerical exitcode of the transfer. (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that	curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to	a file with the	--remote-name or --output  op-
			     tion.  It's  most	useful in combination with the
			     --remote-header-name option.

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server.

	      header_json    A JSON object with	all HTTP response headers from
			     the recent	transfer. Values are provided  as  ar-
			     rays, since in the	case of	multiple headers there
			     can be multiple values.

			     The header	names provided in lowercase, listed in
			     order of appearance over the wire.	Except for du-
			     plicated headers. They are	grouped	on  the	 first
			     occurrence	 of  that  header,  each value is pre-
			     sented in the JSON	array.

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer.

	      http_connect   The numerical code	that was found in the last re-
			     sponse (from a proxy) to a	curl CONNECT request.

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      json	     A JSON object with	all available keys.

	      local_ip	     The  IP  address of the local end of the most re-
			     cently done connection - can be  either  IPv4  or
			     IPv6.

	      local_port     The  local	 port number of	the most recently done
			     connection.

	      method	     The http method used in the most recent HTTP  re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.72.0)

	      num_connects   Number  of	new connects made in the recent	trans-
			     fer.

	      num_headers    The number	of response headers in the most	recent
			     request  (restarted  at each redirect). Note that
			     the status	 line  IS  NOT	a  header.  (Added  in
			     7.73.0)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
			     quest.

	      onerror	     The rest of the  output  is  only	shown  if  the
			     transfer  returned	 a  non-zero  error  (Added in
			     7.75.0)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without  --location
			     to	 follow	 redirects  (or	 when  --max-redirs is
			     met), this	variable will show the	actual	URL  a
			     redirect would have gone to.

	      referer	     The  Referer: header, if there was	any. (Added in
			     7.76.0)

	      remote_ip	     The remote	IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection	- can be either	IPv4 or	IPv6.

	      remote_port    The  remote port number of	the most recently done
			     connection.

	      response_code  The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last transfer (formerly known as "http_code").

	      scheme	     The  URL  scheme (sometimes called	protocol) that
			     was effectively used. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that  were  downloaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     ferred, excluding headers.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The  total	 amount	of bytes that were sent	in the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of  bytes	 that  were  uploaded.
			     This is the size of the body/data that was	trans-
			     ferred, excluding headers.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The  average  upload speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the SSL peer	certificate  verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful.

	      stderr	     From this point on, the --write-out  output  will
			     be	written	to standard error. (Added in 7.63.0)

	      stdout	     From  this	 point on, the --write-out output will
			     be	written	to standard output.  This is  the  de-
			     fault,  but  can  be  used	 to  switch back after
			     switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the re-
			     mote host was completed.

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the TCP connect to the	remote host (or	proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the name resolving was	completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the file transfer was just  about  to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before  the	 final transaction was
			     started. time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion time for multiple redirections.

	      time_starttransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the first byte	was just about	to  be	trans-
			     ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
			     the time the server needed	to calculate  the  re-
			     sult.

	      time_total     The  total	time, in seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url	     The URL that was fetched. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      urlnum	     The URL index number of this transfer, 0-indexed.
			     De-globbed	 URLs  share  the same index number as
			     the origin	globbed	URL. (Added in 7.75.0)

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful  if	you have told curl to follow location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Example:
	       curl -w '%{http_code}\n'	https://example.com

	      See also -v, --verbose and -I, --head.

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option	tells  curl  to	 store
	      certain  file  metadata  in extended file	attributes. Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute.	If the
	      file system does not support extended attributes,	a  warning  is
	      issued.

	      Example:
	       curl --xattr -o storage https://example.com

	      See also -R, --remote-time, -w, --write-out and -v, --verbose.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see --config	for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment variable to set the proxy	has the	same effect as
       using the --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the  pro-
	      tocol  is	 a  protocol  that curl	supports and as	specified in a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP, etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use if no  protocol-specific  proxy  is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
	      list  of host names that should not go through any proxy.	If set
	      to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
	      list is matched as either	a domain name which contains the host-
	      name, or the hostname itself.

	      This environment variable	disables use of	the  proxy  even  when
	      specified	with the --proxy option. That is NO_PROXY=direct.exam-
	      ple.com  curl  -x	 http://proxy.example.com  http://direct.exam-
	      ple.com  accesses	 the  target  URL  directly,  and NO_PROXY=di-
	      rect.example.com curl -x	http://proxy.example.com  http://some-
	      where.example.com	accesses the target URL	through	the proxy.

	      The  list	 of  host  names  can also be include numerical	IP ad-
	      dresses, and IPv6	versions should	then be	given without  enclos-
	      ing brackets.

	      IPv6  numerical  addresses are compared as strings, so they will
	      only match if the	representations	are the	 same:	"::1"  is  the
	      same as "::0:1" but they do not match.

       APPDATA <dir>
	      On  Windows,  this variable is used when trying to find the home
	      directory. If the	primary	home variable are all unset.

       COLUMNS <terminal width>
	      If set, the specified number of characters will be used  as  the
	      terminal	width  when  the alternative progress-bar is shown. If
	      not set, curl will try to	figure it out using other ways.

