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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options / URLs]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool	to transfer data from or to a server, using one	of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE,	FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,	 IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  MQTT, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTMPS, RTSP, SCP, SFTP,
       SMB, SMBS, SMTP,	SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command  is  designed  to
       work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,	and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features	will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces and quoting the URL as in:

	 "http://site.{one,two,three}.com"

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt"

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt"    (with leading zeros)

	 "ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt"

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 "http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html"

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched	in a sequential	manner in the specified	order. You can specify
       command line options and	URLs mixed and in any  order  on  the  command
       line.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 "http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt"

	 "http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt"

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 "http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/"

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invokes.

PROTOCOLS
       curl supports numerous protocols, or put	in URL	terms:	schemes.  Your
       particular build	may not	support	them all.

       DICT   Lets you lookup words using online dictionaries.

       FILE   Read  or	write  local  files.  curl  does not support accessing
	      file:// URL remotely, but	when running on	Microsft Windows using
	      the native UNC approach will work.

       FTP(S) curl  supports  the  File	Transfer Protocol with a lot of	tweaks
	      and levers. With or without using	TLS.

       GOPHER Retrieve files.

       HTTP(S)
	      curl supports HTTP with numerous options and variations. It  can
	      speak HTTP version 0.9, 1.0, 1.1,	2 and 3	depending on build op-
	      tions and	the correct command line options.

       IMAP(S)
	      Using the	mail reading protocol, curl can	"download" emails  for
	      you. With	or without using TLS.

       LDAP(S)
	      curl can do directory lookups for	you, with or without TLS.

       MQTT   curl supports MQTT version 3. Downloading	over MQTT equals "sub-
	      scribe" to a topic while uploading/posting equals	"publish" on a
	      topic.  MQTT  support  is	experimental and TLS based MQTT	is not
	      supported	(yet).

       POP3(S)
	      Downloading from a pop3 server means getting  a  mail.  With  or
	      without using TLS.

       RTMP(S)
	      The  Realtime  Messaging	Protocol  is  primarily	used to	server
	      streaming	media and curl can download it.

       RTSP   curl supports RTSP 1.0 downloads.

       SCP    curl supports SSH	version	2 scp transfers.

       SFTP   curl supports SFTP (draft	5) done	over SSH version 2.

       SMB(S) curl supports SMB	version	1 for upload and download.

       SMTP(S)
	      Uploading	contents to an SMTP server  means  sending  an	email.
	      With or without TLS.

       TELNET Telling curl to fetch a telnet URL starts	an interactive session
	      where it sends what it reads  on	stdin  and  outputs  what  the
	      server sends it.

       TFTP   curl can do TFTP downloads and uploads.

PROGRESS METER
       curl  normally  displays	a progress meter during	operations, indicating
       the amount of transferred data,	transfer  speeds  and  estimated  time
       left,  etc.  The	progress meter displays	number of bytes	and the	speeds
       are in bytes per	second.	The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are  1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl  displays  this  data to the terminal by default, so if you	invoke
       curl to do an operation and it is about to write	data to	the  terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	 the  response output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o,
       --output	or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation	does not  spit
       out any response	data to	the terminal.

       If  you	prefer	a  progress  "bar"  instead  of	the regular meter, -#,
       --progress-bar is your friend. You can also disable the progress	 meter
       completely with the -s, --silent	option.

OPTIONS
       Options	start  with  one or two	dashes.	Many of	the options require an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d	for  example,  may  be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	-d, --data for
       example,	requires a space between it and	its value.

       Short version options that don't	need any additional values can be used
       immediately next	to each	other, like for	example	you  can  specify  all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option  name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show the	--option version of them. (This	concept	with --no options  was
       added  in  7.19.0.  Previously  most options were toggled on/off	on re-
       peated use of the same command line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through an	abstract Unix domain  socket,  instead
	      of  using	 the  network.	Note: netstat shows the	path of	an ab-
	      stract socket prefixed with '@',	however	 the  <path>  argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Added in 7.53.0.

       --alt-svc <file name>
	      (HTTPS) WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in pro-
	      duction.

	      This option enables the alt-svc parser in	curl. If the file name
	      points to	an existing alt-svc cache file,	that will be used. Af-
	      ter a completed transfer,	the cache will be saved	 to  the  file
	      name again if it has been	modified.

	      Specify a	"" file	name (zero length) to avoid loading/saving and
	      make curl	just handle the	cache in memory.

	      If this option is	used several times, curl  will	load  contents
	      from all the files but the last one will be used for saving.

	      Added in 7.64.1.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method, which you	can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since it may require data	to be sent twice and then  the	client
	      must  be able to rewind. If the need should arise	when uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target  file  instead  of	 overwriting  it.  If  the remote file
	      doesn't exist, it	will be	created.  Note that this flag  is  ig-
	      nored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       --basic
	      (HTTP)  Tells curl to use	HTTP Basic authentication with the re-
	      mote host. This is the default and this option is	usually	point-
	      less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
	      sets a different authentication method (such  as	--ntlm,	 --di-
	      gest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<file>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the peer.	The file may contain  multiple	CA  certificates.  The
	      certificate(s)  must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl  recognizes the environment variable	named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if it is set, and	uses the given path as a path  to  a  CA  cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The  windows  version  of	 curl will automatically look for a CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If curl is built against	the  NSS  SSL  library,	 the  NSS  PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be	available for this op-
	      tion to work properly.

	      (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure  Transport,
	      then  this  option  is supported for backward compatibility with
	      other SSL	engines, but it	should not be set. If  the  option  is
	      not  set,	 then curl will	use the	certificates in	the system and
	      user Keychain to verify the peer,	which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      (Schannel	only) This option is supported for Schannel in Windows
	      7	or later with libcurl 7.60 or later. This option is  supported
	      for backward compatibility with other SSL	engines; instead it is
	      recommended to use Windows' store	of root	certificates (the  de-
	      fault for	Schannel).

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl to use	the specified certificate directory to
	      verify the peer. Multiple	paths can be  provided	by  separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be in PEM	format,	and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the  di-
	      rectory must have	been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
	      plied with OpenSSL. Using	 --capath  can	allow  OpenSSL-powered
	      curl  to	make  SSL-connections much more	efficiently than using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

       --cert-status
	      (TLS)  Tells curl	to verify the status of	the server certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If  this option is enabled and the server	sends an invalid (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate	has  been  revoked, or no response at all is received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	 OpenSSL,  GnuTLS  and
	      NSS backends.

	      Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  what type the	provided client	certificate is
	      using. PEM, DER, ENG and P12 are recognized types.  If not spec-
	      ified, PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -E, --cert and --key and	--key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use the specified client certificate file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col.  The	 certificate must be in	PKCS#12	format if using	Secure
	      Transport, or PEM	format if using	any other engine.  If the  op-
	      tional  password	isn't specified, it will be queried for	on the
	      terminal.	Note that this option  assumes	a  "certificate"  file
	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
	      See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If curl is built against the NSS SSL library  then  this	option
	      can  tell	curl the nickname of the certificate to	use within the
	      NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or  by
	      default  /etc/pki/nssdb).	 If  the  NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (lib-
	      nsspem.so) is available then PEM files may  be  loaded.  If  you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with "./"	prefix,	in order to avoid confusion with  a  nickname.
	      If  the nickname contains	":", it	needs to be preceded by	"\" so
	      that it is not recognized	as password delimiter.	If  the	 nick-
	      name  contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it is
	      not recognized as	an escape character.

	      If curl is built against OpenSSL library,	and the	engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify a certificate	located	in a PKCS#11 device. A	string	begin-
	      ning  with  "pkcs11:" will be interpreted	as a PKCS#11 URI. If a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --cert-type	option will be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      (iOS and macOS only) If curl is built against Secure  Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private key in the system or	user keychain, or the path  to
	      a	 PKCS#12-encoded  certificate  and private key.	If you want to
	      use a file from the current directory, please  precede  it  with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      (Schannel	 only) Client certificates must	be specified by	a path
	      expression to a certificate store.  (Loading  PFX	 is  not  sup-
	      ported; you can import it	to a store first). You can use "<store
	      location>\<store name>\<thumbprint>" to refer to	a  certificate
	      in   the	 system	 certificates  store,  for  example,  "Curren-
	      tUser\MY\934a7ac6f8a5d579285a74fa61e19f23ddfe8d7a".   Thumbprint
	      is  usually  a SHA-1 hex string which you	can see	in certificate
	      details. Following store locations are  supported:  CurrentUser,
	      LocalMachine,  CurrentService, Services, CurrentUserGroupPolicy,
	      LocalMachineGroupPolicy, LocalMachineEnterprise.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --cert-type and --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of  ciphers  must	 specify  valid	ciphers. Read up on SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --compressed-ssh
	      (SCP SFTP) Enables built-in SSH compression.  This is a request,
	      not an order; the	server may or may not do it.

	      Added in 7.56.0.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl supports, and automatically decompress the content. Headers
	      are not modified.

	      If  this	option is used and the server sends an unsupported en-
	      coding, curl will	report an error.

       -K, --config <file>

	      Specify a	text file to read curl	arguments  from.  The  command
	      line  arguments  found  in the text file will be used as if they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options and their	parameters must	be specified on	the same  line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long option names	can optionally be given	 in  the  config  file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with  one	or two dashes, there can be no colon or	equals charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter contains	whitespace (or starts with  :  or  =),
	      the  parameter  must  be	enclosed  within quotes. Within	double
	      quotes, the following escape sequences are  available:  \\,  \",
	      \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter	is ig-
	      nored. If	the first column of a config line is a '#'  character,
	      the  rest	 of  the line will be treated as a comment. Only write
	      one option per physical line in the config file.

