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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool	to transfer data from or to a server, using one	of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE,	FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,	 IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3,  POP3S,  RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS,
       SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work  without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,	and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features	will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as	in:

	 http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt

	 http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a	progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and	estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of	bytes and  the	speeds
       are  in	bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to	do an operation	and it is about	to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	the response output to a file, using shell redirect  (>),  -o,
       --output	or similar.

       It  is not the same case	for FTP	upload as that operation does not spit
       out any response	data to	the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress	 "bar"	instead	 of  the  regular  meter,  -#,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the	progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent	option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form	of the options,	-d for example,	may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	-d, --data for
       example,	requires a space between it and	its value.

       Short version options that don't	need any additional values can be used
       immediately  next  to  each other, like for example you can specify all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	 with --no-option. That	is, you	use the	exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in	 7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off  on
       repeated	use of the same	command	line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix	domain socket, instead
	      of using the network.   Note:  netstat  shows  the  path	of  an
	      abstract	socket	prefixed with '@', however the <path> argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Added in 7.53.0.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and  use	the most secure	one the	remote site claims to support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers,	thus  possibly	inducing  an extra network round-trip.
	      This is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method,  which  you  can	do with	--basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since  it	 may require data to be	sent twice and then the	client
	      must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when  uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target file instead  of  overwriting  it.	 If  the  remote  file
	      doesn't  exist,  it  will	 be  created.	Note that this flag is
	      ignored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use	HTTP  Basic  authentication  with  the
	      remote  host.  This  is  the  default and	this option is usually
	      pointless, unless	you use	it to override a previously set	option
	      that  sets  a  different	authentication method (such as --ntlm,
	      --digest,	or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<CA certificate>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in	PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  it  is  set,	and uses the given path	as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the	 NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to  be  available  for  this
	      option to	work properly.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then this	option is supported for	 backward  compatibility  with
	      other  SSL  engines,  but	it should not be set. If the option is
	      not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
	      user  Keychain to	verify the peer, which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl to use	the specified certificate directory to
	      verify the peer. Multiple	paths can be  provided	by  separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be in PEM	format,	and if curl  is	 built	against	 OpenSSL,  the
	      directory	 must  have  been processed using the c_rehash utility
	      supplied with OpenSSL. Using --capath can	allow  OpenSSL-powered
	      curl  to	make  SSL-connections much more	efficiently than using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

       --cert-status
	      (TLS)  Tells curl	to verify the status of	the server certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If  this option is enabled and the server	sends an invalid (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate	has  been  revoked, or no response at all is received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	 OpenSSL,  GnuTLS  and
	      NSS backends.

	      Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS)  Tells curl	what certificate type the provided certificate
	      is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If	not specified,
	      PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -E, --cert and --key and	--key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col. The certificate must	be in PKCS#12 format if	 using	Secure
	      Transport,  or  PEM  format  if  using any other engine.	If the
	      optional password	isn't specified, it will be queried for	on the
	      terminal.	 Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
	      See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this	option
	      can tell curl the	nickname of the	certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable	SSL_DIR	(or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so)  is  available	 then  PEM files may be	loaded.	If you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to	be preceded by "\"  so
	      that  it	is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
	      name contains "\", it needs to be	escaped	as "\\"	so that	it  is
	      not recognized as	an escape character.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private  key	in the system or user keychain,	or the path to
	      a	PKCS#12-encoded	certificate and	private	key. If	 you  want  to
	      use  a  file  from the current directory,	please precede it with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --cert-type and --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read  up  on  SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl  supports,  and  save  the  uncompressed document.  If this
	      option is	used and the server  sends  an	unsupported  encoding,
	      curl will	report an error.

       -K, --config <file>

	      Specify  a  text	file  to read curl arguments from. The command
	      line arguments found in the text file will be used  as  if  they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options  and their parameters must be specified on the same line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long  option  names  can	optionally be given in the config file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with one or two dashes, there can	be no colon or equals  charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
	      enclosed within quotes.  Within  double  quotes,	the  following
	      escape  sequences	 are  available:  \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A
	      backslash	preceding any other letter is ignored.	If  the	 first
	      column of	a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line
	      will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical
	      line in the config file.

	      Specify  the  filename  to -K, --config as '-' to	make curl read
	      the file from stdin.

	      Note that	to be able to specify a	URL in the  config  file,  you
	      need  to	specify	 it  using the --url option, and not by	simply
	      writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      When  curl  is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used)	checks
	      for a default config file	and uses it if found. The default con-
	      fig file is checked for in the following places in this order:

	      1)  curl	tries  to find the "home dir": It first	checks for the
	      CURL_HOME	and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
	      it  uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the home
	      dir given	the current user in your system). On Windows, it  then
	      checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
	      PROFILE%\Application Data'.

	      2) On windows, if	there is no _curlrc file in the	home  dir,  it
	      checks for one in	the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
	      Unix-like	systems, it will simply	try to load .curlrc  from  the
	      determined home dir.

	      #	--- Example file ---
	      #	this is	a comment
	      url = "example.com"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      #	and fetch another URL too
	      url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer =	"http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	      #	--- End	of example file	---

	      This  option  can	be used	multiple times to load multiple	config
	      files.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that  you	 allow	curl's	connection  to
	      take.   This  only  limits the connection	phase, so if curl con-
	      nects within the given period it will continue - if not it  will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request to the given HOST:PORT pair, connect to CONNECT-
	      TO-HOST:CONNECT-TO-PORT instead.	This  option  is  suitable  to
	      direct requests at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster
	      node in a	cluster	of servers.   This  option  is	only  used  to
	      establish	 the  network connection. It does NOT affect the host-
	      name/port	that is	used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate	 veri-
	      fication)	 or  for the application protocols.  "host" and	"port"
	      may be the empty string, meaning "any host/port".	  "connect-to-
	      host"  and "connect-to-port" may also be the empty string, mean-
	      ing "use the request's original host/port".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it is transferred	to the destination.  If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP)  Specify to which file you	want curl to write all cookies
	      after a completed	operation. Curl	writes all  cookies  from  its
	      in-memory	 cookie	storage	to the given file at the end of	opera-
	      tions. If	no cookies are known, no data  will  be	 written.  The
	      file  will  be written using the Netscape	cookie file format. If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This  command  line  option will activate	the cookie engine that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	can't be created or written to,	the whole curl
	      operation	won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using  -v,
	      --verbose	 will  get  a  warning displayed, but that is the only
	      visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	 last  specified  file
	      name will	be used.

