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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool	to transfer data from or to a server, using one	of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE,	FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,	 IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3,  POP3S,  RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS,
       SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work  without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of	useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post,	SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,	and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features	will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax	is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple	URLs or	parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as	in:

	 http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences	of alphanumeric	series by using	[] as in:

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[1-100].txt

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

	 ftp://ftp.example.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 http://example.com/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You  can	 specify a step	counter	for the	ranges to get every Nth	number
       or letter:

	 http://example.com/file[1-100:10].txt

	 http://example.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       When using [] or	{} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put	the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special,	like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might	want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its	best to	use what you pass to it	as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files	from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This	improves speed.	Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and	cannot be used between
       separate	curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a	progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and	estimated time
       left, etc. The progress meter displays number of	bytes and  the	speeds
       are  in	bytes per second. The suffixes (k, M, G, T, P) are 1024	based.
       For example 1k is 1024 bytes. 1M	is 1048576 bytes.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to	do an operation	and it is about	to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress	meter as otherwise it would mess up the	output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for	HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect	the response output to a file, using shell redirect  (>),  -o,
       --output	or similar.

       It  is not the same case	for FTP	upload as that operation does not spit
       out any response	data to	the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress	 "bar"	instead	 of  the  regular  meter,  -#,
       --progress-bar  is your friend. You can also disable the	progress meter
       completely with the -s, --silent	option.

OPTIONS
       Options start with one or two dashes. Many of the  options  require  an
       additional value	next to	them.

       The  short  "single-dash"  form	of the options,	-d for example,	may be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended	separator. The long "double-dash" form,	-d, --data for
       example,	requires a space between it and	its value.

       Short version options that don't	need any additional values can be used
       immediately  next  to  each other, like for example you can specify all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with	--option and yet again
       disabled	 with --no-option. That	is, you	use the	exact same option name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show  the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was
       added in	7.19.0.	Previously most	options	were  toggled  on/off  on  re-
       peated use of the same command line option.)

       --abstract-unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP)  Connect  through an abstract Unix	domain socket, instead
	      of using the network.  Note: netstat shows the path  of  an  ab-
	      stract  socket  prefixed	with  '@', however the <path> argument
	      should not have this leading character.

	      Added in 7.53.0.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and  use	the most secure	one the	remote site claims to support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and	checking the response-
	      headers,	thus  possibly	inducing  an extra network round-trip.
	      This is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific	authentication
	      method,  which  you  can	do with	--basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
	      --negotiate.

	      Using --anyauth is not recommended if you	do uploads from	stdin,
	      since  it	 may require data to be	sent twice and then the	client
	      must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when  uploading
	      from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --basic and --digest.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append	to the
	      target file instead  of  overwriting  it.	 If  the  remote  file
	      doesn't  exist,  it will be created.  Note that this flag	is ig-
	      nored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP Basic authentication with the  re-
	      mote host. This is the default and this option is	usually	point-
	      less, unless you use it to override a previously set option that
	      sets  a  different  authentication method	(such as --ntlm, --di-
	      gest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user.

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       --cacert	<CA certificate>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file  may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in	PEM format. Normally curl is built  to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  it  is  set,	and uses the given path	as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same	direc-
	      tory as curl.exe,	or in the Current Working Directory, or	in any
	      folder along your	PATH.

	      If  curl	is  built  against  the	 NSS  SSL library, the NSS PEM
	      PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) needs to be	available for this op-
	      tion to work properly.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then this	option is supported for	 backward  compatibility  with
	      other  SSL  engines,  but	it should not be set. If the option is
	      not set, then curl will use the certificates in the  system  and
	      user  Keychain to	verify the peer, which is the preferred	method
	      of verifying the peer's certificate chain.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --capath	<dir>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	 directory  to
	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be	provided by separating
	      them with	":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be  in PEM format, and if	curl is	built against OpenSSL, the di-
	      rectory must have	been processed using the c_rehash utility sup-
	      plied  with  OpenSSL.  Using  --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
	      curl to make SSL-connections much	more  efficiently  than	 using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is	set, the default capath	value will be ignored,
	      and if it	is used	several	times, the last	one will be used.

       --cert-status
	      (TLS) Tells curl to verify the status of the server  certificate
	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
	      extension.

	      If this option is	enabled	and the	server sends an	invalid	 (e.g.
	      expired) response, if the	response suggests that the server cer-
	      tificate has been	revoked, or no response	at  all	 is  received,
	      the verification fails.

	      This  is	currently  only	implemented in the OpenSSL, GnuTLS and
	      NSS backends.

	      Added in 7.41.0.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (TLS) Tells curl what certificate	type the provided  certificate
	      is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If	not specified,
	      PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -E, --cert and --key and	--key-type.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based	proto-
	      col. The certificate must	be in PKCS#12 format if	 using	Secure
	      Transport,  or PEM format	if using any other engine.  If the op-
	      tional password isn't specified, it will be queried for  on  the
	      terminal.	 Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
	      See -E, --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this	option
	      can tell curl the	nickname of the	certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable	SSL_DIR	(or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so)  is  available	 then  PEM files may be	loaded.	If you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to	be preceded by "\"  so
	      that  it	is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
	      name contains "\", it needs to be	escaped	as "\\"	so that	it  is
	      not recognized as	an escape character.

	      (iOS  and	macOS only) If curl is built against Secure Transport,
	      then the certificate string can either be	the name of a certifi-
	      cate/private  key	in the system or user keychain,	or the path to
	      a	PKCS#12-encoded	certificate and	private	key. If	 you  want  to
	      use  a  file  from the current directory,	please precede it with
	      "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --cert-type and --key and --key-type.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (TLS) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of  ciphers  must	 specify  valid	ciphers. Read up on SSL	cipher
	      list details on this URL:

	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/ssl-ciphers.html

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of	the algorithms
	      curl  supports, and save the uncompressed	document.  If this op-
	      tion is used and the server sends	an unsupported encoding,  curl
	      will report an error.

       -K, --config <file>

	      Specify  a  text	file  to read curl arguments from. The command
	      line arguments found in the text file will be used  as  if  they
	      were provided on the command line.

	      Options  and their parameters must be specified on the same line
	      in the file, separated by	whitespace, colon, or the equals sign.
	      Long  option  names  can	optionally be given in the config file
	      without the initial double dashes	and if so, the colon or	equals
	      characters can be	used as	separators. If the option is specified
	      with one or two dashes, there can	be no colon or equals  charac-
	      ter between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
	      enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the	following  es-
	      cape sequences are available: \\,	\", \t,	\n, \r and \v. A back-
	      slash preceding any other	letter is ignored. If the first	column
	      of  a  config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will
	      be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line
	      in the config file.

	      Specify  the  filename  to -K, --config as '-' to	make curl read
	      the file from stdin.

	      Note that	to be able to specify a	URL in the  config  file,  you
	      need  to	specify	 it  using the --url option, and not by	simply
	      writing the URL on its own line. So, it could  look  similar  to
	      this:

	      url = "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      When  curl  is invoked, it (unless -q, --disable is used)	checks
	      for a default config file	and uses it if found. The default con-
	      fig file is checked for in the following places in this order:

	      1)  curl	tries  to find the "home dir": It first	checks for the
	      CURL_HOME	and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
	      it  uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the home
	      dir given	the current user in your system). On Windows, it  then
	      checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
	      PROFILE%\Application Data'.

	      2) On windows, if	there is no _curlrc file in the	home  dir,  it
	      checks for one in	the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
	      Unix-like	systems, it will simply	try to load .curlrc  from  the
	      determined home dir.

	      #	--- Example file ---
	      #	this is	a comment
	      url = "example.com"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      #	and fetch another URL too
	      url = "example.com/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer =	"http://nowhereatall.example.com/"
	      #	--- End	of example file	---

	      This  option  can	be used	multiple times to load multiple	config
	      files.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that  you	 allow	curl's	connection  to
	      take.   This  only  limits the connection	phase, so if curl con-
	      nects within the given period it will continue - if not it  will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this	option accepts decimal values.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -m, --max-time.

       --connect-to <HOST1:PORT1:HOST2:PORT2>

	      For  a  request to the given HOST:PORT pair, connect to CONNECT-
	      TO-HOST:CONNECT-TO-PORT instead.	This option is suitable	to di-
	      rect  requests  at a specific server, e.g. at a specific cluster
	      node in a	cluster	of servers.  This option is only used  to  es-
	      tablish  the  network  connection.  It does NOT affect the host-
	      name/port	that is	used for TLS/SSL (e.g. SNI, certificate	 veri-
	      fication)	 or  for the application protocols.  "host" and	"port"
	      may be the empty string, meaning "any host/port".	  "connect-to-
	      host"  and "connect-to-port" may also be the empty string, mean-
	      ing "use the request's original host/port".

	      This option can be used many times to add	many connect rules.

	      See also --resolve and -H, --header. Added in 7.49.0.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a	previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting	from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it is transferred	to the destination.  If	used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It	then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure	that out.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -r, --range.

       -c, --cookie-jar	<filename>
	      (HTTP) Specify to	which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a	completed  operation. Curl writes all cookies from its
	      in-memory	cookie storage to the given file at the	end of	opera-
	      tions.  If  no  cookies  are known, no data will be written. The
	      file will	be written using the Netscape cookie file  format.  If
	      you set the file name to a single	dash, "-", the cookies will be
	      written to stdout.