	      Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to  make  curl  read
	      the file from stdin.

	      Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
	      need to specify it using the --url option,  and  not  by	simply
	      writing  the  URL	 on its	own line. So, it could look similar to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      When curl	is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is	 used)	checks
	      for a default config file	and uses it if found. The default con-
	      fig file is checked for in the following places in this order:

	      1) curl tries to find the	"home dir": It first  checks  for  the
	      CURL_HOME	and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
	      it uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the  home
	      dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
	      checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
	      PROFILE%\Application Data'.

	      2)  On  windows, if there	is no .curlrc file in the home dir, it
	      checks for one in	the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
	      Unix-like	 systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
	      determined home dir.

	      #	--- Example file ---
	      #	this is	a comment
	      url = "example.com"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      #	and fetch another URL too
	      url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer =	"http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	      #	--- End	of example file	---

	      This option can be used multiple times to	load  multiple	config
	      files.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con-
	      nects  within the	given period it	will continue -	if not it will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request  to  the	given  HOST1:PORT1  pair,  connect  to
	      HOST2:PORT2 instead.  This option	is suitable to direct requests
	      at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster node in a clus-
	      ter  of  servers.	This option is only used to establish the net-
	      work connection. It does NOT affect the  hostname/port  that  is
	      used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate verification) or for the
	      application protocols. "HOST1" and  "PORT1"  may	be  the	 empty
	      string, meaning "any host/port". "HOST2" and "PORT2" may also be
	      the  empty  string,  meaning   "use   the	  request's   original
	      host/port".

	      A	"host" specified to this option	is compared as a string, so it
	      needs to match the name used in request URL. It  can  be	either
	      numerical	such as	"127.0.0.1" or the full	host name such as "ex-
	      ample.org".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it is transferred	to the destination.  If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP) Specify to	which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a	completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
	      in-memory	cookie storage to the given file at the	end of	opera-
	      tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
	      file will	be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This command line	option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	can't be created or written to,	the whole curl
	      operation	 won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v,
	      --verbose	will get a warning displayed, but  that	 is  the  only
	      visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If  this	option	is used	several	times, the last	specified file
	      name will	be used.

       -b, --cookie <data|filename>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is  supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
	      "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data	should	be   in	  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no '=' symbol	is used	in the argument, it is instead treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which will make curl record in-
	      coming cookies, which may	be handy if you're using this in  com-
	      bination	with  the  -L,	--location  option  or do multiple URL
	      transfers	on the same invoke. If the file	name is	exactly	a  mi-
	      nus ("-"), curl will instead read	the contents from stdin.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the  Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The  file	 specified with	-b, --cookie is	only used as input. No
	      cookies will be written to the file. To store cookies,  use  the
	      -c, --cookie-jar option.

	      Exercise	caution	 if  you  are  using  this option and multiple
	      transfers	may occur.  If you use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in
	      a	 file  use  the	 Set-Cookie format and don't specify a domain,
	      then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects are
	      followed)	 and cannot be modified	by a server-set	cookie.	If the
	      cookie engine is enabled and a server sets a cookie of the  same
	      name then	both will be sent on a future transfer to that server,
	      likely not what you intended.  To	address	these issues set a do-
	      main  in Set-Cookie (doing that will include sub domains)	or use
	      the Netscape format.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Users very often want to both read cookies from a	file and write
	      updated  cookies	back to	a file,	so using both -b, --cookie and
	      -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line	is common.

       --create-dirs
	      When used	in conjunction with the	-o, --output option, curl will
	      create  the  necessary local directory hierarchy as needed. This
	      option creates the dirs mentioned	with the -o, --output  option,
	      nothing  else.  If  the --output file name uses no dir or	if the
	      dirs it mentions already exist, no dir will be created.

	      Created dirs are made with mode 0750 on unix style file systems.

	      To create	remote directories when	using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP  SMTP)  Convert  LF	to  CRLF  in  upload.  Useful  for MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.19.7.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data exactly as	specified with no  extra  pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      filename.	 Data is posted	in a  similar  manner  as  -d,	--data
	      does,  except  that  newlines and	carriage returns are preserved
	      and conversions are never	done.

	      Like -d, --data the default content-type sent to the  server  is
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  If  you  want	the data to be
	      treated as arbitrary binary data by the server then set the con-
	      tent-type	 to octet-stream: -H "Content-Type: application/octet-
	      stream".

	      If this option is	used several times,  the  ones	following  the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data similarly to -d,	--data but without the
	      special interpretation of	the @ character.

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data, similar to the other -d, --data  options
	      with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with	a name
	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
		     any  =  or	 @  symbols, as	that will then make the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
		     that on. Note that	the name part is expected to  be  URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This  will	 make  curl load data from the given file (in-
		     cluding any newlines), URL-encode that data and  pass  it
		     on	 in  the  POST.	 The  name part	gets an	equal sign ap-
		     pended, resulting in  name=urlencoded-file-content.  Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP  MQTT)  Sends  the specified data in a POST	request	to the
	      HTTP server, in the same way that	a browser does when a user has
	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	of the @ character. To post data  purely  binary,  you
	      should  instead use the --data-binary option.  To	URL-encode the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If any of	these options is used more than	once on	the same  com-
	      mand  line,  the	data  pieces specified will be merged together
	      with a separating	 &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
	      the data from stdin. Posting data	from  a	 file  named  'foobar'
	      would  thus  be done with	-d, --data @foobar. When -d, --data is
	      told to read from	a file like that, carriage  returns  and  new-
	      lines will be stripped out. If you don't want the	@ character to
	      have a special interpretation use	--data-raw instead.

	      See also --data-binary and --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
	      option  overrides	 -F,  --form  and -I, --head and -T, --upload-
	      file.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it  is  allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates	if  and	only if	the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag	is set
		     in	the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is	 a  matter  of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-
	      cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over
	      the  wire	in clear text. Use this	in combination with the	normal
	      -u, --user option	to set user name and password.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      See  also	 -u, --user and	--proxy-digest and --anyauth. This op-
	      tion overrides --basic and --ntlm	and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPRT, then	LPRT before using PORT,	but with  this
	      option,  it  will	 use PORT right	away. EPRT and LPRT are	exten-
	      sions to the original FTP	protocol, and  may  not	 work  on  all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If  the  server is accessed using	IPv6, this option will have no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
	      switch  to  passive  mode	 you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
	      force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use	of  the	 EPSV  command
	      when  doing  passive  FTP	 transfers.  Curl will normally	always
	      first attempt to use EPSV	before PASV, but with this option,  it
	      will not try using EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have  no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
	      If used as the first parameter on	the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file will	not be read and	used. See the -K, --config for
	      details on the default config file search	path.

       --disallow-username-in-url
	      (HTTP) This tells	curl to	exit if	 passed	 a  url	 containing  a
	      username.

	      See also --proto.	Added in 7.61.0.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS)  Tell  curl	 to send outgoing DNS requests through <inter-
	      face>. This option is a counterpart to --interface  (which  does
	      not  affect  DNS). The supplied string must be an	interface name
	      (not an address).

	      See also --dns-ipv4-addr	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-interface
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
	      quests,  so  that	 the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
	      quests,  so  that	 the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv4-addr.  --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used instead of	the system de-
	      fault.   The  list of IP addresses should	be separated with com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      --dns-servers  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to
	      support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --doh-url <URL>
	      (all) Specifies which DNS-over-HTTPS (DOH) server	to use to  re-
	      solve  hostnames,	 instead  of  using  the default name resolver
	      mechanism. The URL must be HTTPS.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.62.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to	the  specified
	      file.

	      This  option  is handy to	use when you want to store the headers
	      that an HTTP site	sends to you. Cookies from the	headers	 could
	      then  be	read  in  a  second  curl  invocation by using the -b,
	      --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a	better way  to
	      store cookies.

	      If  no  headers are received, the	use of this option will	create
	      an empty file.

	      When used	in FTP,	the FTP	server response	lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections.

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	 all  (or  none) of the	engines	may be
	      available	at run-time.

       --etag-compare <file>
	      (HTTP) This option makes a conditional HTTP request for the spe-
	      cific ETag read from the given file by sending a custom If-None-
	      Match header using the extracted ETag.

	      For correct results, make	sure that specified file contains only
	      a	single line with a desired ETag. An empty file is parsed as an
	      empty ETag.

	      Use the option --etag-save to first save the  ETag  from	a  re-
	      sponse, and then use this	option to compare using	the saved ETag
	      in a subsequent request.

	      OMPARISON: There are 2 types of comparison or  ETags,  Weak  and
	      Strong.  This option expects, and	uses a strong comparison.

	      Added in 7.68.0.

       --etag-save <file>
	      (HTTP)  This  option  saves  an HTTP ETag	to the specified file.
	      Etag is usually part of headers  returned	 by  a	request.  When
	      server  sends  an	 ETag, it must be enveloped by a double	quote.
	      This option extracts the ETag  without  the  double  quotes  and
	      saves it into the	<file>.

	      A	 server	 can  send a week ETag which is	prefixed by "W/". This
	      identifier is not	considered, and	 only  relevant	 ETag  between
	      quotation	marks is parsed.