       -b, --cookie <data>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is supposedly the	data previously	received from the server in  a
	      "Set-Cookie:"   line.    The   data  should  be  in  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If no '='	symbol is used in the argument,	it is instead  treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which  will  make  curl	record
	      incoming	cookies,  which	 may  be handy if you're using this in
	      combination with the -L, --location option or  do	 multiple  URL
	      transfers	on the same invoke.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP headers (Set-Cookie style) or the  Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The  file	 specified with	-b, --cookie is	only used as input. No
	      cookies will be written to the file. To store cookies,  use  the
	      -c, --cookie-jar option.

	      Exercise	caution	 if  you  are  using  this option and multiple
	      transfers	may occur.  If you use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in
	      a	 file  use  the	 Set-Cookie format and don't specify a domain,
	      then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects are
	      followed)	 and cannot be modified	by a server-set	cookie.	If the
	      cookie engine is enabled and a server sets a cookie of the  same
	      name then	both will be sent on a future transfer to that server,
	      likely not what you intended.  To	address	 these	issues	set  a
	      domain  in  Set-Cookie  (doing that will include sub domains) or
	      use the Netscape format.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Users very often want to both read cookies from a	file and write
	      updated cookies back to a	file, so using both -b,	 --cookie  and
	      -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line	is common.

       --create-dirs
	      When used	in conjunction with the	-o, --output option, curl will
	      create the necessary local directory hierarchy as	 needed.  This
	      option  creates the dirs mentioned with the -o, --output option,
	      nothing else. If the --output file name uses no dir  or  if  the
	      dirs it mentions already exist, no dir will be created.

	      To  create remote	directories when using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF	 in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.19.7.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data exactly as	specified with no  extra  pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      filename.	 Data is posted	in a  similar  manner  as  -d,	--data
	      does,  except  that  newlines and	carriage returns are preserved
	      and conversions are never	done.

	      If this option is	used several times,  the  ones	following  the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data similarly to -d,	--data but without the
	      special interpretation of	the @ character.

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data, similar to the other -d, --data  options
	      with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with	a name
	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
		     any  =  or	 @  symbols, as	that will then make the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
		     that on. Note that	the name part is expected to  be  URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will	 make  curl  load  data	 from  the  given file
		     (including	any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
		     it	on in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This  will	 make  curl  load  data	 from  the  given file
		     (including	any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
		     it	 on  in	 the  POST.  The  name part gets an equal sign
		     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
	      server, in the same way that a browser  does  when  a  user  has
	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	of the @ character. To post data  purely  binary,  you
	      should  instead use the --data-binary option.  To	URL-encode the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If any of	these options is used more than	once on	the same  com-
	      mand  line,  the	data  pieces specified will be merged together
	      with a separating	 &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      file  name  to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read
	      the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-
	      ing  data	 from  a  file	named  from a file like	that, carriage
	      returns and newlines will	be stripped out. If you	don't want the
	      @	 character  to	have  a	 special interpretation	use --data-raw
	      instead.

	      See also --data-binary and --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
	      option overrides -F, --form and -I, --head and --upload.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos)  Set  LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag  is  set
		     in	 the  Kerberos	service	 ticket,  which	is a matter of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an  authenti-
	      cation  scheme  that  prevents the password from being sent over
	      the wire in clear	text. Use this in combination with the	normal
	      -u, --user option	to set user name and password.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      See also -u,  --user  and	 --proxy-digest	 and  --anyauth.  This
	      option overrides --basic and --ntlm and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt  to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
	      option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT	and  LPRT  are	exten-
	      sions  to	 the  original	FTP  protocol, and may not work	on all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If the server is accessed	using IPv6, this option	will  have  no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	 EPRT only changes the active behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	passive	mode you need to not  use  -P,	--ftp-port  or
	      force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP)  (FTP)  Tell  curl	to disable the use of the EPSV command
	      when doing passive FTP  transfers.  Curl	will  normally	always
	      first  attempt to	use EPSV before	PASV, but with this option, it
	      will not try using EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If  the  server is an IPv6 host, this option will	have no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
	      If  used	as the first parameter on the command line, the	curlrc
	      config file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config  for
	      details on the default config file search	path.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS)  Tell  curl	 to send outgoing DNS requests through <inter-
	      face>. This option is a counterpart to --interface  (which  does
	      not  affect  DNS). The supplied string must be an	interface name
	      (not an address).

	      See also --dns-ipv4-addr	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-interface
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address>  when  making  IPv4  DNS
	      requests,	 so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv6-addr.  --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address>  when  making  IPv6  DNS
	      requests,	 so that the DNS requests originate from this address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      See also --dns-interface	and  --dns-ipv4-addr.  --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires	that  the  underlying  libcurl was built to support c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used  instead  of  the	system
	      default.	The list of IP addresses should	be separated with com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      --dns-servers  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to
	      support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP FTP) Write the received protocol headers to	the  specified
	      file.

	      This  option  is handy to	use when you want to store the headers
	      that an HTTP site	sends to you. Cookies from the	headers	 could
	      then  be	read  in  a  second  curl  invocation by using the -b,
	      --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a	better way  to
	      store cookies.

	      When  used  in FTP, the FTP server response lines	are considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections.

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	 all  (or  none) of the	engines	may be
	      available	at run-time.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it  will	attempt	 to  operate on	each given URL,	one by one. By
	      default, it will ignore errors if	there are more URLs given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	 will  determine  the  error code curl
	      returns. So early	failures will be "hidden" by  subsequent  suc-
	      cessful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two options, however note	-f, --fail is not global and is	there-
	      fore contained by	-:, --next.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to better	enable scripts etc to better deal with
	      failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
	      deliver  a  document,  it	 returns  an  HTML document stating so
	      (which often also	describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
	      vent curl	from outputting	that and return	error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and	there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes	will  slip  through,  especially  when
	      authentication is	involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a  TLS  client  will	start  sending
	      application data before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP)  Similar  to  -F, --form except that the value string for
	      the named	parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' char-
	      acters,  and  the	 ';type='  string in the value have no special
	      meaning. Use this	in preference to -F,  --form  if  there's  any
	      possibility  that	 the string value may accidentally trigger the
	      '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in	form in	which  a  user
	      has  pressed  the	 submit	 button. This causes curl to POST data
	      using the	 Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC
	      2388.  This  enables uploading of	binary files etc. To force the
	      'content'	part to	be a file, prefix the  file  name  with	 an  @
	      sign.  To	just get the content part from a file, prefix the file
	      name with	the symbol <. The difference between @ and <  is  then
	      that  @  makes a file get	attached in the	post as	a file upload,
	      while the	< makes	a text field and just  get  the	 contents  for
	      that text	field from a file.