       CURL_CA_BUNDLE <file>
	      If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       CURL_HOME <dir>
	      If set, is the first variable curl checks	when  trying  to  find
	      its  home	 directory. If not set,	it continues to	check XDG_CON-
	      FIG_HOME.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND	<TLS backend>
	      If curl was built	with support for "MultiSSL", meaning  that  it
	      has  built-in  support for more than one TLS backend, this envi-
	      ronment variable can be set to the case insensitive name of  the
	      particular  backend  to use when curl is invoked.	Setting	a name
	      that is not a built-in alternative will make curl	stay with  the
	      default.

	      SSL  backend  names  (case-insensitive): bearssl,	gnutls,	gskit,
	      mbedtls, nss, openssl, rustls, schannel, secure-transport, wolf-
	      ssl

       HOME <dir>
	      If  set,	this  is  used to find the home	directory when that is
	      needed. Like when	looking	for the	default	.curlrc. CURL_HOME and
	      XDG_CONFIG_HOME have preference.

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
	      If  curl was built with HTTP/3 support, setting this environment
	      variable to a local directory will make curl  produce  qlogs  in
	      that  directory,	using  file  names named after the destination
	      connection id (in	hex). Do note  that  these  files  can	become
	      rather large. Works with both QUIC backends.

       SHELL  Used  on	VMS  when  trying to detect if using a DCL or a	"unix"
	      shell.

       SSL_CERT_DIR <dir>
	      If set, will be used as the --capath value.

       SSL_CERT_FILE <path>
	      If set, will be used as the --cacert value.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
	      If you set this environment variable to a	file name,  curl  will
	      store TLS	secrets	from its connections in	that file when invoked
	      to enable	you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using net-
	      work analyzing tools such	as Wireshark. This works with the fol-
	      lowing TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL,  GnuTLS,  NSS
	      and wolfSSL.

       USERPROFILE <dir>
	      On  Windows,  this variable is used when trying to find the home
	      directory. If the	other, primary,	variable  are  all  unset.  If
	      set, curl	will use the path "$USERPROFILE\Application Data".

       XDG_CONFIG_HOME <dir>
	      If  CURL_HOME  is	not set, this variable is checked when looking
	      for a default .curlrc file.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       The proxy string	may be specified with a	protocol:// prefix to  specify
       alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no  protocol	is specified in	the proxy string or if the string does
       not match a supported one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
	      Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy.	The default if no scheme  pre-
	      fix is used.

       https://
	      Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding er-
       ror messages that may appear under error	conditions.  At	 the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       0      Success.	The  operation completed successfully according	to the
	      instructions.

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	 feature  or option that was needed to perform the desired re-
	      quest was	not enabled or was explicitly disabled at  build-time.
	      To make curl able	to do this, you	probably need another build of
	      libcurl.

       5      Could not	resolve	proxy. The given proxy host could not  be  re-
	      solved.

       6      Could  not  resolve host.	The given remote host could not	be re-
	      solved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl could not parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource	or directory you wanted	to reach. Most
	      often you	tried to change	to a directory that does not exist  on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While	waiting	for the	server to connect back
	      when an active FTP session is used, an error code	was sent  over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP weird	PASS reply. Curl could not parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During an	active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP weird	PASV reply, Curl could not parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird	227 format. Curl could	not  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP cannot use host. Could not resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP could	not set	binary.	Could not change  transfer  method  to
	      binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP could	not download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP page	not retrieved. The requested URL was not found or  re-
	      turned  another  error  with  the	 HTTP  error code being	400 or
	      above. This return code only appears if --fail is	used.

       23     Write error. Curl	could not write	data to	a local	filesystem  or
	      similar.

       25     FTP  could  not STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	timeout. The specified time-out	period was reached ac-
	      cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT	 failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
	      support the PORT command,	try doing a transfer  using  PASV  in-
	      stead!

       31     FTP could	not use	REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" did	not work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Could not continue an earlier aborted down-
	      load.

       37     FILE could not read file.	Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	error. A specified outgoing  interface	could  not  be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl.  This  indicates  that  you
	      passed  a	weird option to	curl that was passed on	to libcurl and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       52     The server did not reply anything, which here is	considered  an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Could not	use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer  certificate	cannot be authenticated	with known CA certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not  accepted  and  curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       77     Problem reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not	load CRL file, missing or wrong	format.

       83     Issuer check failed.

       84     The FTP PRET command failed.

       85     Mismatch of RTSP CSeq numbers.

       86     Mismatch of RTSP Session Identifiers.

       87     Unable to	parse FTP file list.

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error.

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued.

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key.

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication	function returned an error.

       95     A	 problem  was  detected	 in the	HTTP/3 layer. This is somewhat
	      generic and can be one out of several problems,  see  the	 error
	      message for details.

       96     QUIC  connection	error.	This error may be caused by an SSL li-
	      brary error. QUIC	is the protocol	used for HTTP/3	transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

BUGS
       If  you	experience  any	 problems  with	 curl,	submit an issue	in the
       project's bug tracker on	GitHub:	https://github.com/curl/curl/issues

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

curl 7.85.0			August 30 2022			       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | OUTPUT | PROTOCOLS | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | BUGS | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=curl&manpath=FreeBSD+13.1-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help