	      It an ETag wasn't	send by	the server or it cannot	be parsed, and
	      empty file is created.

	      Added in 7.68.0.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one	by one.	By de-
	      fault, it	will ignore errors if there are	more  URLs  given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	will determine the error code curl re-
	      turns. So	early failures will be "hidden"	by subsequent success-
	      ful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two options, however note	-f, --fail is not global and is	there-
	      fore contained by	-:, --next.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to better	enable scripts etc to better deal with
	      failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
	      deliver  a  document,  it	 returns  an  HTML document stating so
	      (which often also	describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
	      vent curl	from outputting	that and return	error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and	there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes	will slip through, especially when au-
	      thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a TLS	client will start sending  ap-
	      plication	 data  before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP  SMTP  IMAP)  Similar  to -F, --form except	that the value
	      string for the named parameter is	used  literally.  Leading  '@'
	      and '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no
	      special meaning. Use this	in preference to -F, --form if there's
	      any  possibility	that the string	value may accidentally trigger
	      the '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP SMTP IMAP) For HTTP	protocol family, this lets  curl  emu-
	      late  a  filled-in  form	in which a user	has pressed the	submit
	      button. This causes curl to POST	data  using  the  Content-Type
	      multipart/form-data according to RFC 2388.

	      For  SMTP	and IMAP protocols, this is the	mean to	compose	a mul-
	      tipart mail message to transmit.

	      This enables uploading of	binary files etc. To force  the	 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part	from a file, prefix the	file name with
	      the  symbol  <.  The  difference	between	@ and <	is then	that @
	      makes a file get attached	in the post as a  file	upload,	 while
	      the < makes a text field and just	get the	contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Tell curl	to read	content	from stdin instead of a	file by	 using
	      -	as filename. This goes for both	@ and <	constructs. When stdin
	      is used, the contents is buffered	in memory first	by curl	to de-
	      termine its size and allow a possible resend.  Defining a	part's
	      data from	a named	non-regular file (such as a named pipe or sim-
	      ilar)  is	unfortunately not subject to buffering and will	be ef-
	      fectively	read at	transmission time; since the full size is  un-
	      known before the transfer	starts,	such data is sent as chunks by
	      HTTP and rejected	by IMAP.

	      Example: send an image to	an HTTP	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name  of	the  form-field	to which the file portrait.jpg will be
	      the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      Example: send your name and shoe size in two text	fields to  the
	      server:

	       curl -F name=John -F shoesize=11	https://example.com/

	      Example:	send your essay	in a text field	to the server. Send it
	      as a plain text field, but get the contents for it from a	 local
	      file:

	       curl -F "story=<hugefile.txt" https://example.com/

	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If  filename/path	contains ',' or	';', it	must be	quoted by dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl  -F	 "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\""	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      or

	       curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' example.com

	      Note  that  if  a	 filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      Quoting  must  also  be  applied to non-file data	if it contains
	      semicolons, leading/trailing spaces or leading double quotes:

	       curl -F	'colors="red;  green;  blue";type=text/x-myapp'	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      You  can	add  custom  headers to	the field by setting headers=,
	      like

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=\"X-submit-type: OK\"" example.com

	      or

		curl -F	"submit=OK;headers=@headerfile"	example.com

	      The headers= keyword may appear more that	once and  above	 notes
	      about  quoting  apply.  When headers are read from a file, Empty
	      lines and	lines starting with '#'	are comments and ignored; each
	      header can be folded by splitting	between	two words and starting
	      the continuation line with a  space;  embedded  carriage-returns
	      and  trailing  spaces  are  stripped.   Here  is an example of a
	      header file contents:

		# This file contain two	headers.
		X-header-1: this is a header

		# The following	header is folded.
		X-header-2: this is
		 another header

	      To support sending multipart mail	messages, the  syntax  is  ex-
	      tended as	follows:
	      -	 name can be omitted: the equal	sign is	the first character of
	      the argument,
	      -	if data	starts with '(', this signals to start	a  new	multi-
	      part: it can be followed by a content type specification.
	      -	a multipart can	be terminated with a '=)' argument.

	      Example:	the  following	command	sends an SMTP mime e-mail con-
	      sisting in an inline part	in two alternative formats: plain text
	      and HTML.	It attaches a text file:

	       curl -F '=(;type=multipart/alternative' \
		       -F '=plain text message'	\
		       -F '= <body>HTML	message</body>;type=text/html' \
		    -F '=)' -F '=@textfile.txt'	...  smtp://example.com

	      Data  can	 be encoded for	transfer using encoder=. Available en-
	      codings are binary and 8bit that do nothing else than adding the
	      corresponding  Content-Transfer-Encoding	header,	7bit that only
	      rejects 8-bit characters with a transfer error, quoted-printable
	      and  base64  that	 encodes  data	according to the corresponding
	      schemes, limiting	lines length to	76 characters.

	      Example: send multipart mail with	a quoted-printable  text  mes-
	      sage and a base64	attached file:

	       curl -F '=text message;encoder=quoted-printable'	\
		    -F '=@localfile;encoder=base64' ...	smtp://example.com

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      This  option  overrides  -d, --data and -I, --head and -T, --up-
	      load-file.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and  password has	been provided, this data is sent off using the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and	PASS  commands	fails,
	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,	 using
	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
	      the certificate.

	      Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or	SFTP URL/operation uses	 a  path  that
	      doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
	      FTP(S) server. The method	argument should	be one of the  follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl  does	 a  single CWD operation for each path part in
		     the given URL. For	deep hierarchies this means very  many
		     commands.	This  is  how RFC 1738 says it should be done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will	do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Added in	7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection.	Passive	is the
	      internal default behavior, but using this	option can be used  to
	      override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. Undoing an enforced	passive	really isn't  doable  but  you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct -P,	--ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      See also --disable-epsv. Added in	7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
	      necting  with  FTP. This option makes curl use active mode. curl
	      then tells the server to connect back to the client's  specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP address and port for it to connect to.	 <address>  should  be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     e.g.  "eth0"  to specify which interface's	IP address you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     e.g. "192.168.10.1" to specify the	exact IP address

	      host name
		     e.g. "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make curl pick the	same IP	address	that is	 already  used
		     for the control connection

       If  this	 option	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used. Dis-
       able the	use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using	--disable-eprt.	EPRT is	really
       PORT++.

       Since 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to	the right of  the  ad-
       dress,  to tell curl what TCP port range	to use.	That means you specify
       a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A	single number works as
       well,  but do note that it increases the	risk of	failure	since the port
       may not be available.

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a	PRET command before PASV  (and	EPSV).
	      Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
	      command for directory listings as	well as	up  and	 downloads  in
	      PASV mode.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
	      connection.  Instead curl	will re-use the	same IP	address	it al-
	      ready uses for the control connection.

	      This option has no effect	if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
	      of PASV.

	      See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP)  Sets the CCC mode.	The passive mode will not initiate the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP) Use	CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the	FTP login, clear for transfer.
	      Allows secure authentication, but	non-encrypted  data  transfers
	      for  efficiency.	 Fails the transfer if the server doesn't sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
	      When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
	      --data,  --data-binary or	--data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
	      GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If  used	in combination with -I,	--head,	the POST data will in-
	      stead be appended	to the URL with	a HEAD request.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.  This is because undoing a GET doesn't make	sense, but you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this  option, you	can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
	      without having them being	interpreted by curl itself. Note  that
	      these  letters are not normal legal URL contents but they	should
	      be encoded according to the URI standard.

       --happy-eyeballs-timeout-ms <milliseconds>
	      Happy eyeballs is	an algorithm that attempts to connect to  both
	      IPv4  and	 IPv6  addresses for dual-stack	hosts, preferring IPv6
	      first for	the number of milliseconds. If the IPv6	address	cannot
	      be  connected  to	 within	that time then a connection attempt is
	      made to the IPv4 address in parallel. The	first connection to be
	      established is the one that is used.

	      The  range of suggested useful values is limited.	Happy Eyeballs
	      RFC 6555 says "It	is RECOMMENDED	that  connection  attempts  be
	      paced  150-250 ms	apart to balance human factors against network
	      load." libcurl currently defaults	to 200 ms. Firefox and	Chrome
	      currently	default	to 300 ms.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.59.0.

       --haproxy-protocol
	      (HTTP)  Send a HAProxy PROXY protocol v1 header at the beginning
	      of the connection. This is used by some load balancers  and  re-
	      verse proxies to indicate	the client's true IP address and port.

	      This  option is primarily	useful when sending test requests to a
	      service that expects this	header.

	      Added in 7.60.0.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command  HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a
	      document.	When used on an	FTP or FILE file,  curl	 displays  the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

       -H, --header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a server. You may specify any number of extra	headers.  Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one of the internal ones curl would  use,	 your  externally  set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to make even trickier stuff than curl  would  normally  do.  You
	      should  not  replace internally set headers without knowing per-
	      fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal	header by giv-
	      ing  a  replacement  without  content  on	 the right side	of the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value  then its header must be terminated	with a semicolon, such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Starting	in  7.55.0, this option	can take an argument in	@file-
	      name style, which	then adds a header for each line in the	 input
	      file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

	      See also the -A, --user-agent and	-e, --referer options.

	      Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head-
	      ers intended for a proxy.