	      Example:	to  send  an image to a	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name of the form-field to	which portrait.jpg will	be the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      To read content from stdin instead of a file, use	- as the file-
	      name.  This  goes	 for both @ and	< constructs. Unfortunately it
	      does not support reading the file	from a named pipe or  similar,
	      as it needs the full size	before the transfer starts.

	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If  filename/path	contains ',' or	';', it	must be	quoted by dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl  -F	 "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\""	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      or

	       curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' example.com

	      Note  that  if  a	 filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      This option overrides -d,	--data and -I, --head and --upload.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and password has been provided, this data	is sent	off using  the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and	PASS  commands	fails,
	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,	 using
	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
	      the certificate.

	      Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP SFTP) When an FTP or	SFTP URL/operation uses	 a  path  that
	      doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
	      FTP(S) server. The method	argument should	be one of the  follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl  does	 a  single CWD operation for each path part in
		     the given URL. For	deep hierarchies this means very  many
		     commands.	This  is  how RFC 1738 says it should be done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will	do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Added in	7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection.	Passive	is the
	      internal default behavior, but using this	option can be used  to
	      override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. Undoing an enforced	passive	really isn't  doable  but  you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct -P,	--ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      See also --disable-epsv. Added in	7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
	      necting  with  FTP. This option makes curl use active mode. curl
	      then tells the server to connect back to the client's  specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP address and port for it to connect to.	 <address>  should  be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface's	IP address you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     i.e "192.168.10.1"	to specify the exact IP	address

	      host name
		     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make curl pick the	same IP	address	that is	 already  used
		     for the control connection

       If  this	 option	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used. Dis-
       able the	use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using	--disable-eprt.	EPRT is	really
       PORT++.

       Since 7.19.5, you can append  ":[start]-[end]"  to  the	right  of  the
       address,	 to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you spec-
       ify a port range, from a	lower to a  higher  number.  A	single	number
       works  as well, but do note that	it increases the risk of failure since
       the port	may not	be available.

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a	PRET command before PASV  (and	EPSV).
	      Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
	      command for directory listings as	well as	up  and	 downloads  in
	      PASV mode.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the  data
	      connection.  Instead  curl  will	re-use	the same IP address it
	      already uses for the control connection.

	      This option has no effect	if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used  instead
	      of PASV.

	      See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP)  Sets the CCC mode.	The passive mode will not initiate the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP) Use	CCC (Clear Command Channel)  Shuts  down  the  SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to  fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the	FTP login, clear for transfer.
	      Allows secure authentication, but	non-encrypted  data  transfers
	      for  efficiency.	 Fails the transfer if the server doesn't sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
	      When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
	      --data,  --data-binary or	--data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
	      GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If used in combination with  -I,	--head,	 the  POST  data  will
	      instead be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this option, you can specify URLs	that contain the letters  {}[]
	      without  having them being interpreted by	curl itself. Note that
	      these letters are	not normal legal URL contents but they	should
	      be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of  a
	      document.	 When  used  on	an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

       -H, --header <header>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to  a  server. You may specify any number	of extra headers. Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one  of  the  internal  ones curl	would use, your	externally set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to  make	even  trickier	stuff than curl	would normally do. You
	      should not replace internally set	headers	without	 knowing  per-
	      fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal	header by giv-
	      ing a replacement	without	content	 on  the  right	 side  of  the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,  such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      See also the -A, --user-agent and	-e, --referer options.

	      Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head-
	      ers intended for a proxy.

	      Example:

	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://example.com/

	      WARNING:	headers	 set  with  this  option  will	be  set	in all
	      requests - even after redirects are  followed,  like  when  told
	      with  -L,	 --location. This can lead to the header being sent to
	      other hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers	should
	      be used with caution combined with following redirects.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

       -h, --help
	      Usage help. This lists all current command line options  with  a
	      short description.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP  SCP)  Pass	a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
	      string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum	of the	remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Added in 7.17.1.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.0	instead	of  using  its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      This  option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added in
	      7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to  issue  its	non-TLS	 HTTP  requests	 using
	      HTTP/2  without  HTTP/1.1	 Upgrade.  It requires prior knowledge
	      that the server supports HTTP/2 straight	away.  HTTPS  requests
	      will  still  do HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the	underlying libcurl was
	      built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
	      --http1.0	and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      See also --no-alpn. --http2 requires that	the underlying libcurl
	      was built	to support HTTP/2. This	option overrides --http1.1 and
	      -0, --http1.0 and	--http2-prior-knowledge. Added in 7.33.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header.  This  is
	      particularly  useful  for	servers	running	Apache 1.x, which will
	      report incorrect Content-Length for files	larger	than  2	 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For  FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the	RETR command to	figure out the
	      size before downloading a	file.

       -i, --include
	      Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header  includes
	      things  like server-name,	date of	the document, HTTP-version and
	      more...

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS) By default,	every SSL connection curl makes	is verified to
	      be  secure.  This	option allows curl to proceed and operate even
	      for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

	      The server connection is verified	by making  sure	 the  server's
	      certificate  contains  the  right	name and verifies successfully
	      using the	cert store.

	      See this online resource for further details:
	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      See also --proxy-insecure	and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

	      Perform an operation using a specified interface.	You can	 enter
	      interface	 name,	IP address or host name. An example could look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

	      See also	--http1.1  and	--http2.  This	option	overrides  -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

	      See also	--http1.1  and	--http2.  This	option	overrides  -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all  "session	 cookies".  This  will
	      basically	 have  the same	effect as if a new session is started.
	      Typical browsers always discard  session	cookies	 when  they're
	      closed down.

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs	to remain idle
	      before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning	Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option	has no
	      effect if	--no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS)  Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro-
	      vided private key	is. DER, PEM, and ENG are  supported.  If  not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate  key	in this	separate file. For SSH,	if not specified, curl
	      tries the	following candidates in	order:

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP)  Enable Kerberos authentication and	use. The level must be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'.  Should  you  use  a  level that is not one of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      --krb  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support
	      Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append this option to any	ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
	      will  get	a libcurl-using	C source code written to the file that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last given  file  name
	      will be used.