	      This command line	option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record	and use	cookies. Another way to	activate it is
	      to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar	can't be created or written to,	the whole curl
	      operation	 won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v,
	      --verbose	will get a warning displayed, but  that	 is  the  only
	      visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If  this	option	is used	several	times, the last	specified file
	      name will	be used.

       -b, --cookie <data>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server in the Cookie header. It
	      is  supposedly the data previously received from the server in a
	      "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data	should	be   in	  the	format
	      "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no '=' symbol	is used	in the argument, it is instead treated
	      as a filename to read previously stored cookie from. This	option
	      also activates the cookie	engine which will make curl record in-
	      coming cookies, which may	be handy if you're using this in  com-
	      bination	with  the  -L,	--location  option  or do multiple URL
	      transfers	on the same invoke.

	      The file format of the file to read cookies from should be plain
	      HTTP  headers  (Set-Cookie style)	or the Netscape/Mozilla	cookie
	      file format.

	      The file specified with -b, --cookie is only used	as  input.  No
	      cookies  will  be	written	to the file. To	store cookies, use the
	      -c, --cookie-jar option.

	      Exercise caution if you  are  using  this	 option	 and  multiple
	      transfers	may occur.  If you use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in
	      a	file use the Set-Cookie	format and  don't  specify  a  domain,
	      then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects are
	      followed)	and cannot be modified by a server-set cookie. If  the
	      cookie  engine is	enabled	and a server sets a cookie of the same
	      name then	both will be sent on a future transfer to that server,
	      likely not what you intended.  To	address	these issues set a do-
	      main in Set-Cookie (doing	that will include sub domains) or  use
	      the Netscape format.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Users very often want to both read cookies from a	file and write
	      updated cookies back to a	file, so using both -b,	 --cookie  and
	      -c, --cookie-jar in the same command line	is common.

       --create-dirs
	      When used	in conjunction with the	-o, --output option, curl will
	      create the necessary local directory hierarchy as	 needed.  This
	      option  creates the dirs mentioned with the -o, --output option,
	      nothing else. If the --output file name uses no dir  or  if  the
	      dirs it mentions already exist, no dir will be created.

	      To  create remote	directories when using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP SMTP)  Convert  LF  to  CRLF	 in  upload.  Useful  for  MVS
	      (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile <file>
	      (TLS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revoca-
	      tion List	that may specify peer certificates that	are to be con-
	      sidered revoked.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.19.7.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is just an alias for -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data exactly as specified with no extra pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      filename.	  Data	is  posted  in	a similar manner as -d,	--data
	      does, except that	newlines and carriage  returns	are  preserved
	      and conversions are never	done.

	      If  this	option	is  used several times,	the ones following the
	      first will append	data as	described in -d, --data.

       --data-raw <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts	data similarly to -d, --data but  without  the
	      special interpretation of	the @ character.

	      See also -d, --data. Added in 7.43.0.

       --data-urlencode	<data>
	      (HTTP)  This posts data, similar to the other -d,	--data options
	      with the exception that this performs URL-encoding.

	      To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin	 with  a  name
	      followed	by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	and pass  that
		     on.  Just	be careful so that the content doesn't contain
		     any = or @	symbols, as that will  then  make  the	syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This  will	make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. The preceding = symbol	is not included	in the data.

	      name=content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the	content	part and  pass
		     that  on.	Note that the name part	is expected to be URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This will make curl load data from	the  given  file  (in-
		     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
		     on	in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This will make curl load data from	the  given  file  (in-
		     cluding  any  newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it
		     on	in the POST. The name part  gets  an  equal  sign  ap-
		     pended,  resulting	 in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       See also	-d, --data and --data-raw. Added in 7.18.0.

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST	request	 to  the  HTTP
	      server,  in  the	same  way  that	a browser does when a user has
	      filled in	an HTML	form and presses the submit button. This  will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server	using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      --data-raw is almost the same but	does not have a	special	inter-
	      pretation	 of  the  @ character. To post data purely binary, you
	      should instead use the --data-binary option.  To URL-encode  the
	      value of a form field you	may use	--data-urlencode.

	      If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com-
	      mand line, the data pieces specified  will  be  merged  together
	      with  a  separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d	name=daniel -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If  you  start  the data with the	letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name	to read	the data from, or - if you want	curl  to  read
	      the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-
	      ing data from a file named from a	file like that,	 carriage  re-
	      turns and	newlines will be stripped out. If you don't want the @
	      character	to have	a special interpretation  use  --data-raw  in-
	      stead.

	      See also --data-binary and --data-urlencode and --data-raw. This
	      option overrides -F, --form and -I, --head and --upload.

       --delegation <LEVEL>
	      (GSS/kerberos) Set LEVEL to tell the server what it  is  allowed
	      to delegate when it comes	to user	credentials.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates	if  and	only if	the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag	is set
		     in	the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is	 a  matter  of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authenti-
	      cation scheme that prevents the password from  being  sent  over
	      the  wire	in clear text. Use this	in combination with the	normal
	      -u, --user option	to set user name and password.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      See  also	 -u, --user and	--proxy-digest and --anyauth. This op-
	      tion overrides --basic and --ntlm	and --negotiate.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the	EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active	FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPRT, then	LPRT before using PORT,	but with  this
	      option,  it  will	 use PORT right	away. EPRT and LPRT are	exten-
	      sions to the original FTP	protocol, and  may  not	 work  on  all
	      servers, but they	enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      If  the  server is accessed using	IPv6, this option will have no
	      effect as	EPRT is	necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
	      switch  to  passive  mode	 you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
	      force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use	of  the	 EPSV  command
	      when  doing  passive  FTP	 transfers.  Curl will normally	always
	      first attempt to use EPSV	before PASV, but with this option,  it
	      will not try using EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      If the server is an IPv6 host, this option will have  no	effect
	      as EPSV is necessary then.

	      Disabling	EPSV only changes the passive behavior.	If you want to
	      switch to	active mode you	need to	use -P,	--ftp-port.

       -q, --disable
	      If used as the first parameter on	the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file will	not be read and	used. See the -K, --config for
	      details on the default config file search	path.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to send outgoing DNS  requests  through  <inter-
	      face>.  This  option is a	counterpart to --interface (which does
	      not affect DNS). The supplied string must	be an  interface  name
	      (not an address).

	      See  also	 --dns-ipv4-addr  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-interface
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv4-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv4 address.

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv6-addr. --dns-ipv4-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-ipv6-addr <address>
	      (DNS) Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS re-
	      quests, so that the DNS requests originate  from	this  address.
	      The argument should be a single IPv6 address.

	      See  also	 --dns-interface  and --dns-ipv4-addr. --dns-ipv6-addr
	      requires that the	underlying libcurl was	built  to  support  c-
	      ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       --dns-servers <addresses>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be	used instead of	the system de-
	      fault.  The list of IP addresses should be separated  with  com-
	      mas. Port	numbers	may also optionally be given as	:_port-number_
	      after each IP address.

	      --dns-servers requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to
	      support c-ares. Added in 7.33.0.

       -D, --dump-header <filename>
	      (HTTP  FTP) Write	the received protocol headers to the specified
	      file.

	      This option is handy to use when you want	to store  the  headers
	      that  an	HTTP site sends	to you.	Cookies	from the headers could
	      then be read in a	 second	 curl  invocation  by  using  the  -b,
	      --cookie	option!	The -c,	--cookie-jar option is a better	way to
	      store cookies.

	      When used	in FTP,	the FTP	server response	lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -o, --output.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (TLS)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering	Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections.

	      See also --random-file.

       --engine	<name>
	      (TLS)  Select the	OpenSSL	crypto engine to use for cipher	opera-
	      tions. Use --engine list to print	a list of build-time supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	 all  (or  none) of the	engines	may be
	      available	at run-time.

       --expect100-timeout <seconds>
	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
	      100-continue  response  when curl	emits an Expects: 100-continue
	      header in	its request. By	default	curl  will  wait  one  second.
	      This  option accepts decimal values! When	curl stops waiting, it
	      will continue as if the response has been	received.

	      See also --connect-timeout. Added	in 7.47.0.

       --fail-early
	      Fail and exit on the first detected transfer error.

	      When curl	is used	to do multiple transfers on the	command	 line,
	      it will attempt to operate on each given URL, one	by one.	By de-
	      fault, it	will ignore errors if there are	more  URLs  given  and
	      the  last	 URL's	success	will determine the error code curl re-
	      turns. So	early failures will be "hidden"	by subsequent success-
	      ful transfers.

	      Using  this  option,  curl  will	instead	return an error	on the
	      first transfer that fails, independent of	 the  amount  of  URLs
	      that  are	given on the command line. This	way, no	transfer fail-
	      ures go undetected by scripts and	similar.

	      This option is global and	does not need to be specified for each
	      use of -:, --next.

	      This option does not imply -f, --fail, which causes transfers to
	      fail due to the server's HTTP status code. You can  combine  the
	      two options, however note	-f, --fail is not global and is	there-
	      fore contained by	-:, --next.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to better	enable scripts etc to better deal with
	      failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
	      deliver  a  document,  it	 returns  an  HTML document stating so
	      (which often also	describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
	      vent curl	from outputting	that and return	error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and	there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes	will slip through, especially when au-
	      thentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       --false-start
	      (TLS)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the	TLS handshake.
	      False start is a mode where a TLS	client will start sending  ap-
	      plication	 data  before verifying	the server's Finished message,
	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.