	      Example:

	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://example.com/

	      WARNING: headers set with	this option will be  set  in  all  re-
	      quests  -	even after redirects are followed, like	when told with
	      -L, --location. This can lead to the header being	sent to	 other
	      hosts  than  the	original  host,	so sensitive headers should be
	      used with	caution	combined with following	redirects.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

       -h, --help
	      Usage  help.  This lists all current command line	options	with a
	      short description.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP SCP) Pass a	string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
	      string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Added in 7.17.1.

       --http0.9
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to be fine with	HTTP version 0.9 response.

	      HTTP/0.9	is  a completely headerless response and therefore you
	      can also connect with this to non-HTTP servers and still	get  a
	      response since curl will simply transparently downgrade -	if al-
	      lowed.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, HTTP/0.9 is disabled by default.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.0	instead	of  using  its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      This  option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added in
	      7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to  issue  its	non-TLS	 HTTP  requests	 using
	      HTTP/2  without  HTTP/1.1	 Upgrade.  It requires prior knowledge
	      that the server supports HTTP/2 straight	away.  HTTPS  requests
	      will  still  do HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the	underlying libcurl was
	      built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
	      --http1.0	and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      See also --http1.1 and --http3. --http2 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	and -0,	--http1.0 and  --http2-prior-knowledge.	 Added
	      in 7.33.0.

       --http3
	      (HTTP)  WARNING: this option is experimental. Do not use in pro-
	      duction.

	      Tells curl to use	HTTP version 3 directly	to the host  and  port
	      number used in the URL. A	normal HTTP/3 transaction will be done
	      to a host	and then get redirected	via Alt-SVc, but  this	option
	      allows  a	 user to circumvent that when you know that the	target
	      speaks HTTP/3 on the given host and port.

	      This option will make curl fail if a QUIC	connection  cannot  be
	      established,  it cannot fall back	to a lower HTTP	version	on its
	      own.

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. --http3 requires that the	under-
	      lying libcurl was	built to support HTTP/3. This option overrides
	      --http1.1	and -0,	--http1.0 and --http2 and --http2-prior-knowl-
	      edge. Added in 7.66.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP  HTTP)  For HTTP, Ignore the	Content-Length header. This is
	      particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x,  which  will
	      report  incorrect	 Content-Length	 for files larger than 2 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out  the
	      size before downloading a	file.

       -i, --include
	      Include  the  HTTP  response headers in the output. The HTTP re-
	      sponse headers can include things	 like  server  name,  cookies,
	      date of the document, HTTP version and more...

	      To view the request headers, consider the	-v, --verbose option.

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS) By default,	every SSL connection curl makes	is verified to
	      be secure. This option allows curl to proceed and	 operate  even
	      for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

	      The  server  connection  is verified by making sure the server's
	      certificate contains the right name  and	verifies  successfully
	      using the	cert store.

	      See this online resource for further details:
	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      See also --proxy-insecure	and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

	      Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter
	      interface	name, IP address or host name. An example  could  look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      On  Linux	 it can	be used	to specify a VRF, but the binary needs
	      to either	have CAP_NET_RAW or to be run as root.	More  informa-
	      tion   about  Linux  VRF:	 https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documenta-
	      tion/networking/vrf.txt

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv4 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv6 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -4,
	      --ipv4.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
	      sically have the same effect as if a  new	 session  is  started.
	      Typical  browsers	 always	 discard  session cookies when they're
	      closed down.

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This option sets the time	a connection needs to remain idle  be-
	      fore  sending  keepalive	probes and the time between individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX	and more). This	option has  no
	      effect if	--no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS) Private key	file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
	      vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported.	If not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate  key	in this	separate file. For SSH,	if not specified, curl
	      tries  the  following  candidates	 in  order:   '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
	      '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

	      If  curl is built	against	OpenSSL	library, and the engine	pkcs11
	      is available, then a PKCS#11 URI (RFC 7512) can be used to spec-
	      ify  a  private key located in a PKCS#11 device. A string	begin-
	      ning with	"pkcs11:" will be interpreted as a PKCS#11 URI.	 If  a
	      PKCS#11 URI is provided, then the	--engine option	will be	set as
	      "pkcs11" if none was provided and	the --key-type option will  be
	      set as "ENG" if none was provided.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP)  Enable Kerberos authentication and	use. The level must be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'.  Should  you  use  a  level that is not one of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      --krb requires that the underlying libcurl was built to  support
	      Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append  this  option  to any ordinary curl command line, and you
	      will get a libcurl-using C source	code written to	the file  that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      If  this	option is used several times, the last given file name
	      will be used.

	      Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify the maximum transfer rate	you want curl  to  use	-  for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited pipe and you'd like your transfer	not to use your	entire
	      bandwidth. To make it slower than	it otherwise would be.

	      The  given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is
	      appended.	 Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number  as	 kilo-
	      bytes,  'm' or 'M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it
	      gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and	1G.

	      If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that  option  will
	      take precedence and might	cripple	the rate-limiting slightly, to
	      help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP POP3) (FTP) When listing  an	 FTP  directory,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 name-only view. This is especially useful if the user
	      wants to machine-parse the contents of an	 FTP  directory	 since
	      the normal directory view	doesn't	use a standard look or format.
	      When used	like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent
	      to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note:  Some  FTP	servers	 list  only files in their response to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3) When retrieving a specific	email from POP3,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
	      particularly useful if the user wants to see if a	specific  mes-
	      sage id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note:  When combined with	-X, --request, this option can be used
	      to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
	      unique  identifier  rather  than it's message id to make the re-
	      quest.

	      Added in 4.0.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of  local  port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature are a scarce resource that	will be	busy at	times so  set-
	      ting  this range to something too	narrow might cause unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending  the  name  +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	 site  to which	you'll send your authentication	info (which is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP) If	the server reports that	the requested page  has	 moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX response code), this option will make	curl redo the  request
	      on  the  new  place.  If used together with -i, --include	or -I,
	      --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When au-
	      thentication  is	used,  curl  only sends	its credentials	to the
	      initial host. If a redirect takes	curl to	a different  host,  it
	      won't  be	 able to intercept the user+password. See also --loca-
	      tion-trusted on how to change this. You can limit	the amount  of
	      redirects	to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When  curl  follows  a redirect and if the request is a POST, it
	      will do the following request with a GET if  the	HTTP  response
	      was  301,	 302,  or  303.	If the response	code was any other 3xx
	      code, curl will re-send the following request using the same un-
	      modified method.

	      You can tell curl	to not change POST requests to GET after a 30x
	      response by using	the dedicated  options	for  that:  --post301,
	      --post302	and --post303.

	      The  method  set	with  -X,  --request overrides the method curl
	      would otherwise select to	use.

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use	during	server
	      authentication.

	      You  can	use the	login options to specify protocol specific op-
	      tions that may be	used during authentication.  At	 present  only
	      IMAP,  POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information
	      about the	login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092  and  IETF
	      draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
	      the authentication address (identity)  of	 a  submitted  message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a single	address	that the given mail should get
	      sent from.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt-allowfails
	      (SMTP) When sending data to multiple recipients, by default curl
	      will  abort  SMTP	conversation if	at least one of	the recipients
	      causes RCPT TO command to	return an error.

	      The default behavior can be changed by  passing  --mail-rcpt-al-
	      lowfails	command-line option which will make curl ignore	errors
	      and proceed with the remaining valid recipients.

	      In case when all recipients cause	RCPT TO	command	to fail,  curl
	      will  abort SMTP conversation and	return the error received from
	      to the last RCPT TO command.  Added in 7.69.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.
	      Repeat this option several times to send to multiple recipients.

	      When  performing a mail transfer,	the recipient should specify a
	      valid email address to send the mail to.

	      When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the  re-
	      cipient  should  be  specified as	the user name or user name and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient  should  be	specified using	the mailing list name, such as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to	 download.  If
	      the  file	requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
	      not start	and curl will return with exit code 63.

	      A	size modifier may be used. For example,	Appending 'k'  or  'K'
	      will  count  the	number	as  kilobytes,	'm'  or	 'M'  makes it
	      megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes	it gigabytes. Examples:	 200K,
	      3m and 1G. (Added	in 7.58.0)

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known	prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer  ends	 up  being larger than this given limit. This concerns
	      both FTP and HTTP	transfers.

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP) Set maximum  number  of  redirection-followings  allowed.
	      When  -L,	 --location is used, is	used to	prevent	curl from fol-
	      lowing redirections too much. By default,	the limit is set to 50
	      redirections. Set	this option to -1 to make it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds that you allow	the whole operation to
	      take.  This is useful for	preventing your	batch jobs from	 hang-
	      ing  for	hours due to slow networks or links going down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease	in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
	      This option can tell curl	to parse and process a	given  URI  as
	      Metalink	file  (both  version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854)	are supported)
	      and make use of the mirrors listed within	for failover if	 there
	      are  errors (such	as the file or server not being	available). It
	      will also	verify the hash	of the file after  the	download  com-
	      pletes.  The Metalink file itself	is downloaded and processed in
	      memory and not stored in the local file system.

	      Example to use a remote Metalink file:

	       curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

	      To use a Metalink	file in	the local file system, use FILE	proto-
	      col (file://):

	       curl --metalink file://example.metalink

	      Please  note  that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is	no way
	      to use a local Metalink file at the time of this	writing.  Also
	      note  that  if  --metalink  and -i, --include are	used together,
	      --include	will be	ignored. This is because including headers  in
	      the  response  will break	Metalink parser	and if the headers are
	      included in the file described in	Metalink file, hash check will
	      fail.