	      Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you	want curl to use - for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited pipe and you'd like your transfer	not to use your	entire
	      bandwidth. To make it slower than	it otherwise would be.

	      The given	speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K'	will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or M' makes it	megabytes, while 'g' or	'G'  makes  it
	      gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and	1G.

	      If  you  also use	the -Y,	--speed-limit option, that option will
	      take precedence and might	cripple	the rate-limiting slightly, to
	      help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP POP3) (FTP) When listing  an	 FTP  directory,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 name-only view. This is especially useful if the user
	      wants to machine-parse the contents of an	 FTP  directory	 since
	      the normal directory view	doesn't	use a standard look or format.
	      When used	like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent
	      to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note:  Some  FTP	servers	 list  only files in their response to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3) When retrieving a specific	email from POP3,  this	switch
	      forces  a	 LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is
	      particularly useful if the user wants to see if a	specific  mes-
	      sage id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note:  When combined with	-X, --request, this option can be used
	      to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
	      unique  identifier  rather  than	it's  message  id  to make the
	      request.

	      Added in 7.21.5.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set a preferred single number or range (FROM-TO) of  local  port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature are a scarce resource that	will be	busy at	times so  set-
	      ting  this range to something too	narrow might cause unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending  the  name  +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	 site  to which	you'll send your authentication	info (which is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP) If	the server reports that	the requested page  has	 moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX response code), this option will make	curl redo the  request
	      on  the  new  place.  If used together with -i, --include	or -I,
	      --head, headers from all requested pages	will  be  shown.  When
	      authentication  is  used,	curl only sends	its credentials	to the
	      initial host. If a redirect takes	curl to	a different  host,  it
	      won't  be	 able to intercept the user+password. See also --loca-
	      tion-trusted on how to change this. You can limit	the amount  of
	      redirects	to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When  curl follows a redirect and	the request is not a plain GET
	      (for example POST	or PUT), it will do the	following request with
	      a	GET if the HTTP	response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
	      code was any other 3xx code, curl	 will  re-send	the  following
	      request using the	same unmodified	method.

	      You  can	tell  curl to not change the non-GET request method to
	      GET after	a 30x response by  using  the  dedicated  options  for
	      that: --post301, --post302 and --post303.

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP  POP3 SMTP)	Specify	the login options to use during	server
	      authentication.

	      You can use the  login  options  to  specify  protocol  specific
	      options  that may	be used	during authentication. At present only
	      IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login	options. For more  information
	      about  the  login	options	please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF
	      draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
	      the authentication address (identity)  of	 a  submitted  message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a single	address	that the given mail should get
	      sent from.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.
	      Repeat this option several times to send to multiple recipients.

	      When performing a	mail transfer, the recipient should specify  a
	      valid email address to send the mail to.

	      When  performing	an  address  verification  (VRFY command), the
	      recipient	should be specified as the user	name or	user name  and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient should be specified using the mailing list  name,  such  as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify  the  maximum  size (in bytes) of	a file to download. If
	      the file requested is larger than	this value, the	transfer  will
	      not start	and curl will return with exit code 63.

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known	prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer  ends	 up  being larger than this given limit. This concerns
	      both FTP and HTTP	transfers.

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP) Set maximum  number  of  redirection-followings  allowed.
	      When  -L,	 --location is used, is	used to	prevent	curl from fol-
	      lowing redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is  set
	      to  50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -m, --max-time <time>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds that you allow	the whole operation to
	      take.  This is useful for	preventing your	batch jobs from	 hang-
	      ing  for	hours due to slow networks or links going down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease	in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
	      This  option  can	 tell curl to parse and	process	a given	URI as
	      Metalink file (both version 3 and	4 (RFC	5854)  are  supported)
	      and  make	use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there
	      are errors (such as the file or server not being available).  It
	      will  also  verify  the hash of the file after the download com-
	      pletes. The Metalink file	itself is downloaded and processed  in
	      memory and not stored in the local file system.

	      Example to use a remote Metalink file:

	       curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

	      To use a Metalink	file in	the local file system, use FILE	proto-
	      col (file://):

	       curl --metalink file://example.metalink

	      Please note that if FILE protocol	is disabled, there is  no  way
	      to  use  a local Metalink	file at	the time of this writing. Also
	      note that	if --metalink and -i,  --include  are  used  together,
	      --include	 will be ignored. This is because including headers in
	      the response will	break Metalink parser and if the  headers  are
	      included in the file described in	Metalink file, hash check will
	      fail.

	      --metalink requires that the underlying  libcurl	was  built  to
	      support metalink.	Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This  option  requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup-
	      port. Use	-V, --version  to  see	if  your  curl	supports  GSS-
	      API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

	      When  using this option, you must	also provide a fake -u,	--user
	      option to	activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
	      '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the user	name and password from the -u,
	      --user option aren't actually used.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      See also --basic and --ntlm and --anyauth	and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This option is similar to	-n, --netrc, except that  you  provide
	      the  path	 (absolute  or	relative)  to the netrc	file that Curl
	      should use.  You can only	specify	one netrc file per invocation.
	      If  several --netrc-file options are provided, the last one will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      This option overrides -n,	--netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very similar to -n, --netrc, but this option  makes  the	.netrc
	      usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

	      See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user authentication. See netrc(5)	ftp(1) for details on the file
	      format. Curl will	not complain if	that  file  doesn't  have  the
	      right permissions	(it should not be either world-	or group-read-
	      able). The environment variable "HOME" is	used to	find the  home
	      directory.

	      A	 quick	and  very  simple  example of how to setup a .netrc to
	      allow curl to FTP	to the machine host.domain.com with user  name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated  options.  This  allows  you  to  send	 several   URL
	      requests,	 each  with  their  own	specific options, for example,
	      such as different	user names or custom requests for each.