	      This is currently	only implemented in the	NSS and	Secure	Trans-
	      port (on iOS 7.0 or later, or OS X 10.9 or later)	backends.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP)  Similar  to  -F, --form except that the value string for
	      the named	parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' char-
	      acters,  and  the	 ';type='  string in the value have no special
	      meaning. Use this	in preference to -F,  --form  if  there's  any
	      possibility  that	 the string value may accidentally trigger the
	      '@' or '<' features of -F, --form.

	      See also -F, --form.

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in	form in	which  a  user
	      has pressed the submit button. This causes curl to POST data us-
	      ing the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC	 2388.
	      This  enables  uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part	from a file, prefix the	file name with
	      the symbol <. The	difference between @ and  <  is	 then  that  @
	      makes  a	file  get attached in the post as a file upload, while
	      the < makes a text field and just	get the	contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Example:	to  send  an image to a	server,	where 'profile'	is the
	      name of the form-field to	which portrait.jpg will	be the input:

	       curl -F profile=@portrait.jpg https://example.com/upload.cgi

	      To read content from stdin instead of a file, use	- as the file-
	      name.  This  goes	 for both @ and	< constructs. Unfortunately it
	      does not support reading the file	from a named pipe or  similar,
	      as it needs the full size	before the transfer starts.

	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	       curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html"	example.com

	      or

	       curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" example.com

	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	       curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" example.com

	      If  filename/path	contains ',' or	';', it	must be	quoted by dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	       curl  -F	 "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\""	 exam-
	      ple.com

	      or

	       curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' example.com

	      Note  that  if  a	 filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any
	      double-quote or backslash	within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      This option overrides -d,	--data and -I, --head and --upload.

       --ftp-account <data>
	      (FTP) When an FTP	server asks for	"account data" after user name
	      and password has been provided, this data	is sent	off using  the
	      ACCT command.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.13.0.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP)  If	 authenticating	with the USER and PASS commands	fails,
	      send this	 command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's	Secure
	      Transport	 server	 over  FTPS  using a client certificate, using
	      "SITE AUTH" will tell the	server to retrieve the	username  from
	      the certificate.

	      Added in 7.15.5.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP  SFTP)  When	 an FTP	or SFTP	URL/operation uses a path that
	      doesn't currently	exist on the server, the standard behavior  of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

	      See also --create-dirs.

       --ftp-method <method>
	      (FTP) Control what method	curl should use	to reach a file	on  an
	      FTP(S)  server. The method argument should be one	of the follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl does a single	CWD operation for each	path  part  in
		     the  given	URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many
		     commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it  should  be	 done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl  does	 no  CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for	all these com-
		     mands. This is the	fastest	behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the	full target directory and then
		     operates on the file "normally"  (like  in	 the  multicwd
		     case).  This  is  somewhat	 more standards	compliant than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       Added in	7.15.1.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP) Use	passive	mode for the data connection. Passive  is  the
	      internal	default	behavior, but using this option	can be used to
	      override a previous -P, --ftp-port option.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.  Undoing  an  enforced passive really isn't	doable but you
	      must then	instead	enforce	the correct -P,	--ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will	try the	EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless	--disable-epsv is used.

	      See also --disable-epsv. Added in	7.11.0.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP)  Reverses  the  default initiator/listener roles when con-
	      necting with FTP.	This option makes curl use active  mode.  curl
	      then  tells the server to	connect	back to	the client's specified
	      address and port,	while passive mode asks	the server to setup an
	      IP  address  and	port for it to connect to. <address> should be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     i.e "eth0"	to specify which interface's  IP  address  you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     i.e "192.168.10.1"	to specify the exact IP	address

	      host name
		     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make  curl	 pick the same IP address that is already used
		     for the control connection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be  used.  Dis-
       able  the  use  of PORT with --ftp-pasv.	Disable	the attempt to use the
       EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt.  EPRT  is	really
       PORT++.

       Since  7.19.5,  you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the ad-
       dress, to tell curl what	TCP port range to use. That means you  specify
       a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A	single number works as
       well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the  port
       may not be available.

       See also	--ftp-pasv and --disable-eprt.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP)  Tell  curl	to send	a PRET command before PASV (and	EPSV).
	      Certain FTP servers, mainly drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
	      command  for  directory  listings	as well	as up and downloads in
	      PASV mode.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP	address	the server suggests in
	      its  response to curl's PASV command when	curl connects the data
	      connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it  al-
	      ready uses for the control connection.

	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
	      of PASV.

	      See also --ftp-pasv. Added in 7.14.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode <active/passive>
	      (FTP) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode	will not initiate  the
	      shutdown,	but instead wait for the server	to do it, and will not
	      reply to the shutdown from the server. The active	mode initiates
	      the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.

	      See also --ftp-ssl-ccc. Added in 7.16.2.

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel)	Shuts down the SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode	is passive.

	      See also --ssl and --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode. Added in 7.16.1.

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for	the FTP	 login,	 clear	for  transfer.
	      Allows  secure  authentication, but non-encrypted	data transfers
	      for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server	 doesn't  sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       -G, --get
	      When  used,  this	 option	 will make all data specified with -d,
	      --data, --data-binary or --data-urlencode	to be used in an  HTTP
	      GET  request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be
	      used. The	data will be appended to the URL with a	'?' separator.

	      If used in combination with -I, --head, the POST data  will  in-
	      stead be appended	to the URL with	a HEAD request.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used. This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but  you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL	globbing parser". When you set
	      this option, you can specify URLs	that contain the letters  {}[]
	      without  having them being interpreted by	curl itself. Note that
	      these letters are	not normal legal URL contents but they	should
	      be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP FTP	FILE) Fetch the	headers	only! HTTP-servers feature the
	      command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of  a
	      document.	 When  used  on	an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the
	      file size	and last modification time only.

       -H, --header <header>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in	the request when sending  HTTP
	      to  a  server. You may specify any number	of extra headers. Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one  of  the  internal  ones curl	would use, your	externally set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to  make	even  trickier	stuff than curl	would normally do. You
	      should not replace internally set	headers	without	 knowing  per-
	      fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal	header by giv-
	      ing a replacement	without	content	 on  the  right	 side  of  the
	      colon, as	in: -H "Host:".	If you send the	custom header with no-
	      value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,  such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each	header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      See also the -A, --user-agent and	-e, --referer options.

	      Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head-
	      ers intended for a proxy.

	      Example:

	       curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://example.com/

	      WARNING:	headers	 set  with  this option	will be	set in all re-
	      quests - even after redirects are	followed, like when told  with
	      -L,  --location. This can	lead to	the header being sent to other
	      hosts than the original host, so	sensitive  headers  should  be
	      used with	caution	combined with following	redirects.

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

       -h, --help
	      Usage help. This lists all current command line options  with  a
	      short description.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SFTP  SCP)  Pass	a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The
	      string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum	of the	remote	host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host	unless
	      the md5sums match.

	      Added in 7.17.1.

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.0	instead	of  using  its
	      internally preferred HTTP	version.

	      This option overrides --http1.1 and --http2.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 1.1.

	      This  option  overrides  -0,  --http1.0  and  --http2.  Added in
	      7.33.0.

       --http2-prior-knowledge
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to  issue  its	non-TLS	 HTTP  requests	 using
	      HTTP/2  without  HTTP/1.1	 Upgrade.  It requires prior knowledge
	      that the server supports HTTP/2 straight	away.  HTTPS  requests
	      will  still  do HTTP/2 the standard way with negotiated protocol
	      version in the TLS handshake.

	      --http2-prior-knowledge requires that the	underlying libcurl was
	      built to support HTTP/2. This option overrides --http1.1 and -0,
	      --http1.0	and --http2. Added in 7.49.0.

       --http2
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to use HTTP version 2.

	      See also --no-alpn. --http2 requires that	the underlying libcurl
	      was built	to support HTTP/2. This	option overrides --http1.1 and
	      -0, --http1.0 and	--http2-prior-knowledge. Added in 7.33.0.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (FTP HTTP) For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header.  This  is
	      particularly  useful  for	servers	running	Apache 1.x, which will
	      report incorrect Content-Length for files	larger	than  2	 giga-
	      bytes.

	      For  FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the	RETR command to	figure out the
	      size before downloading a	file.

       -i, --include
	      Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header  includes
	      things  like server-name,	date of	the document, HTTP-version and
	      more...

	      See also -v, --verbose.

       -k, --insecure
	      (TLS) By default,	every SSL connection curl makes	is verified to
	      be  secure.  This	option allows curl to proceed and operate even
	      for server connections otherwise considered insecure.

	      The server connection is verified	by making  sure	 the  server's
	      certificate  contains  the  right	name and verifies successfully
	      using the	cert store.

	      See this online resource for further details:
	       https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

	      See also --proxy-insecure	and --cacert.

       --interface <name>

	      Perform an operation using a specified interface.	You can	 enter
	      interface	 name,	IP address or host name. An example could look
	      like:

	       curl --interface	eth0:1 https://www.example.com/

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --dns-interface.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv4 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This option tells	curl to	resolve	names to IPv6 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	 --http2.  This	 option	 overrides -6,
	      --ipv6.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will ba-
	      sically have the same effect as if a  new	 session  is  started.
	      Typical  browsers	 always	 discard  session cookies when they're
	      closed down.

	      See also -b, --cookie and	-c, --cookie-jar.