	      --metalink  requires  that  the  underlying libcurl was built to
	      support metalink.	Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This option requires a library built with	GSS-API	or  SSPI  sup-
	      port.  Use  -V,  --version  to  see  if  your curl supports GSS-
	      API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

	      When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u,	--user
	      option  to  activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
	      '-u :' is	enough as the user name	 and  password	from  the  -u,
	      --user option aren't actually used.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      See also --basic and --ntlm and --anyauth	and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This option is similar to	-n, --netrc, except that  you  provide
	      the  path	 (absolute  or	relative)  to the netrc	file that curl
	      should use.  You can only	specify	one netrc file per invocation.
	      If  several --netrc-file options are provided, the last one will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      This option overrides -n,	--netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very similar to -n, --netrc, but this option  makes  the	.netrc
	      usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

	      See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes  curl  scan	 the  .netrc  (_netrc  on Windows) file	in the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally  used for FTP on Unix. If used with	HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user authentication. See netrc(5)	ftp(1) for details on the file
	      format.  Curl  will  not	complain if that file doesn't have the
	      right permissions	(it should not be either world-	or group-read-
	      able).  The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home
	      directory.

	      A	quick and very simple example of how to	setup a	.netrc to  al-
	      low  curl	 to  FTP to the	machine	host.domain.com	with user name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated  options.  This  allows  you  to send several URL re-
	      quests, each with	their own specific options, for	example,  such
	      as different user	names or custom	requests for each.

	      -:,  --next  will	 reset	all local options and only global ones
	      will have	their values survive over to the  operation  following
	      the  -:,	--next	instruction. Global options include -v,	--ver-
	      bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For example, you can do both a GET and a POST in a  single  com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS)  Disable	the ALPN TLS extension.	ALPN is	enabled	by de-
	      fault if libcurl was built with an  SSL  library	that  supports
	      ALPN.  ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      See also --no-npn	and --http2. --no-alpn requires	that  the  un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations, curl will use a standard	buffered  output  stream  that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily exactly when the data	arrives.   Using  this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables the use of keepalive messages on	 the  TCP  connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if  libcurl was built with an SSL	library	that supports NPN. NPN
	      is used by a libcurl that	supports HTTP/2	 to  negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      See  also	 --no-alpn and --http2.	--no-npn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-progress-meter
	      Option to	switch off the progress	meter output without muting or
	      otherwise	 affecting warning and informational messages like -s,
	      --silent does.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --progress-meter	to enable the progress meter again.

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent. Added in	7.67.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS)  Disable curl's use	of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
	      all transfers are	done using the cache. Note that	while  nothing
	      should  ever  get	 hurt  by attempting to	reuse SSL session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy,  if  one
	      is  specified.  The only wildcard	is a single * character, which
	      matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
	      in  this	list  is matched as either a domain which contains the
	      hostname,	or the hostname	itself.	For example,  local.com	 would
	      match   local.com,  local.com:80,	 and  www.local.com,  but  not
	      www.notlocal.com.

	      Since 7.53.0, This option	overrides  the	environment  variables
	      that  disable the	proxy. If there's an environment variable dis-
	      abling a proxy, you can set noproxy list to "" to	override it.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the  authentication  to the separate binary ntlmauth application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever  peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone
	      who  uses	 NTLM to switch	to a public and	documented authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy	 authentication,  then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      See also	--proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires	 that  the  underlying
	      libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option overrides --basic
	      and --negotiate and --digest and --anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP HTTP) Specify the	Bearer	Token  for  OAUTH  2.0
	      server  authentication.  The Bearer Token	is used	in conjunction
	      with the user name which can be specified	as part	of  the	 --url
	      or -u, --user options.

	      The  Bearer  Token  and user name	are formatted according	to RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      [] to fetch multiple documents, you should quote the URL and you
	      can use '#' followed by a	number in the <file>  specifier.  That
	      variable	will  be  replaced with	the current string for the URL
	      being fetched. Like in:

	       curl "http://{one,two}.example.com" -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl "http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com" -o "#1_#2"

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.  For  example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and the order of the -o options and  the	URLs  doesn't  matter,
	      just  that  the  first -o	is for the first URL and so on,	so the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See also the --create-dirs option	to create the  local  directo-
	      ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output	as '-' (a single dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      See also -O, --remote-name and --remote-name-all and  -J,	 --re-
	      mote-header-name.

       --parallel-immediate
	      When  doing  parallel  transfers,	this option will instruct curl
	      that it should rather prefer opening up more connections in par-
	      allel at once rather than	waiting	to see if new transfers	can be
	      added as multiplexed streams on another connection.

	      See also -Z, --parallel and --parallel-max. Added	in 7.68.0.

       --parallel-max
	      When asked to do parallel	transfers, using -Z, --parallel,  this
	      option controls the maximum amount of transfers to do simultane-
	      ously.

	      The default is 50.

	      See also -Z, --parallel. Added in	7.66.0.

       -Z, --parallel
	      Makes curl perform its transfers in parallel as compared to  the
	      regular serial manner.

	      Added in 7.66.0.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --path-as-is
	      Tell  curl  to  not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given
	      URL path.	Normally curl will squash or merge them	 according  to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to  use  the	specified  public key file (or
	      hashes) to verify	the peer. This can be a	path to	a  file	 which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When  negotiating	 a  TLS	 or SSL	connection, the	server sends a
	      certificate indicating its identity. A public key	 is  extracted
	      from  this certificate and if it does not	exactly	match the pub-
	      lic key provided to this option, curl will abort the  connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:
		7.39.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS	and GSKit
		7.43.0:	NSS and	wolfSSL
		7.47.0:	mbedtls	sha256 support:
		7.44.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL
		7.47.0:	mbedtls	Other SSL backends not supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC  behaviour  is  ubiquitous in web	browsers, so curl does
	      the conversion by	default	to maintain  consistency.  However,  a
	      server  may  require  a POST to remain a POST after such a redi-
	      rection. This option is meaningful only when using  -L,  --loca-
	      tion.

	      See  also	 --post302  and	--post303 and -L, --location. Added in
	      7.17.1.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behaviour	is ubiquitous in web browsers,	so  curl  does
	      the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after	such  a	 redi-
	      rection.	This  option is	meaningful only	when using -L, --loca-
	      tion.

	      See also --post301 and --post303 and -L,	--location.  Added  in
	      7.19.1.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to violate RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	 303  redirections.  A
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after a 303 redirect-
	      ion. This	option is meaningful only when using -L, --location.

	      See also --post302 and --post301 and -L,	--location.  Added  in
	      7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
	      HTTPS -x,	--proxy. In such a case	curl  first  connects  to  the
	      SOCKS  proxy  and	 then  connects	(through SOCKS)	to the HTTP or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix  to  specify	alternative  proxy  protocols.	Use socks4://,
	      socks4a://, socks5:// or	socks5h://  to	request	 the  specific
	      SOCKS  version  to be used. No protocol specified	will make curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl	display	transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
	      stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This progress bar	draws a	single line of '#'  characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For transfers without a known size, there	 will  be  space  ship
	      (-=o=-)  that  moves back	and forth but only while data is being
	      transferred, with	a set of flying	hash sign symbols on top.

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      Example:

	       curl --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org

	      An unknown or unsupported	 protocol  causes  error  CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without  this  option curl would make a guess based on the host,
	      see --url	for details.

	      Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells curl to limit what protocols it may	use on redirect.  Pro-
	      tocols  denied by	--proto	are not	overridden by this option. See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will allow HTTP, HTTPS, FTP and FTPS on redirect
	      (7.65.2).	 Older versions	of curl	allowed	all protocols on redi-
	      rect except several disabled for security	reasons: Since	7.19.4
	      FILE  and	 SCP  are  disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are
	      also disabled. Specifying	all or +all enables all	 protocols  on
	      redirect,	including those	disabled for security.

	      Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to limit what protocols it may use in the transfer.
	      Protocols	are evaluated left to right, are comma separated,  and
	      are  each	 a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero
	      or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny  this  protocol,	removing it from the list of protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	only this protocol (ignoring the list already  permit-
		 ted),	though subject to later	modification by	subsequent en-
		 tries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

       Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows	scripts	to safely rely
       on being	able to	disable	potentially dangerous protocols, without rely-
       ing upon	support	for that protocol being	built into curl	 to  avoid  an
       error.

       This option can be used multiple	times, in which	case the effect	is the
       same as concatenating the protocols into	one instance of	the option.

       See also	--proto-redir and --proto-default. Added in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating	with  the  given HTTP proxy. This might	cause an extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added
	      in 7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote  host.  Basic  is	the default authentication method curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See also	--proxy-capath	and  --cacert  and  --capath  and  -x,
	      --proxy. Added in	7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See  also	 --proxy-cacert	and -x,	--proxy	and --capath. Added in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Digest authentication when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header/@file>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the equivalent option to -H, --header but	is for proxy  communi-
	      cation  only  like  in CONNECT requests when you want a separate
	      header sent to the proxy to what is sent to  the	actual	remote
	      host.