	      -:, --next will reset all	local options  and  only  global  ones
	      will  have  their	values survive over to the operation following
	      the -:, --next instruction. Global options  include  -v,	--ver-
	      bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For  example,  you can do	both a GET and a POST in a single com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN	TLS  extension.	 ALPN  is  enabled  by
	      default  if  libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports
	      ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to  negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      See  also	 --no-npn  and	--http2.  --no-alpn  requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use	a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables	the  use  of keepalive messages	on the TCP connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if libcurl was built with	an SSL library that supports NPN.  NPN
	      is  used	by  a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      See also --no-alpn  and  --http2.	 --no-npn  requires  that  the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS)  Disable curl's use	of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
	      all transfers are	done using the cache. Note that	while  nothing
	      should  ever  get	 hurt  by attempting to	reuse SSL session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy,  if  one
	      is  specified.  The only wildcard	is a single * character, which
	      matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
	      in  this	list  is matched as either a domain which contains the
	      hostname,	or the hostname	itself.	For example,  local.com	 would
	      match   local.com,  local.com:80,	 and  www.local.com,  but  not
	      www.notlocal.com.

	      Since 7.53.0, This option	overrides  the	environment  variables
	      that  disable the	proxy. If there's an environment variable dis-
	      abling a proxy, you can set noproxy list to "" to	override it.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the  authentication  to the separate binary ntlmauth application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever  peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone
	      who  uses	 NTLM to switch	to a public and	documented authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy	 authentication,  then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      See also	--proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires	 that  the  underlying
	      libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option overrides --basic
	      and --negotiated and --digest and	--anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token	for OAUTH  2.0	server
	      authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the
	      user name	which can be specified as part of  the	--url  or  -u,
	      --user options.

	      The  Bearer  Token  and user name	are formatted according	to RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#'  followed	 by  a
	      number  in  the <file> specifier.	That variable will be replaced
	      with the current string for the URL being	fetched. Like in:

	       curl http://{one,two}.example.com -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o	"#1_#2"

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.  For  example, if you specify two URLs on the same command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and the order of the -o options and  the	URLs  doesn't  matter,
	      just  that  the  first -o	is for the first URL and so on,	so the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See also the --create-dirs option	to create the  local  directo-
	      ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output	as '-' (a single dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      See  also	 -O,  --remote-name  and  --remote-name-all  and   -J,
	      --remote-header-name.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --path-as-is
	      Tell curl	to not handle sequences	of /../	or /./	in  the	 given
	      URL  path.  Normally curl	will squash or merge them according to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to  verify the peer. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:
		7.39.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS	and GSKit
		7.43.0:	NSS and	wolfSSL/CyaSSL
		7.47.0:	mbedtls
		7.49.0:	PolarSSL sha256	support:
		7.44.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL/CyaSSL.
		7.47.0:	mbedtls
		7.49.0:	PolarSSL Other SSL backends not	supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC  behaviour  is  ubiquitous in web	browsers, so curl does
	      the conversion by	default	to maintain  consistency.  However,  a
	      server  may  require  a POST to remain a POST after such a redi-
	      rection. This option is meaningful only when using  -L,  --loca-
	      tion.

	      See  also	 --post302  and	--post303 and -L, --location. Added in
	      7.17.1.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behaviour	is ubiquitous in web browsers,	so  curl  does
	      the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after	such  a	 redi-
	      rection.	This  option is	meaningful only	when using -L, --loca-
	      tion.

	      See also --post301 and --post303 and -L,	--location.  Added  in
	      7.19.1.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 303 redirection. The
	      non-RFC  behaviour  is  ubiquitous in web	browsers, so curl does
	      the conversion by	default	to maintain  consistency.  However,  a
	      server  may  require  a POST to remain a POST after such a redi-
	      rection. This option is meaningful only when using  -L,  --loca-
	      tion.

	      See  also	 --post302  and	--post301 and -L, --location. Added in
	      7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	SOCKS proxy before connecting to  an  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS  -x,  --proxy.  In	such a case curl first connects	to the
	      SOCKS proxy and then connects (through SOCKS)  to	 the  HTTP  or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix to  specify  alternative  proxy  protocols.  Use  socks4://,
	      socks4a://,  socks5://  or  socks5h://  to  request the specific
	      SOCKS version to be used.	No protocol specified will  make  curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL  decoded by curl. This allows	you to pass in special charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make  curl  display  transfer  progress as a simple progress bar
	      instead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This progress bar	draws a	single line of '#'  characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For transfers without a known size, it will instead  output  one
	      '#' character for	every 1024 bytes transferred.

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      Example:

	       curl --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org

	      An  unknown  or  unsupported  protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without this option curl would make a guess based	on  the	 host,
	      see --url	for details.

	      Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells  curl to limit what	protocols it may use on	redirect. Pro-
	      tocols denied by --proto are not overridden by this option.  See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will allow all protocols on redirect except sev-
	      eral disabled for	security reasons: Since	7.19.4	FILE  and  SCP
	      are  disabled,  and since	7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are	also disabled.
	      Specifying all  or  +all	enables	 all  protocols	 on  redirect,
	      including	those disabled for security.

	      Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to limit what protocols it may use in the transfer.
	      Protocols	are evaluated left to right, are comma separated,  and
	      are each a protocol name or

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list	 of  protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	 only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
		 ted), though subject  to  later  modification	by  subsequent
		 entries in the	comma separated	list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

       Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows	scripts	to safely rely
       on being	able to	disable	potentially dangerous protocols, without rely-
       ing  upon  support  for that protocol being built into curl to avoid an
       error.

       This option can be used multiple	times, in which	case the effect	is the
       same as concatenating the protocols into	one instance of	the option.

       See also	--proto-redir and --proto-default. Added in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating with the	given HTTP proxy. This might  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added
	      in 7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Basic authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote host. Basic is the	 default  authentication  method  curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See  also	 --proxy-capath	 and  --cacert	and  --capath  and -x,
	      --proxy. Added in	7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See also --proxy-cacert and -x, --proxy and --capath.  Added  in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the  equivalent option to	-H, --header but is for	proxy communi-
	      cation only like in CONNECT requests when	you  want  a  separate
	      header  sent  to	the proxy to what is sent to the actual	remote
	      host.

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers  specified  with	this  option  will  not	be included in
	      requests that curl knows will not	be sent	to a proxy.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added	in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	NTLM authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This  option  allows  you	 to  change the	service	name for proxy
	      negotiation.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for proxy  authentica-
	      tion.