       --keepalive-time	<seconds>
	      This option sets the time	a connection needs to remain idle  be-
	      fore  sending  keepalive	probes and the time between individual
	      keepalive	probes.	It is currently	effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX	and more). This	option has  no
	      effect if	--no-keepalive is used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60	seconds.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --key-type <type>
	      (TLS) Private key	file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
	      vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported.	If not
	      specified, PEM is	assumed.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --key <key>
	      (TLS SSH)	Private	key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate  key	in this	separate file. For SSH,	if not specified, curl
	      tries the	following candidates in	order:

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The	level must  be
	      entered and should be one	of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'. Should	you use	a level	that  is  not  one  of	these,
	      'private'	will instead be	used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      --krb  requires that the underlying libcurl was built to support
	      Kerberos.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append this option to any	ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
	      will  get	a libcurl-using	C source code written to the file that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last given  file  name
	      will be used.

	      Added in 7.16.1.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you	want curl to use - for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you	have a
	      limited pipe and you'd like your transfer	not to use your	entire
	      bandwidth. To make it slower than	it otherwise would be.

	      The given	speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K'	will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or M' makes it	megabytes, while 'g' or	'G'  makes  it
	      gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and	1G.

	      If  you  also use	the -Y,	--speed-limit option, that option will
	      take precedence and might	cripple	the rate-limiting slightly, to
	      help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP  POP3)  (FTP)  When	listing	 an FTP	directory, this	switch
	      forces a name-only view. This is especially useful if  the  user
	      wants  to	 machine-parse	the contents of	an FTP directory since
	      the normal directory view	doesn't	use a standard look or format.
	      When used	like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent
	      to the server instead of LIST.

	      Note: Some FTP servers list only	files  in  their  response  to
	      NLST; they do not	include	sub-directories	and symbolic links.

	      (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email	from POP3, this	switch
	      forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
	      particularly  useful if the user wants to	see if a specific mes-
	      sage id exists on	the server and what size it is.

	      Note: When combined with -X, --request, this option can be  used
	      to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's
	      unique identifier	rather than it's message id to	make  the  re-
	      quest.

	      Added in 7.21.5.

       --local-port <num/range>
	      Set  a  preferred	single number or range (FROM-TO) of local port
	      numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by
	      nature  are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so set-
	      ting this	range to something too narrow might cause  unnecessary
	      connection setup failures.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP)  Like  -L,	 --location, but will allow sending the	name +
	      password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This	may or
	      may not introduce	a security breach if the site redirects	you to
	      a	site to	which you'll send your authentication info  (which  is
	      plaintext	in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      See also -u, --user.

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP)  If  the server reports that the requested	page has moved
	      to a different location (indicated with a	Location: header and a
	      3XX  response code), this	option will make curl redo the request
	      on the new place.	If used	together with  -i,  --include  or  -I,
	      --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When au-
	      thentication is used, curl only sends  its  credentials  to  the
	      initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
	      won't be able to intercept the user+password. See	 also  --loca-
	      tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of
	      redirects	to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When curl	follows	a redirect and the request is not a plain  GET
	      (for example POST	or PUT), it will do the	following request with
	      a	GET if the HTTP	response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
	      code was any other 3xx code, curl	will re-send the following re-
	      quest using the same unmodified method.

	      You can tell curl	to not change the non-GET  request  method  to
	      GET  after  a  30x  response  by using the dedicated options for
	      that: --post301, --post302 and --post303.

       --login-options <options>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the login options to use	during	server
	      authentication.

	      You  can	use the	login options to specify protocol specific op-
	      tions that may be	used during authentication.  At	 present  only
	      IMAP,  POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information
	      about the	login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092  and  IETF
	      draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a  single address. This will be used to specify
	      the authentication address (identity)  of	 a  submitted  message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-from. Added in 7.25.0.

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP)  Specify  a single	address	that the given mail should get
	      sent from.

	      See also --mail-rcpt and --mail-auth. Added in 7.20.0.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.
	      Repeat this option several times to send to multiple recipients.

	      When  performing a mail transfer,	the recipient should specify a
	      valid email address to send the mail to.

	      When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the  re-
	      cipient  should  be  specified as	the user name or user name and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in	7.34.0)

	      When performing a	mailing	list expand (EXPN command), the	recip-
	      ient  should  be	specified using	the mailing list name, such as
	      "Friends"	or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file  to	 download.  If
	      the  file	requested is larger than this value, the transfer will
	      not start	and curl will return with exit code 63.

	      NOTE: The	file size is not always	known prior to	download,  and
	      for such files this option has no	effect even if the file	trans-
	      fer ends up being	larger than this given	limit.	This  concerns
	      both FTP and HTTP	transfers.

	      See also --limit-rate.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      (HTTP)  Set  maximum  number  of redirection-followings allowed.
	      When -L, --location is used, is used to prevent curl  from  fol-
	      lowing  redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit	is set
	      to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1	to make	it unlimited.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -m, --max-time <time>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole	 operation  to
	      take.   This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang-
	      ing for hours due	to slow	networks or links going	 down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease	in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also --connect-timeout.

       --metalink
	      This  option  can	 tell curl to parse and	process	a given	URI as
	      Metalink file (both version 3 and	4 (RFC	5854)  are  supported)
	      and  make	use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there
	      are errors (such as the file or server not being available).  It
	      will  also  verify  the hash of the file after the download com-
	      pletes. The Metalink file	itself is downloaded and processed  in
	      memory and not stored in the local file system.

	      Example to use a remote Metalink file:

	       curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

	      To use a Metalink	file in	the local file system, use FILE	proto-
	      col (file://):

	       curl --metalink file://example.metalink

	      Please note that if FILE protocol	is disabled, there is  no  way
	      to  use  a local Metalink	file at	the time of this writing. Also
	      note that	if --metalink and -i,  --include  are  used  together,
	      --include	 will be ignored. This is because including headers in
	      the response will	break Metalink parser and if the  headers  are
	      included in the file described in	Metalink file, hash check will
	      fail.

	      --metalink requires that the underlying  libcurl	was  built  to
	      support metalink.	Added in 7.27.0.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO)	authentication.

	      This  option  requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup-
	      port. Use	-V, --version  to  see	if  your  curl	supports  GSS-
	      API/SSPI or SPNEGO.

	      When  using this option, you must	also provide a fake -u,	--user
	      option to	activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
	      '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the user	name and password from the -u,
	      --user option aren't actually used.

	      If this option is	used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

	      See also --basic and --ntlm and --anyauth	and --proxy-negotiate.

       --netrc-file <filename>
	      This  option  is similar to -n, --netrc, except that you provide
	      the path (absolute or relative) to  the  netrc  file  that  Curl
	      should use.  You can only	specify	one netrc file per invocation.
	      If several --netrc-file options are provided, the	last one  will
	      be used.

	      It will abide by --netrc-optional	if specified.

	      This option overrides -n,	--netrc. Added in 7.21.5.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very  similar  to	 -n, --netrc, but this option makes the	.netrc
	      usage optional and not mandatory as the -n, --netrc option does.

	      See also --netrc-file. This option overrides -n, --netrc.

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for	login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user authentication. See netrc(5)	ftp(1) for details on the file
	      format. Curl will	not complain if	that  file  doesn't  have  the
	      right permissions	(it should not be either world-	or group-read-
	      able). The environment variable "HOME" is	used to	find the  home
	      directory.

	      A	 quick and very	simple example of how to setup a .netrc	to al-
	      low curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com  with  user  name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use	a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated options. This allows you  to  send  several  URL  re-
	      quests,  each with their own specific options, for example, such
	      as different user	names or custom	requests for each.

	      -:, --next will reset all	local options  and  only  global  ones
	      will  have  their	values survive over to the operation following
	      the -:, --next instruction. Global options  include  -v,	--ver-
	      bose, --trace, --trace-ascii and --fail-early.

	      For  example,  you can do	both a GET and a POST in a single com-
	      mand line:

	       curl www1.example.com --next -d postthis	www2.example.com

	      Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-alpn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  de-
	      fault  if	 libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports
	      ALPN. ALPN is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to  negoti-
	      ate HTTP/2 support with the server during	https sessions.

	      See  also	 --no-npn and --http2. --no-alpn requires that the un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of	the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use	a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have	the effect that	it will	output the data	in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this	option
	      will disable that	buffering.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --buffer	to enforce the buffering.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables	the  use  of keepalive messages	on the TCP connection.
	      curl otherwise enables them by default.

	      Note that	this is	the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-npn
	      (HTTPS) Disable the NPN TLS extension. NPN is enabled by default
	      if libcurl was built with	an SSL library that supports NPN.  NPN
	      is  used	by  a libcurl that supports HTTP/2 to negotiate	HTTP/2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      See also --no-alpn and --http2. --no-npn requires	that  the  un-
	      derlying libcurl was built to support TLS. Added in 7.36.0.

       --no-sessionid
	      (TLS)  Disable curl's use	of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
	      all transfers are	done using the cache. Note that	while  nothing
	      should  ever  get	 hurt  by attempting to	reuse SSL session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require you to disable this in order for you to succeed.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

	      Added in 7.16.0.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy,  if  one
	      is  specified.  The only wildcard	is a single * character, which
	      matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
	      in  this	list  is matched as either a domain which contains the
	      hostname,	or the hostname	itself.	For example,  local.com	 would
	      match   local.com,  local.com:80,	 and  www.local.com,  but  not
	      www.notlocal.com.

	      Since 7.53.0, This option	overrides  the	environment  variables
	      that  disable the	proxy. If there's an environment variable dis-
	      abling a proxy, you can set noproxy list to "" to	override it.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --ntlm-wb
	      (HTTP) Enables NTLM much in the style --ntlm does, but hand over
	      the  authentication  to the separate binary ntlmauth application
	      that is executed when needed.