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers specified	with this option will not be included  in  re-
	      quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      Starting	in  7.55.0, this option	can take an argument in	@file-
	      name style, which	then adds a header for each line in the	 input
	      file. Using @- will make curl read the header file from stdin.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Negotiate	(SPNEGO)  authentication  when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added	in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP NTLM  authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to verify the proxy. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for proxy  ne-
	      gotiation.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection to
	      your HTTPS proxy when it negotiates TLS 1.3. The list of ciphers
	      suites  must  specify  valid  ciphers. Read up on	TLS 1.3	cipher
	      suite details on this URL:

	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This option is currently used only when curl  is	built  to  use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the  --proxy-
	      ciphers option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify  the user	name and password to use for proxy authentica-
	      tion.

	      If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled	curl binary and	do either  Ne-
	      gotiate  or NTLM authentication then you can tell	curl to	select
	      the user name and	password from your environment by specifying a
	      single colon with	this option: "-U :".

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment from	process	listings. This is not enough to	 protect  cre-
	      dentials	from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
	      system as	they will still	be visible for a brief	moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The proxy	string can be specified	with a protocol:// prefix.  No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.  (The protocol support was added
	      in curl 7.21.7)

	      HTTPS proxy support via https:// protocol	prefix	was  added  in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized  and	 unsupported  proxy  protocols	cause an error
	      since 7.52.0.  Prior versions may	ignore the  protocol  and  use
	      http:// instead.

	      If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This option overrides existing environment  variables  that  set
	      the  proxy  to use. If there's an	environment variable setting a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently	be  converted  to HTTP.	It means that certain protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
	      ytunnel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL  decoded by curl. This allows	you to pass in special charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The proxy	host can be specified the exact	same way as the	 proxy
	      environment  variables,  including the protocol prefix (http://)
	      and the embedded user + password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	HTTP 1.0 proxy.	If  the	 port  number  is  not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The  only	 difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
	      --proxy, is that attempts	to use CONNECT through the proxy  will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When  an	HTTP  proxy is used -x,	--proxy, this option will make
	      curl tunnel through the proxy. The tunnel	approach is made  with
	      the  HTTP	 proxy CONNECT request and requires that the proxy al-
	      lows direct connect to the remote	port number curl wants to tun-
	      nel through to.

	      To  suppress  proxy CONNECT response headers when	curl is	set to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key from the private key file, so	passing	this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8  or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

       -Q, --quote
	      (FTP  SFTP)  Send	an arbitrary command to	the remote FTP or SFTP
	      server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes	 place
	      (just  after  the	 initial PWD command in	an FTP transfer, to be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix  them  with  a  dash '-'.	To make	commands be sent after
	      curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
	      command(s),  prefix  the	command	 with a	'+' (this is only sup-
	      ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

	      If the server returns failure for	one of the commands,  the  en-
	      tire operation will be aborted. You must send syntactically cor-
	      rect FTP commands	as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or  one  of
	      the commands listed below	to SFTP	servers.

	      Prefix  the  command  with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue
	      even if the command fails	as by default curl will	stop at	 first
	      failure.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      SFTP  is a binary	protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
	      quote commands itself before sending them	to the	server.	  File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.  Following is the	list of	all supported SFTP quote  com-
	      mands:

	      chgrp group file
		     The  chgrp	command	sets the group ID of the file named by
		     the file operand to the group ID specified	by  the	 group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	command	creates	the directory named by the di-
		     rectory_name operand.

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the source	operand	to the destination path	named  by  the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The rmdir command removes the directory  entry  specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       --random-file <file>
	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as random	data. The data may be used to seed the	random	engine
	      for SSL connections.  See	also the --egd-file option.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP FTP	SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e. a partial docu-
	      ment) from an HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP  server  or  a  local	 FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*)  = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with	a mul-
	      tipart response!

	      Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields  of the 'start-stop' range	syntax.	If a non-digit charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You  should also be aware	that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have
	      this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to	get  a	range,
	      you'll instead get the whole document.

	      FTP  and	SFTP  range  downloads only support the	simple 'start-
	      stop' syntax (optionally with one	of the numbers	omitted).  FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent or transfer encodings and instead makes them	passed on  un-
	      altered, raw.

	      Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the -H,	--header flag of course.  When
	      used  with  -L,  --location  you	can  append ";auto" to the -e,
	      --referer	URL to make curl automatically set  the	 previous  URL
	      when  it	follows	 a Location: header. The ";auto" string	can be
	      used alone, even if you don't set	an initial -e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified	Content-Disposition  filename  instead	of ex-
	      tracting a filename from the URL.

	      If the server specifies a	file name and a	file  with  that  name
	      already  exists  in the current working directory	it will	not be
	      overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
	      ify a file name then this	option has no effect.

	      There's  no  attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING:	Exercise  judicious  use of this option, especially on
	      Windows. A rogue server could send you the  name	of  a  DLL  or
	      other  file  that	could possibly be loaded automatically by Win-
	      dows or some third party software.

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs	to  be
	      dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
	      you want to disable that for a specific URL after	--remote-name-
	      all has been used, you must use "-o -" or	--no-remote-name.

	      Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
	      (Only the	file part of the remote	file is	used, the path is  cut
	      off.)

	      The  file	will be	saved in the current working directory.	If you
	      want the file saved in a	different  directory,  make  sure  you
	      change  the  current working directory before invoking curl with
	      this option.

	      The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
	      given  URL,  nothing  else,  and if it already exists it will be
	      overwritten. If you want the server to be	 able  to  choose  the
	      file name	refer to -J, --remote-header-name which	can be used in
	      addition to this option. If the server chooses a file  name  and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other URL	encoded	parts of the name, they	will end up  as-is  as
	      file name.

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make	curl attempt to	figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	the remote file, and if	that is	available make the lo-
	      cal file get that	same timestamp.

       --request-target
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use an alternative "target" (path)  instead
	      of  using	 the  path as provided in the URL. Particularly	useful
	      when wanting to issue HTTP requests  without  leading  slash  or
	      other  data  that	 doesn't  follow the regular URL pattern, like
	      "OPTIONS *".

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing  with	the HTTP server.  The specified	request	method will be
	      used instead of the method otherwise  used  (which  defaults  to
	      GET).  Read  the HTTP 1.1	specification for details and explana-
	      tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT  and  DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally you don't need this option. All	sorts  of  GET,	 HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This option only changes the actual word used in	the  HTTP  re-
	      quest, it	does not alter the way curl behaves. So	for example if
	      you want to make a proper	HEAD request, using -X HEAD  will  not
	      suffice. You need	to use the -I, --head option.

	      The  method  string  you set with	-X, --request will be used for
	      all requests, which if you for example use  -L,  --location  may
	      cause  unintended	 side-effects when curl	doesn't	change request
	      method according to the HTTP 30x response	codes -	and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

	      (IMAP) Specifies a custom	IMAP command to	use instead  of	 LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --resolve <host:port:addr[,addr]...>
	      Provide a	custom address for a specific host and port pair.  Us-
	      ing  this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified ad-
	      dress and	prevent	the otherwise normally resolved	address	to  be
	      used.  Consider  it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on
	      the command line.	The port number	should be the number used  for
	      the  specific  protocol  the host	will be	used for. It means you
	      need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
	      host but different ports.

	      By  specifying '*' as host you can tell curl to resolve any host
	      and specific port	pair to	the specified address. Wildcard	is re-
	      solved  last so any --resolve with a specific host and port will
	      be used first.

	      The provided address set by this option will be used even	if -4,
	      --ipv4 or	-6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      Support for providing the	IP address within [brackets] was added
	      in 7.57.0.

	      Support for providing multiple IP	addresses per entry was	 added
	      in 7.59.0.

	      Support for resolving with wildcard was added in 7.64.0.

	      This option can be used many times to add	many host names	to re-
	      solve.

	      Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-all-errors
	      Retry on any error. This option is used together with --retry.

	      This option is the "sledgehammer"	of retrying. Do	not  use  this
	      option by	default	(eg in curlrc),	there may be unintended	conse-
	      quences such as sending or receiving duplicate data. Do not  use
	      with  redirected	input or output. You'd be much better off han-
	      dling your unique	problems in shell script. Please read the  ex-
	      ample below.

	      Warning:	For server compatibility curl attempts to retry	failed
	      flaky transfers as close as possible to how they	were  started,
	      but  this	 is  not possible with redirected input	or output. For
	      example, before retrying it removes output data  from  a	failed
	      partial  transfer	 that  was  written to an output file. However
	      this is not true of data redirected to a | pipe or > file, which
	      are  not reset. We strongly suggest don't	parse or record	output
	      via redirect in combination with this option, since you may  re-
	      ceive duplicate data.

	      Added in 7.71.0.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In  addition to the other	conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
	      transient	error too for --retry. This option  is	used  together
	      with --retry.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep	 this  amount of time before each retry	when a
	      transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes  the  de-
	      fault  backoff  time  algorithm between retries).	This option is
	      only interesting if --retry is also used.	Setting	this delay  to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The  retry timer is reset	before the first transfer attempt. Re-
	      tries will be done as usual (see --retry)	as long	as  the	 timer
	      hasn't reached this given	limit. Notice that if the timer	hasn't
	      reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-
	      ing,  it may take	longer than this given time period. To limit a
	      single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this op-
	      tion to zero to not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer,	it will	retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0	makes curl do no retries (which	is the
	      default).	Transient error	means either: a	timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 408 or 5xx response code.