	      If  you  use  a  Windows	SSPI-enabled curl binary and do	either
	      Negotiate	or NTLM	authentication	then  you  can	tell  curl  to
	      select the user name and password	from your environment by spec-
	      ifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The  proxy string	can be specified with a	protocol:// prefix. No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.  (The protocol support was added
	      in curl 7.21.7)

	      HTTPS  proxy  support  via https:// protocol prefix was added in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized and unsupported  proxy  protocols  cause  an	 error
	      since  7.52.0.   Prior  versions may ignore the protocol and use
	      http:// instead.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This  option  overrides  existing	environment variables that set
	      the proxy	to use.	If there's an environment variable  setting  a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently be converted to HTTP. It	means  that  certain  protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
	      ytunnel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The  proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
	      environment variables, including the protocol  prefix  (http://)
	      and the embedded user + password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	HTTP 1.0 proxy.	If  the	 port  number  is  not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The  only	 difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
	      --proxy, is that attempts	to use CONNECT through the proxy  will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When  an	HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy,	this option will cause
	      non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the	 proxy
	      instead  of merely using it to do	HTTP-like operations. The tun-
	      nel approach is made with	the HTTP  proxy	 CONNECT  request  and
	      requires that the	proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
	      number curl wants	to tunnel through to.

	      To suppress proxy	CONNECT	response headers when curl is  set  to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key from the private key file, so	passing	this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8  or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

       -Q, --quote
	      (FTP  SFTP)  Send	an arbitrary command to	the remote FTP or SFTP
	      server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes	 place
	      (just  after  the	 initial PWD command in	an FTP transfer, to be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix  them  with  a  dash '-'.	To make	commands be sent after
	      curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
	      command(s),  prefix  the	command	 with a	'+' (this is only sup-
	      ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

	      If the server returns failure  for  one  of  the	commands,  the
	      entire  operation	 will  be aborted. You must send syntactically
	      correct FTP commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers,  or  one
	      of the commands listed below to SFTP servers.

	      This  option can be used multiple	times. When speaking to	an FTP
	      server, prefix the command with an asterisk  (*)	to  make  curl
	      continue	even if	the command fails as by	default	curl will stop
	      at first failure.

	      SFTP is a	binary protocol. Unlike	for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
	      quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.	Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
	      mands:

	      chgrp group file
		     The chgrp command sets the	group ID of the	file named  by
		     the  file	operand	to the group ID	specified by the group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	 command  creates  the	directory named	by the
		     directory_name operand.

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the source	operand	to the destination path	named  by  the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The rmdir command removes the directory  entry  specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       --random-file <file>
	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as random	data. The data may be used to seed the	random	engine
	      for SSL connections.  See	also the --egd-file option.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP  FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial docu-
	      ment) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or  SFTP  server  or  a  local	 FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*)  = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with	a mul-
	      tipart response!

	      Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields  of the 'start-stop' range	syntax.	If a non-digit charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You  should also be aware	that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have
	      this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to	get  a	range,
	      you'll instead get the whole document.

	      FTP  and	SFTP  range  downloads only support the	simple 'start-
	      stop' syntax (optionally with one	of the numbers	omitted).  FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent  or	transfer  encodings  and  instead makes	them passed on
	      unaltered, raw.

	      Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the -H,	--header flag of course.  When
	      used with	-L, --location you  can	 append	 ";auto"  to  the  -e,
	      --referer	 URL  to  make curl automatically set the previous URL
	      when it follows a	Location: header. The ";auto"  string  can  be
	      used alone, even if you don't set	an initial -e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified	 Content-Disposition   filename	  instead   of
	      extracting a filename from the URL.

	      If the server specifies a	file name and a	file  with  that  name
	      already  exists  in the current working directory	it will	not be
	      overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
	      ify a file name then this	option has no effect.

	      There's  no  attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING:	Exercise  judicious  use of this option, especially on
	      Windows. A rogue server could send you the  name	of  a  DLL  or
	      other  file  that	could possibly be loaded automatically by Win-
	      dows or some third party software.

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs	to  be
	      dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
	      you want to disable that for a specific URL after	--remote-name-
	      all has been used, you must use "-o -" or	--no-remote-name.

	      Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
	      (Only the	file part of the remote	file is	used, the path is  cut
	      off.)

	      The  file	will be	saved in the current working directory.	If you
	      want the file saved in a	different  directory,  make  sure  you
	      change  the  current working directory before invoking curl with
	      this option.

	      The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
	      given  URL,  nothing  else,  and if it already exists it will be
	      overwritten. If you want the server to be	 able  to  choose  the
	      file name	refer to -J, --remote-header-name which	can be used in
	      addition to this option. If the server chooses a file  name  and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other URL	encoded	parts of the name, they	will end up  as-is  as
	      file name.

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make	curl attempt to	figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	 the  remote  file,  and if that is available make the
	      local file get that same timestamp.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing  with	the HTTP server.  The specified	request	method will be
	      used instead of the method otherwise  used  (which  defaults  to
	      GET).  Read  the HTTP 1.1	specification for details and explana-
	      tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT  and  DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally you don't need this option. All	sorts  of  GET,	 HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This option only changes	the  actual  word  used	 in  the  HTTP
	      request,	it does	not alter the way curl behaves.	So for example
	      if you want to make a proper HEAD	request, using	-X  HEAD  will
	      not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

	      The  method  string  you set with	-X, --request will be used for
	      all requests, which if you for example use  -L,  --location  may
	      cause  unintended	 side-effects when curl	doesn't	change request
	      method according to the HTTP 30x response	codes -	and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

	      (IMAP) Specifies a custom	IMAP command to	use instead  of	 LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --resolve <host:port:address>
	      Provide  a  custom  address  for	a specific host	and port pair.
	      Using this, you can make the curl	requests(s)  use  a  specified
	      address  and  prevent the	otherwise normally resolved address to
	      be used. Consider	it a sort of /etc/hosts	 alternative  provided
	      on  the  command line. The port number should be the number used
	      for the specific protocol	the host will be used  for.  It	 means
	      you  need	several	entries	if you want to provide address for the
	      same host	but different ports.

	      The provided address set by this option will be used even	if -4,
	      --ipv4 or	-6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      This option can be used many times to add	 many  host  names  to
	      resolve.