	      See also --ntlm and --proxy-ntlm.

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM	authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever  peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based	on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone
	      who  uses	 NTLM to switch	to a public and	documented authentica-
	      tion method instead, such	as Digest.

	      If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy	 authentication,  then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first	one is
	      used.

	      See also	--proxy-ntlm.  --ntlm  requires	 that  the  underlying
	      libcurl  was built to support TLS. This option overrides --basic
	      and --negotiated and --digest and	--anyauth.

       --oauth2-bearer <token>
	      (IMAP POP3 SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token	for OAUTH  2.0	server
	      authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the
	      user name	which can be specified as part of  the	--url  or  -u,
	      --user options.

	      The  Bearer  Token  and user name	are formatted according	to RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of	stdout.	If you are using {} or
	      []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
	      number in	the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced
	      with the current string for the URL being	fetched. Like in:

	       curl http://{one,two}.example.com -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

	       curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o	"#1_#2"

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have. For	example, if you	specify	two URLs on the	 same  command
	      line, you	can use	it like	this:

		curl -o	aa example.com -o bb example.net

	      and  the	order  of  the -o options and the URLs doesn't matter,
	      just that	the first -o is	for the	first URL and so  on,  so  the
	      above command line can also be written as

		curl example.com example.net -o	aa -o bb

	      See  also	 the --create-dirs option to create the	local directo-
	      ries dynamically.	Specifying the output as '-' (a	 single	 dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

	      See  also	 -O, --remote-name and --remote-name-all and -J, --re-
	      mote-header-name.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSH TLS)	Passphrase for the private key

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --path-as-is
	      Tell curl	to not handle sequences	of /../	or /./	in  the	 given
	      URL  path.  Normally curl	will squash or merge them according to
	      standards	but with this option set you tell it not to do that.

	      Added in 7.42.0.

       --pinnedpubkey <hashes>
	      (TLS) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
	      hashes)  to  verify the peer. This can be	a path to a file which
	      contains a single	public key in PEM or DER format, or any	number
	      of base64	encoded	sha256 hashes preceded by 'sha256//' and sepa-
	      rated by ';'

	      When negotiating a TLS or	SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this	certificate and	if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided	to this	option,	curl will abort	the connection
	      before sending or	receiving any data.

	      PEM/DER support:
		7.39.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS	and GSKit
		7.43.0:	NSS and	wolfSSL/CyaSSL
		7.47.0:	mbedtls
		7.49.0:	PolarSSL sha256	support:
		7.44.0:	OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL/CyaSSL.
		7.47.0:	mbedtls
		7.49.0:	PolarSSL Other SSL backends not	supported.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.2 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 301 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behaviour	is ubiquitous in web browsers,	so  curl  does
	      the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after	such  a	 redi-
	      rection.	This  option is	meaningful only	when using -L, --loca-
	      tion.

	      See also --post302 and --post303 and -L,	--location.  Added  in
	      7.17.1.

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.3 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 302 redirection. The
	      non-RFC  behaviour  is  ubiquitous in web	browsers, so curl does
	      the conversion by	default	to maintain  consistency.  However,  a
	      server  may  require  a POST to remain a POST after such a redi-
	      rection. This option is meaningful only when using  -L,  --loca-
	      tion.

	      See  also	 --post301  and	--post303 and -L, --location. Added in
	      7.19.1.

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl	to respect RFC 7231/6.4.4 and not convert POST
	      requests into GET	requests when following	a 303 redirection. The
	      non-RFC behaviour	is ubiquitous in web browsers,	so  curl  does
	      the  conversion  by  default to maintain consistency. However, a
	      server may require a POST	to remain a POST after	such  a	 redi-
	      rection.	This  option is	meaningful only	when using -L, --loca-
	      tion.

	      See also --post302 and --post301 and -L,	--location.  Added  in
	      7.26.0.

       --preproxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS proxy before connecting to an HTTP or
	      HTTPS -x,	--proxy. In such a case	curl  first  connects  to  the
	      SOCKS  proxy  and	 then  connects	(through SOCKS)	to the HTTP or
	      HTTPS proxy. Hence pre proxy.

	      The pre proxy string should be specified with a protocol:// pre-
	      fix  to  specify	alternative  proxy  protocols.	Use socks4://,
	      socks4a://, socks5:// or	socks5h://  to	request	 the  specific
	      SOCKS  version  to be used. No protocol specified	will make curl
	      default to SOCKS4.

	      If the port number is not	specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This	allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl	display	transfer progress as a simple progress bar in-
	      stead of the standard, more informational, meter.

	      This progress bar	draws a	single line of '#'  characters	across
	      the screen and shows a percentage	if the transfer	size is	known.
	      For transfers without a known size, it will instead  output  one
	      '#' character for	every 1024 bytes transferred.

       --proto-default <protocol>
	      Tells curl to use	protocol for any URL missing a scheme name.

	      Example:

	       curl --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org

	      An  unknown  or  unsupported  protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUP-
	      PORTED_PROTOCOL (1).

	      This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http).

	      Without this option curl would make a guess based	on  the	 host,
	      see --url	for details.

	      Added in 7.45.0.

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells  curl to limit what	protocols it may use on	redirect. Pro-
	      tocols denied by --proto are not overridden by this option.  See
	      --proto for how protocols	are represented.

	      Example, allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect:

	       curl --proto-redir -all,http,https http://example.com

	      By default curl will allow all protocols on redirect except sev-
	      eral disabled for	security reasons: Since	7.19.4	FILE  and  SCP
	      are  disabled,  and since	7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are	also disabled.
	      Specifying all or	+all enables all protocols  on	redirect,  in-
	      cluding those disabled for security.

	      Added in 7.20.2.

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to limit what protocols it may use in the transfer.
	      Protocols	are evaluated left to right, are comma separated,  and
	      are each a protocol name or

	      +	 Permit	this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no	modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list	 of  protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	 only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
		 ted), though subject to later modification by subsequent  en-
		 tries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and	https

       Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows	scripts	to safely rely
       on being	able to	disable	potentially dangerous protocols, without rely-
       ing  upon  support  for that protocol being built into curl to avoid an
       error.

       This option can be used multiple	times, in which	case the effect	is the
       same as concatenating the protocols into	one instance of	the option.

       See also	--proto-redir and --proto-default. Added in 7.20.2.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating with the	given HTTP proxy. This might  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-basic and --proxy-digest. Added
	      in 7.13.2.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells curl to use	HTTP Basic authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--basic	for enabling HTTP Basic	with a
	      remote host. Basic is the	 default  authentication  method  curl
	      uses with	proxies.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-digest.

       --proxy-cacert <file>
	      Same as --cacert but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See  also	 --proxy-capath	 and  --cacert	and  --capath  and -x,
	      --proxy. Added in	7.52.0.

       --proxy-capath <dir>
	      Same as --capath but used	in HTTPS proxy context.

	      See also --proxy-cacert and -x, --proxy and --capath.  Added  in
	      7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert-type <type>
	      Same as --cert-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-cert <cert[:passwd]>
	      Same as -E, --cert but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-ciphers <list>
	      Same as --ciphers	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-crlfile <file>
	      Same as --crlfile	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a	remote host.

	      See also -x, --proxy and --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic.

       --proxy-header <header>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of	extra headers. This is
	      the  equivalent option to	-H, --header but is for	proxy communi-
	      cation only like in CONNECT requests when	you  want  a  separate
	      header  sent  to	the proxy to what is sent to the actual	remote
	      host.

	      curl will	make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part	of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers  specified  with this option will	not be included	in re-
	      quests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      Added in 7.37.0.

       --proxy-insecure
	      Same as -k, --insecure but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key-type	<type>
	      Same as --key-type but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-key <key>
	      Same as --key but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host.

	      See also --proxy-anyauth and --proxy-basic. Added	in 7.17.1.

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP	NTLM authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use	--ntlm for enabling NTLM with a	remote
	      host.

	      See also --proxy-negotiate and --proxy-anyauth.

       --proxy-pass <phrase>
	      Same as --pass but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-service-name <name>
	      This  option allows you to change	the service name for proxy ne-
	      gotiation.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       --proxy-ssl-allow-beast
	      Same as --ssl-allow-beast	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsauthtype <type>
	      Same as --tlsauthtype but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlspassword <string>
	      Same as --tlspassword but	used in	HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsuser <name>
	      Same as --tlsuser	but used in HTTPS proxy	context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --proxy-tlsv1
	      Same as -1, --tlsv1 but used in HTTPS proxy context.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -U, --proxy-user	<user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for proxy  authentica-
	      tion.

	      If  you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Ne-
	      gotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to	select
	      the user name and	password from your environment by specifying a
	      single colon with	this option: "-U :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy [protocol://]host[:port]
	      Use the specified	proxy.

	      The proxy	string can be specified	with a protocol:// prefix.  No
	      protocol specified or http:// will be treated as HTTP proxy. Use
	      socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to	request	a spe-
	      cific SOCKS version to be	used.  (The protocol support was added
	      in curl 7.21.7)

	      HTTPS proxy support via https:// protocol	prefix	was  added  in
	      7.52.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and NSS.

	      Unrecognized  and	 unsupported  proxy  protocols	cause an error
	      since 7.52.0.  Prior versions may	ignore the  protocol  and  use
	      http:// instead.

	      If  the  port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This option overrides existing environment  variables  that  set
	      the  proxy  to use. If there's an	environment variable setting a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to	override it.