	      When  curl  is about to retry a transfer,	it will	first wait one
	      second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
	      waiting  time until it reaches 10	minutes	which then will	be the
	      delay between the	rest of	the retries.  By  using	 --retry-delay
	      you   disable  this  exponential	backoff	 algorithm.  See  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      Since curl 7.66.0, curl will comply with	the  Retry-After:  re-
	      sponse  header if	one was	present	to know	when to	issue the next
	      retry.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-authzid <identity>
	      Use this authorisation identity (authzid), during	SASL PLAIN au-
	      thentication,  in	addition to the	authentication identity	(auth-
	      cid) as specified	by -u, --user.

	      If the option isn't specified, the server	will  derive  the  au-
	      thzid  from  the authcid,	but if specified, and depending	on the
	      server implementation, it	may be used to access  another	user's
	      inbox,  that  the	 user  has been	granted	access to, or a	shared
	      mailbox for example.

	      Added in 7.66.0.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	  --negotiate	--service-name	 sockd	  would	   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent or	quiet mode. Don't show progress	meter  or  error  mes-
	      sages.   Makes  Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use  -S,	--show-error  in  addition  to	this option to disable
	      progress meter but still show error messages.

	      See also -v, --verbose and --stderr.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it	is assumed at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4a  proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol pre-
	      fix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-basic
	      Tells curl to use	username/password authentication when connect-
	      ing to a SOCKS5 proxy.  The username/password authentication  is
	      enabled  by  default.   Use --socks5-gssapi to force GSS-API au-
	      thentication to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is  negoti-
	      ated.  RFC  1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected,
	      but the NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.   The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec  allows the unprotected exchange of the pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	  --socks5  proxy-name	--socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would use	sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-
	      service  sockd/real-name	would  use  sockd/real-name  for cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi
	      Tells curl to use	GSS-API	authentication when  connecting	 to  a
	      SOCKS5  proxy.  The GSS-API authentication is enabled by default
	      (if curl is compiled with	GSS-API	support).  Use	--socks5-basic
	      to force username/password authentication	to SOCKS5 proxies.

	      Added in 7.55.0.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy	(and let the proxy resolve the
	      host name). If the port number is	not specified, it  is  assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h://	proto-
	      col prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name lo-
	      cally. If	the port number	is not specified,  it  is  assumed  at
	      port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option (as well as --socks4)	does not work with IPV6,  FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
	      with -y, --speed-time and	is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second	during
	      a	speed-time period, the download	gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used,  the  default  speed-limit	will  be 1 unless set with -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This option controls transfers and thus  will  not  affect  slow
	      connects	etc.  If this is a concern for you, try	the --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3  and	TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option isn't
	      used, the	SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause  interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations. WARNING:
	      this option loosens the SSL security, and	by using this flag you
	      ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to disable certificate revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.	Termi-
	      nates the	connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl-revoke-best-effort
	      (Schannel) This option tells curl	to ignore certificate  revoca-
	      tion checks when they failed due to missing/offline distribution
	      points for the revocation	check lists.

	      Added in 7.70.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Re-
	      verts  to	 a non-secure connection if the	server doesn't support
	      SSL/TLS.	See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
	      ent levels of encryption required.

	      This  option  was	formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
	      That option name can still be used but will be removed in	a  fu-
	      ture version.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating	with a
	      remote SSL server. Sometimes curl	is built  without  SSLv2  sup-
	      port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 6176).

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -3,	--sslv3	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating	with a
	      remote SSL server. Sometimes curl	is built  without  SSLv3  sup-
	      port. SSLv3 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 7568).

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -2,	--sslv2	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr
	      Redirect	all writes to stderr to	the specified file instead. If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --styled-output
	      Enables the automatic use	of bold	font styles when writing  HTTP
	      headers  to  the terminal. Use --no-styled-output	to switch them
	      off.

	      Added in 7.61.0.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When -p, --proxytunnel is	used and a  CONNECT  request  is  made
	      don't  output  proxy  CONNECT  response  headers.	This option is
	      meant to be used with -D,	--dump-header or -i,  --include	 which
	      are  used	 to show protocol headers in the output. It has	no ef-
	      fect on debug options such as -v,	--verbose or --trace,  or  any
	      statistics.

	      See also -D, --dump-header and -i, --include and -p, --proxytun-
	      nel.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since  7.50.2,  curl sets	this option by default and you need to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you don't want it on.

	      Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This option improves interop with	some legacy  servers  that  do
	      not  acknowledge	or  properly implement TFTP options. When this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP FTP) Request a file	that has been modified later than  the
	      given  time  and date, or	one that has been modified before that
	      time. The	<date expression> can be all sorts of date strings  or
	      if it doesn't match any internal ones, it	is taken as a filename
	      and tries	to get the modification	date (mtime) from  <file>  in-
	      stead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date	expression de-
	      tails.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	 document that is older	than the given date/time, default is a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version. The minimum
	      acceptable  version  is  set  by	tlsv1.0,  tlsv1.1,  tlsv1.2 or
	      tlsv1.3.

	      If the connection	is done	without	TLS, this option  has  no  ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       See also	--tlsv1.0 and --tlsv1.1	and --tlsv1.2 and --tlsv1.3. --tls-max
       requires	that the underlying libcurl was	built to support TLS. Added in
       7.54.0.

       --tls13-ciphers <ciphersuite list>
	      (TLS)  Specifies which cipher suites to use in the connection if
	      it negotiates TLS	1.3. The list of ciphers suites	 must  specify
	      valid  ciphers.  Read up on TLS 1.3 cipher suite details on this
	      URL:

	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      This option is currently used only when curl  is	built  to  use
	      OpenSSL 1.1.1 or later. If you are using a different SSL backend
	      you can try setting TLS 1.3 cipher suites	by using the --ciphers
	      option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set  TLS	authentication type. Currently,	the only supported op-
	      tion  is	"SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword  are specified but --tlsauthtype is	not, then this
	      option defaults to "SRP".	 This option works only	if the	under-
	      lying  libcurl  is  built	 with  TLS-SRP support,	which requires
	      OpenSSL or GnuTLS	with TLS-SRP support.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword
	      Set password for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      This doesn't work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set  username  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	 that  --tlspassword  also  is
	      set.

	      This doesn't work	with TLS 1.3.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.0	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_  TLS  1.0,	but behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.1	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_  TLS  1.1,	but behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.2	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      In old versions of curl this  option  was	 documented  to	 allow
	      _only_  TLS  1.2,	but behavior was inconsistent depending	on the
	      TLS library. Use --tls-max if you	want to	set a maximum TLS ver-
	      sion.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS)  Forces curl to use	TLS version 1.3	or later when connect-
	      ing to a remote TLS server.

	      If the connection	is done	without	TLS, this option  has  no  ef-
	      fect. This includes QUIC-using (HTTP/3) transfers.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is not supported by all	TLS backends.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL)  Tells curl	to use at least	TLS version 1.x	when negotiat-
	      ing with a remote	TLS server. That  means	 TLS  version  1.0  or
	      higher

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -1, --tlsv1 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and	--tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of the algorithms	curl supports, and uncompress the  data	 while
	      receiving	it.

	      Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only shows the ASCII part	of the dump. It	makes  smaller	output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides --trace and	-v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a  time	 stamp to each trace or	verbose	line that curl
	      displays.

	      Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding  descriptive  information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.  Use  "%"  as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides -v,	--verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This transfers the specified local file to the  remote  URL.  If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	 to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use  the file name "-" (a	single dash) to	use stdin instead of a
	      given file.  Alternately,	the file name "."  (a  single  period)
	      may  be  specified  instead  of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking
	      mode to allow reading server output while	 stdin	is  being  up-
	      loaded.

	      You  can	specify	one -T,	--upload-file for each URL on the com-
	      mand line. Each -T, --upload-file	+ URL pair specifies  what  to
	      upload  and  to  where. curl also	supports "globbing" of the -T,
	      --upload-file argument, meaning that  you	 can  upload  multiple
	      files  to	a single URL by	using the same URL globbing style sup-
	      ported in	the URL, like this:

	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" http://www.example.com

	      or even

	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/upload/

	      When uploading to	an SMTP	server:	the uploaded data  is  assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers and mail body formatted correctly	by the	user  as  curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

       --url <url>
	      Specify  a  URL  to  fetch. This option is mostly	handy when you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If the given URL is missing a scheme name	(such as "http://"  or
	      "ftp://"	etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If
	      the outermost sub-domain name matches  DICT,  FTP,  IMAP,	 LDAP,
	      POP3  or	SMTP  then  that protocol will be used,	otherwise HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This  option  may	 be used any number of times. To control where
	      this URL is written, use the -o, --output	or the	-O,  --remote-
	      name options.

	      Warning:	On  Windows,  particular  file:// accesses can be con-
	      verted to	network	accesses by the	operating system. Beware!

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP LDAP) Enable	ASCII transfer.	For FTP, this can also be  en-
	      forced  by  using	 a  URL	 that ends with	";type=A". This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To  encode blanks	in the string, surround	the string with	single
	      quote marks. This	header can also	be set with the	 -H,  --header
	      or the --proxy-header options.

	      If  you give an empty argument to	-A, --user-agent (""), it will
	      remove the header	completely from	the request. If	you  prefer  a
	      blank header, you	can set	it to a	single space ("	").

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you simply specify the	user name,  curl  will	prompt	for  a
	      password.