	      Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In  addition to the other	conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
	      transient	error too for --retry. This option  is	used  together
	      with --retry.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep	 this  amount of time before each retry	when a
	      transfer has failed with	a  transient  error  (it  changes  the
	      default  backoff time algorithm between retries).	This option is
	      only interesting if --retry is also used.	Setting	this delay  to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The retry	timer is reset	before	the  first  transfer  attempt.
	      Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
	      hasn't reached this given	limit. Notice that if the timer	hasn't
	      reached  the  limit, the request will be made and	while perform-
	      ing, it may take longer than this	given time period. To limit  a
	      single  request's	 maximum  time,	 use -m, --max-time.  Set this
	      option to	zero to	not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer,	it will	retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0	makes curl do no retries (which	is the
	      default).	Transient error	means either: a	timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

	      When  curl  is about to retry a transfer,	it will	first wait one
	      second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
	      waiting  time until it reaches 10	minutes	which then will	be the
	      delay between the	rest of	the retries.  By  using	 --retry-delay
	      you   disable  this  exponential	backoff	 algorithm.  See  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	   --negotiate	  --service-name   sockd   would   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent  or  quiet	 mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-
	      sages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the	data  you  ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use -S, --show-error in  addition	 to  this  option  to  disable
	      progress meter but still show error messages.

	      See also -v, --verbose and --stderr.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it	is assumed at port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a://	protocol  pre-
	      fix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
	      ated. RFC	1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it	should	be  protected,
	      but  the	NEC  reference	implementation	does  not.  The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	 --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
	      service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for	 cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy	(and let the proxy resolve the
	      host name). If the port number is	not specified, it  is  assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h://	proto-
	      col prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS5 proxy  -	 but  resolve  the  host  name
	      locally.	If  the	port number is not specified, it is assumed at
	      port 1080.

	      This option overrides any	previous use of	-x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This  option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond)  for	 speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time	is set
	      with -y, --speed-time and	is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second	during
	      a	speed-time period, the download	gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used,  the  default  speed-limit	will  be 1 unless set with -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This option controls transfers and thus  will  not  affect  slow
	      connects	etc.  If this is a concern for you, try	the --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols	known as BEAST.	 If this option	 isn't
	      used,  the SSL layer may use workarounds known to	cause interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations. WARNING:
	      this option loosens the SSL security, and	by using this flag you
	      ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (WinSSL) This option tells curl to disable  certificate  revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.	Termi-
	      nates the	connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl  (FTP  IMAP  POP3	SMTP)  Try  to use SSL/TLS for the connection.
	      Reverts to a non-secure connection if the	server doesn't support
	      SSL/TLS.	 See also --ftp-ssl-control and	--ssl-reqd for differ-
	      ent levels of encryption required.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl (Added  in  7.11.0).
	      That  option  name  can  still  be used but will be removed in a
	      future version.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) Forces curl	to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv2 sup-
	      port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 6176).

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -2, --sslv2  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides -3,	--sslv3	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) Forces curl	to use SSL version 3 when negotiating  with  a
	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv3 sup-
	      port. SSLv3 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 7568).

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -3, --sslv3  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides -2,	--sslv2	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr
	      Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead.  If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When -p, --proxytunnel is	used and a  CONNECT  request  is  made
	      don't  output  proxy  CONNECT  response  headers.	This option is
	      meant to be used with -D,	--dump-header or -i,  --include	 which
	      are  used	 to  show  protocol  headers  in the output. It	has no
	      effect on	debug options such as -v, --verbose or --trace,	or any
	      statistics.

	      See also -D, --dump-header and -i, --include and -p, --proxytun-
	      nel.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since  7.50.2,  curl sets	this option by default and you need to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you don't want it on.

	      Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This  option  improves  interop with some	legacy servers that do
	      not acknowledge or properly implement TFTP  options.  When  this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP  FTP) Request a file that has been modified	later than the
	      given time and date, or one that has been	modified  before  that
	      time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
	      if it doesn't match any internal ones, it	is taken as a filename
	      and  tries  to  get  the	modification  date (mtime) from	<file>
	      instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression
	      details.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	document that is older than the	given date/time, default is  a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version.  A  minimum
	      is defined by arguments tlsv1.0 or tlsv1.1 or tlsv1.2.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       See also	--tlsv1.0 and --tlsv1.1	and --tlsv1.2. --tls-max requires that
       the underlying libcurl was built	to support TLS.	Added in 7.54.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set TLS  authentication  type.  Currently,  the  only  supported
	      option  is  "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP	(RFC  5054).  If --tlsuser and
	      --tlspassword are	specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
	      option defaults to "SRP".

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword
	      Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set username for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
	      set.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.0 when  connecting	 to  a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS)  Forces  curl  to use TLS version 1.1 when connecting to a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.2 when  connecting	 to  a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS)  Forces  curl  to use TLS version 1.3 when connecting to a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is only	supported by a subset of TLS backends.
	      At the time of writing this, those are BoringSSL and NSS only.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL)  Tells curl	to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating	with a
	      remote TLS server. That means TLS	version	1.0, 1.1 or 1.2.

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and	--tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress	the data while
	      receiving	it.

	      Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all	incoming  and  outgoing	 data,
	      including	descriptive information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes	smaller	output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides --trace and	-v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a  time	 stamp to each trace or	verbose	line that curl
	      displays.

	      Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all	incoming  and  outgoing	 data,
	      including	descriptive information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.  Use  "%"  as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides -v,	--verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This  transfers  the  specified local file to the	remote URL. If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	to really prove	to Curl	that there is no file name  or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use the file name	"-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
	      given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a	single period)
	      may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
	      mode  to	allow  reading	server	output	while  stdin  is being
	      uploaded.

	      You can specify one -T, --upload-file for	each URL on  the  com-
	      mand  line.  Each	-T, --upload-file + URL	pair specifies what to
	      upload and to where. curl	also supports "globbing"  of  the  -T,
	      --upload-file  argument,	meaning	 that  you can upload multiple
	      files to a single	URL by using the same URL globbing style  sup-
	      ported in	the URL, like this:

	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" http://www.example.com

	      or even

	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/upload/

	      When  uploading  to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers  and  mail  body formatted correctly by the user as curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

       --url <url>
	      Specify a	URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If  the given URL	is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
	      "ftp://" etc) then curl will make	a guess	based on the host.  If
	      the  outermost  sub-domain  name	matches	DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP,
	      POP3 or SMTP then	that protocol will  be	used,  otherwise  HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This option may be used any number of times.  To	control	 where
	      this  URL	 is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-
	      name options.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP LDAP) Enable	ASCII transfer.	For  FTP,  this	 can  also  be
	      enforced	by  using  a URL that ends with	";type=A". This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To encode	blanks in the string, surround the string with	single
	      quote  marks.  This can also be set with the -H, --header	option
	      of course.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you simply specify the	user name,  curl  will	prompt	for  a
	      password.