	      All operations that are performed	over an	HTTP proxy will	trans-
	      parently	be  converted  to HTTP.	It means that certain protocol
	      specific operations might	not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel	through	the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
	      ytunnel option.

	      User and password	that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL  decoded by curl. This allows	you to pass in special charac-
	      ters such	as @ by	using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The proxy	host can be specified the exact	same way as the	 proxy
	      environment  variables,  including the protocol prefix (http://)
	      and the embedded user + password.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --proxy1.0 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	HTTP 1.0 proxy.	If  the	 port  number  is  not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The  only	 difference between this and the HTTP proxy option -x,
	      --proxy, is that attempts	to use CONNECT through the proxy  will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When  an	HTTP proxy is used -x, --proxy,	this option will cause
	      non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through  the  proxy  in-
	      stead  of	merely using it	to do HTTP-like	operations. The	tunnel
	      approach is made with the	HTTP proxy  CONNECT  request  and  re-
	      quires  that  the	proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
	      number curl wants	to tunnel through to.

	      To suppress proxy	CONNECT	response headers when curl is  set  to
	      output headers use --suppress-connect-headers.

	      See also -x, --proxy.

       --pubkey	<key>
	      (SFTP SCP) Public	key file name. Allows you to provide your pub-
	      lic key in this separate file.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the	public
	      key  from	the private key	file, so passing this option is	gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this	public key extraction requires
	      libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or	higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

       -Q, --quote
	      (FTP SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
	      server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
	      (just after the initial PWD command in an	FTP  transfer,	to  be
	      exact). To make commands take place after	a successful transfer,
	      prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent	 after
	      curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
	      command(s), prefix the command with a '+'	 (this	is  only  sup-
	      ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands.

	      If  the  server returns failure for one of the commands, the en-
	      tire operation will be aborted. You must send syntactically cor-
	      rect  FTP	 commands as RFC 959 defines to	FTP servers, or	one of
	      the commands listed below	to SFTP	servers.

	      This option can be used multiple times. When speaking to an  FTP
	      server,  prefix  the  command  with an asterisk (*) to make curl
	      continue even if the command fails as by default curl will  stop
	      at first failure.

	      SFTP  is a binary	protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP
	      quote commands itself before sending them	to the	server.	  File
	      names may	be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.  Following is the	list of	all supported SFTP quote  com-
	      mands:

	      chgrp group file
		     The  chgrp	command	sets the group ID of the file named by
		     the file operand to the group ID specified	by  the	 group
		     operand. The group	operand	is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The  chmod	 command  modifies  the	 file mode bits	of the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the	owner of the file named	by the
		     file operand to the user ID specified by the  user	 oper-
		     and. The user operand is a	decimal	integer	user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and	symlink	commands create	a symbolic link	at the
		     target_file location pointing to  the  source_file	 loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The  mkdir	command	creates	the directory named by the di-
		     rectory_name operand.

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename	command	renames	the file or directory named by
		     the source	operand	to the destination path	named  by  the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the	file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The rmdir command removes the directory  entry  specified
		     by	the directory operand, provided	it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       --random-file <file>
	      Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered
	      as random	data. The data may be used to seed the	random	engine
	      for SSL connections.  See	also the --egd-file option.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP  FTP SFTP FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial docu-
	      ment) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or  SFTP  server  or  a  local	 FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500	bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset	9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and	last byte only(*)(HTTP)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte	ranges(*) (HTTP)

	      (*)  = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with	a mul-
	      tipart response!

	      Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and	'stop'
	      fields  of the 'start-stop' range	syntax.	If a non-digit charac-
	      ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec-
	      ified, depending on the server's configuration.

	      You  should also be aware	that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have
	      this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to	get  a	range,
	      you'll instead get the whole document.

	      FTP  and	SFTP  range  downloads only support the	simple 'start-
	      stop' syntax (optionally with one	of the numbers	omitted).  FTP
	      use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used,	it disables all	internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent or transfer encodings and instead makes them	passed on  un-
	      altered, raw.

	      Added in 7.16.2.

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with	the -H,	--header flag of course.  When
	      used  with  -L,  --location  you	can  append ";auto" to the -e,
	      --referer	URL to make curl automatically set  the	 previous  URL
	      when  it	follows	 a Location: header. The ";auto" string	can be
	      used alone, even if you don't set	an initial -e, --referer.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -A, --user-agent	and -H,	--header.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified	Content-Disposition  filename  instead	of ex-
	      tracting a filename from the URL.

	      If the server specifies a	file name and a	file  with  that  name
	      already  exists  in the current working directory	it will	not be
	      overwritten and an error will occur. If the server doesn't spec-
	      ify a file name then this	option has no effect.

	      There's  no  attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided
	      file name, so this option	may provide you	with rather unexpected
	      file names.

	      WARNING:	Exercise  judicious  use of this option, especially on
	      Windows. A rogue server could send you the  name	of  a  DLL  or
	      other  file  that	could possibly be loaded automatically by Win-
	      dows or some third party software.

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs	to  be
	      dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
	      you want to disable that for a specific URL after	--remote-name-
	      all has been used, you must use "-o -" or	--no-remote-name.

	      Added in 7.19.0.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
	      (Only the	file part of the remote	file is	used, the path is  cut
	      off.)

	      The  file	will be	saved in the current working directory.	If you
	      want the file saved in a	different  directory,  make  sure  you
	      change  the  current working directory before invoking curl with
	      this option.

	      The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
	      given  URL,  nothing  else,  and if it already exists it will be
	      overwritten. If you want the server to be	 able  to  choose  the
	      file name	refer to -J, --remote-header-name which	can be used in
	      addition to this option. If the server chooses a file  name  and
	      that name	already	exists it will not be overwritten.

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file	name. If it has	%20 or
	      other URL	encoded	parts of the name, they	will end up  as-is  as
	      file name.

	      You  may use this	option as many times as	the number of URLs you
	      have.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make	curl attempt to	figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	the remote file, and if	that is	available make the lo-
	      cal file get that	same timestamp.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom	request	method to use when communicat-
	      ing  with	the HTTP server.  The specified	request	method will be
	      used instead of the method otherwise  used  (which  defaults  to
	      GET).  Read  the HTTP 1.1	specification for details and explana-
	      tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT  and  DELETE,
	      but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE
	      and more.

	      Normally you don't need this option. All	sorts  of  GET,	 HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are	rather invoked by using	dedicated com-
	      mand line	options.

	      This option only changes the actual word used in	the  HTTP  re-
	      quest, it	does not alter the way curl behaves. So	for example if
	      you want to make a proper	HEAD request, using -X HEAD  will  not
	      suffice. You need	to use the -I, --head option.

	      The  method  string  you set with	-X, --request will be used for
	      all requests, which if you for example use  -L,  --location  may
	      cause  unintended	 side-effects when curl	doesn't	change request
	      method according to the HTTP 30x response	codes -	and similar.

	      (FTP) Specifies a	custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom	POP3 command to	use instead of LIST or
	      RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

	      (IMAP) Specifies a custom	IMAP command to	use instead  of	 LIST.
	      (Added in	7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom	SMTP command to	use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --resolve <host:port:address>
	      Provide a	custom address for a specific host and port pair.  Us-
	      ing  this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified ad-
	      dress and	prevent	the otherwise normally resolved	address	to  be
	      used.  Consider  it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on
	      the command line.	The port number	should be the number used  for
	      the  specific  protocol  the host	will be	used for. It means you
	      need several entries if you want to provide address for the same
	      host but different ports.

	      The provided address set by this option will be used even	if -4,
	      --ipv4 or	-6, --ipv6 is set to make curl use another IP version.

	      This option can be used many times to add	many host names	to re-
	      solve.

	      Added in 7.21.3.

       --retry-connrefused
	      In  addition to the other	conditions, consider ECONNREFUSED as a
	      transient	error too for --retry. This option  is	used  together
	      with --retry.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make  curl  sleep	 this  amount of time before each retry	when a
	      transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes  the  de-
	      fault  backoff  time  algorithm between retries).	This option is
	      only interesting if --retry is also used.	Setting	this delay  to
	      zero will	make curl use the default backoff time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry-max-time	<seconds>
	      The  retry timer is reset	before the first transfer attempt. Re-
	      tries will be done as usual (see --retry)	as long	as  the	 timer
	      hasn't reached this given	limit. Notice that if the timer	hasn't
	      reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-
	      ing,  it may take	longer than this given time period. To limit a
	      single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this op-
	      tion to zero to not timeout retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer,	it will	retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0	makes curl do no retries (which	is the
	      default).	Transient error	means either: a	timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

	      When  curl  is about to retry a transfer,	it will	first wait one
	      second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
	      waiting  time until it reaches 10	minutes	which then will	be the
	      delay between the	rest of	the retries.  By  using	 --retry-delay
	      you   disable  this  exponential	backoff	 algorithm.  See  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit	the total time allowed for retries.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.12.3.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial response in SASL authentication.

	      Added in 7.31.0.

       --service-name <name>
	      This option allows you to	change the service name	for SPNEGO.

	      Examples:	  --negotiate	--service-name	 sockd	  would	   use
	      sockd/server-name.

	      Added in 7.43.0.

       -S, --show-error
	      When used	with -s, --silent, it makes curl show an error message
	      if it fails.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent or	quiet mode. Don't show progress	meter  or  error  mes-
	      sages.   Makes  Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

	      Use  -S,	--show-error  in  addition  to	this option to disable
	      progress meter but still show error messages.

	      See also -v, --verbose and --stderr.