	      The  user	 name  and  passwords are split	up on the first	colon,
	      which makes it impossible	to use a colon in the user  name  with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      On systems where it works, curl will hide	the given option argu-
	      ment from	process	listings. This is not enough to	 protect  cre-
	      dentials	from  possibly getting seen by other users on the same
	      system as	they will still	be visible for a brief	moment	before
	      cleared. Such sensitive data should be retrieved from a file in-
	      stead or similar and never used in clear text in a command line.

	      When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based  server  you	should
	      include  the  Windows domain name	in the user name, in order for
	      the server to successfully obtain	 a  Kerberos  Ticket.  If  you
	      don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When  using  NTLM,  the user name	can be specified simply	as the
	      user name, without the domain, if	there is a single  domain  and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To  specify  the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If  you  use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Ker-
	      beros V5,	Negotiate, NTLM	or Digest authentication then you  can
	      tell  curl  to select the	user name and password from your envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes curl verbose during	the operation.	Useful	for  debugging
	      and  seeing  what's  going  on "under the	hood". A line starting
	      with '>' means "header data" sent	by  curl,  '<'	means  "header
	      data"  received  by  curl	 that is hidden	in normal cases, and a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
	      be the option you're looking for.

	      If  you think this option	still doesn't give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

	      See also	-i,  --include.	 This  option  overrides  --trace  and
	      --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The  first  line	includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows	all  protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      alt-svc
		     Support for the Alt-Svc: header is	provided.

	      AsynchDNS
		     This curl uses asynchronous name  resolves.  Asynchronous
		     name  resolves can	be done	using either the c-ares	or the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      brotli Support for automatic brotli compression over HTTP(S).

	      CharConv
		     curl was built with support for character set conversions
		     (like EBCDIC)

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a	libcurl	built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers	only!

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTP3  HTTP/3 support has	been built-in.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of	compressed files over HTTP  is
		     supported.

	      Metalink
		     This curl supports	Metalink

	      MultiSSL
		     This curl supports	multiple TLS backends.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      PSL    PSL  is  short for	Public Suffix List and means that this
		     curl has been built with  knowledge  about	 "public  suf-
		     fixes".

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols	are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote	Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer. The format is a string that may contain  plain  text	 mixed
	      with  any	 number	of variables. The format can be	specified as a
	      literal "string",	or you can have	curl read the  format  from  a
	      file  with  "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The variables present in the output format will  be  substituted
	      by  the  value or	text that curl thinks fit, as described	below.
	      All variables are	specified as %{variable_name} and to output  a
	      normal  %	you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      The output will be written to standard output, but this  can  be
	      switched to standard error by using %{stderr}.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where all	occurrences of % must be doubled when using  this  op-
	      tion.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the	requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that	curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to	a file	with  the  -O,	--remote-name  or  -o,
			     --output  option. It's most useful	in combination
			     with the -J, --remote-header-name option.	(Added
			     in	7.26.0)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
			     7.18.2 the	alias response_code was	added to  show
			     the same info.

	      http_connect   The numerical code	that was found in the last re-
			     sponse (from a proxy) to a	curl CONNECT  request.
			     (Added in 7.12.4)

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      json	     A JSON object with	all available keys.

	      local_ip	     The IP address of the local end of	the  most  re-
			     cently  done  connection  - can be	either IPv4 or
			     IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      method	     The  http method used in the most recent HTTP re-
			     quest (Added in 7.72.0)

	      num_connects   Number of new connects made in the	recent	trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
			     tion  to follow redirects (or when	--max-redir is
			     met), this	variable will show the	actual	URL  a
			     redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

	      remote_ip	     The  remote  IP address of	the most recently done
			     connection	- can be either	IPv4 or	IPv6 (Added in
			     7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The  remote port number of	the most recently done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      response_code  The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last  transfer  (formerly	known as "http_code").
			     (Added in 7.18.2)

	      scheme	     The URL scheme (sometimes called  protocol)  that
			     was effectively used (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The average upload	speed that curl	 measured  for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The  result of the	SSL peer certificate verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      stderr	     From  this	 point	on, the	-w, --write-out	output
			     will be written  to  standard  error.  (Added  in
			     7.63.0)

	      stdout	     From  this	 point	on, the	-w, --write-out	output
			     will be written to	standard output.  This is  the
			     default,  but  can	 be  used to switch back after
			     switching to stderr.  (Added in 7.63.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the re-
			     mote host was completed. (Added in	7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the TCP connect to the	remote host (or	proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the name resolving was	completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the file transfer was just  about  to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before  the	 final transaction was
			     started. time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion  time	 for  multiple redirections. (Added in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the  first  byte was just about to be	trans-
			     ferred. This includes time_pretransfer  and  also
			     the  time	the server needed to calculate the re-
			     sult.

	      time_total     The total time, in	seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful if you've told curl	 to  follow  location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --xattr
	      When  saving  output  to a file, this option tells curl to store
	      certain file metadata in extended	 file  attributes.  Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the content type is stored in the	mime_type  attribute.  If  the
	      file  system  does not support extended attributes, a warning is
	      issued.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for	details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an	environment variable to	set the	proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the	proxy server to	use for	[url-protocol],	where the pro-
	      tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified	 in  a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the	 proxy	server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts/domains>
	      list of host names that shouldn't	go through any proxy.  If  set
	      to an asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts. Each name in this
	      list is matched as either	a domain name which contains the host-
	      name, or the hostname itself.

	      This  environment	 variable  disables use	of the proxy even when
	      specified	with the -x,  --proxy  option.	That  is  NO_PROXY=di-
	      rect.example.com	curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com  http://di-
	      rect.example.com	accesses  the	target	 URL   directly,   and
	      NO_PROXY=direct.example.com   curl  -x  http://proxy.example.com
	      http://somewhere.example.com accesses the	target URL through the
	      proxy.

	      The  list	 of  host  names  can also be include numerical	IP ad-
	      dresses, and IPv6	versions should	then be	given without  enclos-
	      ing brackets.

       CURL_SSL_BACKEND	<TLS backend>
	      If  curl	was built with support for "MultiSSL", meaning that it
	      has built-in support for more than one TLS backend,  this	 envi-
	      ronment  variable	can be set to the case insensitive name	of the
	      particular backend to use	when curl is invokved. Setting a  name
	      that  isn't a built-in alternative, will make curl stay with the
	      default.

       QLOGDIR <directory name>
	      If curl was built	with HTTP/3 support, setting this  environment
	      variable	to  a  local directory will make curl produce qlogs in
	      that directory, using file names	named  after  the  destination
	      connection  id  (in  hex).  Do  note that	these files can	become
	      rather large. Works with both QUIC backends.

       SSLKEYLOGFILE <file name>
	      If you set this environment variable to a	file name,  curl  will
	      store TLS	secrets	from its connections in	that file when invoked
	      to enable	you to analyze the TLS traffic in real time using net-
	      work analyzing tools such	as Wireshark. This works with the fol-
	      lowing TLS backends: OpenSSL, libressl, BoringSSL,  GnuTLS,  NSS
	      and wolfSSL.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy	string may be specified	with a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the	string
       doesn't	match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       http://
	      Makes it use it as an HTTP proxy.	The default if no scheme  pre-
	      fix is used.

       https://
	      Makes it treated as an HTTPS proxy.

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding er-
       ror messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of this
       writing,	the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	feature	or option that was needed to perform the  desired  re-
	      quest  was not enabled or	was explicitly disabled	at build-time.
	      To make curl able	to do this, you	probably need another build of
	      libcurl!

       5      Couldn't	resolve	 proxy.	 The given proxy host could not	be re-
	      solved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource	or directory you wanted	to reach. Most
	      often you	tried to change	to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While	waiting	for the	server to connect back
	      when an active FTP session is used, an error code	was sent  over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During an	active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird	227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't	change transfer	method to  bi-
	      nary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP  couldn't download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP page	not retrieved. The requested url was not found or  re-
	      turned  another  error  with  the	 HTTP  error code being	400 or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl	couldn't write data to a local	filesystem  or
	      similar.

       25     FTP  couldn't  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	timeout. The specified time-out	period was reached ac-
	      cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT	 failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
	      support the PORT command,	try doing a transfer  using  PASV  in-
	      stead!

       31     FTP  couldn't use	REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Couldn't continue an	earlier	aborted	 down-
	      load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file.	Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	error. A specified outgoing  interface	could  not  be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl.  This  indicates  that  you
	      passed  a	weird option to	curl that was passed on	to libcurl and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH	MD5 fingerprint	was not	OK.

       52     The server didn't	reply anything,	which here  is	considered  an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer  certificate	cannot be authenticated	with known CA certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not  accepted  and  curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character	conversion failed.

       76     Character	conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could  not  load	CRL  file,  missing  or	wrong format (added in
	      7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of	CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of	Session	Identifiers

       87     unable to	parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key

       91     Invalid SSL certificate status.

       92     Stream error in HTTP/2 framing layer.

       93     An API function was called from inside a callback.

       94     An authentication	function returned an error.

       95     A	problem	was detected in	the HTTP/3  layer.  This  is  somewhat
	      generic  and  can	 be one	out of several problems, see the error
	      message for details.

       96     QUIC connection error. This error	may be caused by  an  SSL  li-
	      brary error. QUIC	is the protocol	used for HTTP/3	transfers.

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.haxx.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.72.0		       November	16, 2016		       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | PROTOCOLS | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

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