	      The  user	 name  and  passwords are split	up on the first	colon,
	      which makes it impossible	to use a colon in the user  name  with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      When  using  Kerberos  V5	with a Windows based server you	should
	      include the Windows domain name in the user name,	in  order  for
	      the  server  to  successfully  obtain  a Kerberos	Ticket.	If you
	      don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When using NTLM, the user	name can be specified  simply  as  the
	      user  name,  without the domain, if there	is a single domain and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon  Name  or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled	curl binary and	 perform  Ker-
	      beros  V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can
	      tell curl	to select the user name	and password from  your	 envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes curl verbose during	the operation.	Useful	for  debugging
	      and  seeing  what's  going  on "under the	hood". A line starting
	      with '>' means "header data" sent	by  curl,  '<'	means  "header
	      data"  received  by  curl	 that is hidden	in normal cases, and a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
	      be the option you're looking for.

	      If  you think this option	still doesn't give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

	      See also	-i,  --include.	 This  option  overrides  --trace  and
	      --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The first	line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The  second  line	(starts	with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols	are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of	compressed files over HTTP  is
		     supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a	libcurl	built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers	only!

	      AsynchDNS
		     This  curl	 uses asynchronous name	resolves. Asynchronous
		     name resolves can be done using either the	c-ares or  the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote	Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      Metalink
		     This  curl	 supports  Metalink (both version 3 and	4 (RFC
		     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will
		     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such	as the
		     file or server not	being available).

	      PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means  that  this
		     curl  has	been  built  with knowledge about "public suf-
		     fixes".

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer.  The	 format	 is a string that may contain plain text mixed
	      with any number of variables. The	format can be specified	 as  a
	      literal  "string",  or  you can have curl	read the format	from a
	      file with	"@filename" and	to tell	curl to	read the  format  from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will	be substituted
	      by the value or text that	curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
	      normal % you just	write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where all	occurrences of %  must	be  doubled  when  using  this
	      option.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the	requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that	curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to	a file	with  the  -O,	--remote-name  or  -o,
			     --output  option. It's most useful	in combination
			     with the -J, --remote-header-name option.	(Added
			     in	7.26.0)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
			     7.18.2 the	alias response_code was	added to  show
			     the same info.

	      http_connect   The  numerical  code  that	 was found in the last
			     response  (from  a	 proxy)	 to  a	curl   CONNECT
			     request. (Added in	7.12.4)

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      local_ip	     The IP address of	the  local  end	 of  the  most
			     recently  done connection - can be	either IPv4 or
			     IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      num_connects   Number  of	new connects made in the recent	trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that  were  followed  in  the
			     request. (Added in	7.12.3)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
			     tion to follow redirects (or when --max-redir  is
			     met),  this  variable  will show the actual URL a
			     redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

	      remote_ip	     The remote	IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection	- can be either	IPv4 or	IPv6 (Added in
			     7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The remote	port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      scheme	     The  URL  scheme (sometimes called	protocol) that
			     was effectively used (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The  total	 amount	of bytes that were sent	in the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The  average  upload speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the SSL peer	certificate  verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the	 SSL/SSH/etc  connect/handshake	to the
			     remote host was completed.	(Added in 7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the	 TCP  connect  to  the remote host (or
			     proxy) was	completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until the name resolving was completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took	from the start
			     until the file transfer was just about to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before  the	 final transaction was
			     started. time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion  time	 for  multiple redirections. (Added in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the	first byte was just about to be	trans-
			     ferred. This includes time_pretransfer  and  also
			     the  time	the  server  needed  to	 calculate the
			     result.

	      time_total     The total time, in	seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful if you've told curl	 to  follow  location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option	tells  curl  to	 store
	      certain  file  metadata  in extended file	attributes. Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute.	If the
	      file system does not support extended attributes,	a  warning  is
	      issued.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for	details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment variable to set the proxy	has the	same effect as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the  pro-
	      tocol  is	 a  protocol  that curl	supports and as	specified in a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use if no  protocol-specific  proxy  is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts>
	      list  of	host names that	shouldn't go through any proxy.	If set
	      to a asterisk '*'	only, it matches all hosts.

	      Since 7.53.0, this environment variable disable the  proxy  even
	      if  specify  -x,	--proxy	 option. That is NO_PROXY=direct.exam-
	      ple.com  curl  -x	 http://proxy.example.com  http://direct.exam-
	      ple.com	  accesses    the    target    URL    directly,	   and
	      NO_PROXY=direct.example.com  curl	 -x   http://proxy.example.com
	      http://somewhere.example.com  accesses  the  target  URL through
	      proxy.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may	be  specified  with  a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no  protocol	 is  specified	in  the	 proxy string or if the	string
       doesn't match a supported one, the proxy	will be	 treated  as  an  HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are  a  bunch  of	 different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At	 the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	feature	or option that	was  needed  to	 perform  the  desired
	      request  was  not	 enabled  or was explicitly disabled at	build-
	      time. To make curl able to do this, you  probably	 need  another
	      build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't	resolve	 proxy.	 The  given  proxy  host  could	not be
	      resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource	or directory you wanted	to reach. Most
	      often you	tried to change	to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While	waiting	for the	server to connect back
	      when an active FTP session is used, an error code	was sent  over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During an	active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird	227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary.	Couldn't  change  transfer  method  to
	      binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP  couldn't download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The	requested url was not found or
	      returned another error with the HTTP error  code	being  400  or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
	      similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR	file. The server denied	 the  STOR  operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	 timeout.  The	specified  time-out period was reached
	      according	to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT	command	failed.	Not  all  FTP  servers
	      support  the  PORT  command,  try	 doing	a  transfer using PASV
	      instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command  is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad  download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted down-
	      load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file.	Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	 error.	 A  specified  outgoing	interface could	not be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you
	      passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH	MD5 fingerprint	was not	OK.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user	 name,	password, or similar was not accepted and curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character	conversion failed.

       76     Character	conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not	load CRL file,	missing	 or  wrong  format  (added  in
	      7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of	CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of	Session	Identifiers

       87     unable to	parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.haxx.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.54.1		       November	16, 2016		       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

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