       --socks4	<host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not	speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.15.2.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified	SOCKS4a	proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it	is assumed at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4a  proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol pre-
	      fix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As  part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti-
	      ated. RFC	1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it	should	be  protected,
	      but  the	NEC  reference	implementation	does  not.  The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the  pro-
	      tection mode negotiation.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <name>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to	change it.

	      Examples:	 --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
	      service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for	 cases
	      where the	proxy-name does	not match the principal	name.

	      Added in 7.19.4.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy	(and let the proxy resolve the
	      host name). If the port number is	not specified, it  is  assumed
	      at port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h://	proto-
	      col prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the  same	 time -x, --proxy is used with an HTTP/HTTPS proxy. In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       --socks5	<host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name lo-
	      cally. If	the port number	is not specified,  it  is  assumed  at
	      port 1080.

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option	is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 proxy with	-x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      Since 7.52.0, --preproxy can be used to specify a	SOCKS proxy at
	      the same time -x,	--proxy	is used	with an	HTTP/HTTPS  proxy.  In
	      such a case curl first connects to the SOCKS proxy and then con-
	      nects (through SOCKS) to the HTTP	or HTTPS proxy.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option (as well as --socks4)	does not work with IPV6,  FTPS
	      or LDAP.

	      Added in 7.18.0.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this	given speed (in	bytes per sec-
	      ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
	      with -y, --speed-time and	is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -y, --speed-time	<seconds>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second	during
	      a	speed-time period, the download	gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used,  the  default  speed-limit	will  be 1 unless set with -Y,
	      --speed-limit.

	      This option controls transfers and thus  will  not  affect  slow
	      connects	etc.  If this is a concern for you, try	the --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      This option tells	curl to	not work around	a security flaw	in the
	      SSL3  and	TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option isn't
	      used, the	SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause  interop-
	      erability	problems with some older SSL implementations. WARNING:
	      this option loosens the SSL security, and	by using this flag you
	      ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.25.0.

       --ssl-no-revoke
	      (WinSSL)	This  option tells curl	to disable certificate revoca-
	      tion checks.  WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and
	      by using this flag you ask for exactly that.

	      Added in 7.44.0.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.	Termi-
	      nates the	connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.

	      This option was formerly known as	--ftp-ssl-reqd.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --ssl  (FTP IMAP	POP3 SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Re-
	      verts  to	 a non-secure connection if the	server doesn't support
	      SSL/TLS.	See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
	      ent levels of encryption required.

	      This  option  was	formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
	      That option name can still be used but will be removed in	a  fu-
	      ture version.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating	with a
	      remote SSL server. Sometimes curl	is built  without  SSLv2  sup-
	      port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 6176).

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -2, --sslv2 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -3,	--sslv3	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL)  Forces  curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating	with a
	      remote SSL server. Sometimes curl	is built  without  SSLv3  sup-
	      port. SSLv3 is widely considered insecure	(see RFC 7568).

	      See  also	 --http1.1  and	--http2. -3, --sslv3 requires that the
	      underlying libcurl was built to support TLS. This	 option	 over-
	      rides -2,	--sslv2	and -1,	--tlsv1	and --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2.

       --stderr
	      Redirect	all writes to stderr to	the specified file instead. If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      See also -v, --verbose and -s, --silent.

       --suppress-connect-headers
	      When -p, --proxytunnel is	used and a  CONNECT  request  is  made
	      don't  output  proxy  CONNECT  response  headers.	This option is
	      meant to be used with -D,	--dump-header or -i,  --include	 which
	      are  used	 to show protocol headers in the output. It has	no ef-
	      fect on debug options such as -v,	--verbose or --trace,  or  any
	      statistics.

	      See also -D, --dump-header and -i, --include and -p, --proxytun-
	      nel.

       --tcp-fastopen
	      Enable use of TCP	Fast Open (RFC7413).

	      Added in 7.49.0.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
	      page for details about this option.

	      Since  7.50.2,  curl sets	this option by default and you need to
	      explicitly switch	it off if you don't want it on.

	      Added in 7.11.2.

       -t, --telnet-option <opt=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets	the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets	the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val>	Sets an	environment variable.

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that	curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a	TFTP server. By	default	512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      Added in 7.20.0.

       --tftp-no-options
	      (TFTP) Tells curl	not to send TFTP options requests.

	      This option improves interop with	some legacy  servers  that  do
	      not  acknowledge	or  properly implement TFTP options. When this
	      option is	used --tftp-blksize is ignored.

	      Added in 7.48.0.

       -z, --time-cond <time>
	      (HTTP FTP) Request a file	that has been modified later than  the
	      given  time  and date, or	one that has been modified before that
	      time. The	<date expression> can be all sorts of date strings  or
	      if it doesn't match any internal ones, it	is taken as a filename
	      and tries	to get the modification	date (mtime) from  <file>  in-
	      stead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date	expression de-
	      tails.

	      Start the	date expression	with a dash (-)	to make	it request for
	      a	 document that is older	than the given date/time, default is a
	      document that is newer than the specified	date/time.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --tls-max <VERSION>
	      (SSL) VERSION defines maximum supported TLS version.  A  minimum
	      is defined by arguments tlsv1.0 or tlsv1.1 or tlsv1.2.

	      default
		     Use up to recommended TLS version.

	      1.0    Use up to TLSv1.0.

	      1.1    Use up to TLSv1.1.

	      1.2    Use up to TLSv1.2.

	      1.3    Use up to TLSv1.3.

       See also	--tlsv1.0 and --tlsv1.1	and --tlsv1.2. --tls-max requires that
       the underlying libcurl was built	to support TLS.	Added in 7.54.0.

       --tlsauthtype <type>
	      Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only	supported  op-
	      tion  is	"SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword are	specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then  this
	      option defaults to "SRP".

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlspassword
	      Set  password  for use with the TLS authentication method	speci-
	      fied with	--tlsauthtype. Requires	that --tlsuser also be set.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsuser <name>
	      Set username for use with	the TLS	authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also is
	      set.

	      Added in 7.21.4.

       --tlsv1.0
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.0 when  connecting	 to  a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.1
	      (TLS)  Forces  curl  to use TLS version 1.1 when connecting to a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.2
	      (TLS) Forces curl	to use TLS version 1.2 when  connecting	 to  a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Added in 7.34.0.

       --tlsv1.3
	      (TLS)  Forces  curl  to use TLS version 1.3 when connecting to a
	      remote TLS server.

	      Note that	TLS 1.3	is only	supported by a subset of TLS backends.
	      At the time of writing this, those are BoringSSL and NSS only.

	      Added in 7.52.0.

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL)  Tells curl	to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating	with a
	      remote TLS server. That means TLS	version	1.0, 1.1 or 1.2.

	      See also --http1.1 and --http2. -1, --tlsv1  requires  that  the
	      underlying  libcurl  was built to	support	TLS. This option over-
	      rides --tlsv1.1 and --tlsv1.2 and	--tlsv1.3.

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of  the  algorithms curl supports, and uncompress	the data while
	      receiving	it.

	      Added in 7.21.6.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding  descriptive  information, to the	given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes	smaller	output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides --trace and	-v, --verbose.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl
	      displays.

	      Added in 7.14.0.

       --trace <file>
	      Enables a	full trace dump	of all incoming	and outgoing data, in-
	      cluding descriptive information, to the given output  file.  Use
	      "-"  as  filename	 to have the output sent to stdout. Use	"%" as
	      filename to have the output sent to stderr.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

	      This option overrides -v,	--verbose and --trace-ascii.

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network.

	      Added in 7.40.0.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This  transfers  the  specified local file to the	remote URL. If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a	trailing / on the last
	      directory	to really prove	to Curl	that there is no file name  or
	      curl will	think that your	last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That	will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use the file name	"-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
	      given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a	single period)
	      may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
	      mode  to	allow  reading	server output while stdin is being up-
	      loaded.

	      You can specify one -T, --upload-file for	each URL on  the  com-
	      mand  line.  Each	-T, --upload-file + URL	pair specifies what to
	      upload and to where. curl	also supports "globbing"  of  the  -T,
	      --upload-file  argument,	meaning	 that  you can upload multiple
	      files to a single	URL by using the same URL globbing style  sup-
	      ported in	the URL, like this:

	       curl --upload-file "{file1,file2}" http://www.example.com

	      or even

	       curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.example.com/upload/

	      When  uploading  to an SMTP server: the uploaded data is assumed
	      to be RFC	5322 formatted.	It has to feature the necessary	set of
	      headers  and  mail  body formatted correctly by the user as curl
	      will not transcode nor encode it further in any way.

       --url <url>
	      Specify a	URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
	      want to specify URL(s) in	a config file.

	      If  the given URL	is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or
	      "ftp://" etc) then curl will make	a guess	based on the host.  If
	      the  outermost  sub-domain  name	matches	DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP,
	      POP3 or SMTP then	that protocol will  be	used,  otherwise  HTTP
	      will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a
	      default protocol,	see --proto-default for	details.

	      This option may be used any number of times.  To	control	 where
	      this  URL	 is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-
	      name options.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP LDAP) Enable	ASCII transfer.	For FTP, this can also be  en-
	      forced  by  using	 a  URL	 that ends with	";type=A". This	option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for	win32 systems.

       -A, --user-agent	<name>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      To  encode blanks	in the string, surround	the string with	single
	      quote marks. This	can also be set	with the -H,  --header	option
	      of course.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and	password to use	for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you simply specify the	user name,  curl  will	prompt	for  a
	      password.

	      The  user	 name  and  passwords are split	up on the first	colon,
	      which makes it impossible	to use a colon in the user  name  with
	      this option. The password	can, still.

	      When  using  Kerberos  V5	with a Windows based server you	should
	      include the Windows domain name in the user name,	in  order  for
	      the  server  to  successfully  obtain  a Kerberos	Ticket.	If you
	      don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When using NTLM, the user	name can be specified  simply  as  the
	      user  name,  without the domain, if there	is a single domain and
	      forest in	your setup for example.

	      To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon  Name  or
	      UPN (User	Principal Name)	formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled	curl binary and	 perform  Ker-
	      beros  V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can
	      tell curl	to select the user name	and password from  your	 envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with	this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       -v, --verbose
	      Makes  curl  verbose  during the operation. Useful for debugging
	      and seeing what's	going on "under	the  hood".  A	line  starting
	      with  '>'	 means	"header	 data" sent by curl, '<' means "header
	      data" received by	curl that is hidden in	normal	cases,	and  a
	      line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

	      If you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might
	      be the option you're looking for.

	      If you think this	option still doesn't give you enough  details,
	      consider using --trace or	--trace-ascii instead.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl really quiet.

	      See  also	 -i,  --include.  This	option	overrides  --trace and
	      --trace-ascii.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The first	line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
	      other 3rd	party libraries	linked with the	executable.

	      The  second  line	(starts	with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third	line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer.	Available features include:

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols	are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S	and so on.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of	compressed files over HTTP  is
		     supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a	libcurl	built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers	only!

	      AsynchDNS
		     This  curl	 uses asynchronous name	resolves. Asynchronous
		     name resolves can be done using either the	c-ares or  the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports	transfers of large files, files	larger
		     than 2GB.

	      IDN    This curl supports	IDN - international domain names.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is	supported.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote	Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has	been built-in.

	      UnixSockets
		     Unix sockets support is provided.

	      HTTPS-proxy
		     This curl is built	to support HTTPS proxy.

	      Metalink
		     This  curl	 supports  Metalink (both version 3 and	4 (RFC
		     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will
		     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such	as the
		     file or server not	being available).

	      PSL    PSL is short for Public Suffix List and means  that  this
		     curl  has	been  built  with knowledge about "public suf-
		     fixes".

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl	display	information on stdout after a completed	trans-
	      fer.  The	 format	 is a string that may contain plain text mixed
	      with any number of variables. The	format can be specified	 as  a
	      literal  "string",  or  you can have curl	read the format	from a
	      file with	"@filename" and	to tell	curl to	read the  format  from
	      stdin you	write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will	be substituted
	      by the value or text that	curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
	      normal % you just	write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
	      using \n,	a carriage return with \r and a	tab space with \t.

	      NOTE: The	%-symbol is a special symbol in	the win32-environment,
	      where all	occurrences of % must be doubled when using  this  op-
	      tion.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the	requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that	curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to	a file	with  the  -O,	--remote-name  or  -o,
			     --output  option. It's most useful	in combination
			     with the -J, --remote-header-name option.	(Added
			     in	7.26.0)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to	the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found	in the
			     last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s) transfer. In
			     7.18.2 the	alias response_code was	added to  show
			     the same info.

	      http_connect   The numerical code	that was found in the last re-
			     sponse (from a proxy) to a	curl CONNECT  request.
			     (Added in 7.12.4)

	      http_version   The  http	version	 that  was  effectively	 used.
			     (Added in 7.50.0)

	      local_ip	     The IP address of the local end of	the  most  re-
			     cently  done  connection  - can be	either IPv4 or
			     IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      num_connects   Number  of	new connects made in the recent	trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the re-
			     quest. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      proxy_ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the HTTPS proxy's SSL peer certifi-
			     cate verification that was	requested. 0 means the
			     verification was successful. (Added in 7.52.0)

	      redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L, --loca-
			     tion to follow redirects (or when --max-redir  is
			     met),  this  variable  will show the actual URL a
			     redirect would have gone to. (Added in 7.18.2)

	      remote_ip	     The remote	IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection	- can be either	IPv4 or	IPv6 (Added in
			     7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The remote	port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection	(Added in 7.29.0)

	      scheme	     The  URL  scheme (sometimes called	protocol) that
			     was effectively used (Added in 7.52.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The  total	 amount	of bytes that were sent	in the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      speed_download The average download speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The  average  upload speed	that curl measured for
			     the complete upload. Bytes	per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The result	of the SSL peer	certificate  verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0	means the verification
			     was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the re-
			     mote host was completed. (Added in	7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the TCP connect to the	remote host (or	proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til the name resolving was	completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The  time,	in seconds, it took from the start un-
			     til the file transfer was just  about  to	begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific	to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps including name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before  the	 final transaction was
			     started. time_redirect shows the complete	execu-
			     tion  time	 for  multiple redirections. (Added in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The time, in seconds, it took from	the start  un-
			     til  the  first  byte was just about to be	trans-
			     ferred. This includes time_pretransfer  and  also
			     the  time	the server needed to calculate the re-
			     sult.

	      time_total     The total time, in	seconds, that the full	opera-
			     tion lasted.

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful if you've told curl	 to  follow  location:
			     headers.

	      If this option is	used several times, the	last one will be used.

       --xattr
	      When  saving  output  to a file, this option tells curl to store
	      certain file metadata in extended	 file  attributes.  Currently,
	      the URL is stored	in the xdg.origin.url attribute	and, for HTTP,
	      the content type is stored in the	mime_type  attribute.  If  the
	      file  system  does not support extended attributes, a warning is
	      issued.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for	details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be	specified in lower case	or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an	environment variable to	set the	proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the -x, --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the	proxy server to	use for	[url-protocol],	where the pro-
	      tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified	 in  a
	      URL. FTP,	FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP,	LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the	 proxy	server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY	<comma-separated list of hosts>
	      list of host names that shouldn't	go through any proxy.  If  set
	      to a asterisk '*'	only, it matches all hosts.

	      Since  7.53.0,  this environment variable	disable	the proxy even
	      if specify -x, --proxy  option.  That  is	 NO_PROXY=direct.exam-
	      ple.com  curl  -x	 http://proxy.example.com  http://direct.exam-
	      ple.com accesses	the  target  URL  directly,  and  NO_PROXY=di-
	      rect.example.com	curl  -x http://proxy.example.com http://some-
	      where.example.com	accesses the target URL	through	proxy.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may	be  specified  with  a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If  no  protocol	 is  specified	in  the	 proxy string or if the	string
       doesn't match a supported one, the proxy	will be	 treated  as  an  HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding er-
       ror messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of this
       writing,	the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to	initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax	was not	correct.

       4      A	feature	or option that was needed to perform the  desired  re-
	      quest  was not enabled or	was explicitly disabled	at build-time.
	      To make curl able	to do this, you	probably need another build of
	      libcurl!

       5      Couldn't	resolve	 proxy.	 The given proxy host could not	be re-
	      solved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to	connect	to host.

       8      Weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource	or directory you wanted	to reach. Most
	      often you	tried to change	to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  accept failed. While	waiting	for the	server to connect back
	      when an active FTP session is used, an error code	was sent  over
	      the control connection or	similar.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASS request.

       12     During an	active FTP session while waiting  for  the  server  to
	      connect back to curl, the	timeout	expired.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent	to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird	227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got	in the
	      227-line.

       16     HTTP/2 error. A problem was detected in the HTTP2	framing	layer.
	      This is somewhat generic and can be one out of several problems,
	      see the error message for	details.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't	change transfer	method to  bi-
	      nary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part	of the file was	transferred.

       19     FTP  couldn't download/access the	given file, the	RETR (or simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote	error. A quote command returned	error from the server.

       22     HTTP page	not retrieved. The requested url was not found or  re-
	      turned  another  error  with  the	 HTTP  error code being	400 or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl	couldn't write data to a local	filesystem  or
	      similar.

       25     FTP  couldn't  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	timeout. The specified time-out	period was reached ac-
	      cording to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT	 failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
	      support the PORT command,	try doing a transfer  using  PASV  in-
	      stead!

       31     FTP  couldn't use	REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error.	The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post	error. Internal	post-request generation	error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     Bad download resume. Couldn't continue an	earlier	aborted	 down-
	      load.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file.	Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind.	LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A	function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	error. A specified outgoing  interface	could  not  be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl.  This  indicates  that  you
	      passed  a	weird option to	curl that was passed on	to libcurl and
	      rejected.	Read up	in the manual!

       49     Malformed	telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH	MD5 fingerprint	was not	OK.

       52     The server didn't	reply anything,	which here  is	considered  an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine	not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer  certificate	cannot be authenticated	with known CA certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size	exceeded.

       64     Requested	FTP SSL	level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires	a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to	initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not  accepted  and  curl
	      failed to	log in.

       68     File not found on	TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space	on TFTP	server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character	conversion failed.

       76     Character	conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to	shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could  not  load	CRL  file,  missing  or	wrong format (added in
	      7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of	CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of	Session	Identifiers

       87     unable to	parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk	callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will	be queued

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key

       XX     More error codes will appear here	in future releases. The	exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS	/ CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg	is the main author, but	the whole list of contributors
       is found	in the separate	THANKS file.

WWW
       https://curl.haxx.se

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)

Curl 7.54.1		       November	16, 2016		       curl(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | URL | PROGRESS METER | OPTIONS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES | EXIT CODES | AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS | WWW | SEE ALSO

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