Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
cups(1)				  Apple	Inc.			       cups(1)

NAME
       cups - a	standards-based, open source printing system

DESCRIPTION
       CUPS  is	the software you use to	print from applications	like word pro-
       cessors,	email readers, photo editors, and web  browsers.  It  converts
       the  page  descriptions	produced  by your application (put a paragraph
       here, draw a line there,	and so forth) into something your printer  can
       understand and then sends the information to the	printer	for printing.

       Now, since every	printer	manufacturer does things differently, printing
       can be very complicated.	 CUPS does its best to hide this from you  and
       your  application  so  that you can concentrate on printing and less on
       how to print. Generally,	the only time you need to know anything	 about
       your  printer is	when you use it	for the	first time, and	even then CUPS
       can often figure	things out on its own.

   HOW DOES IT WORK?
       The first time you print	to a printer, CUPS creates  a  queue  to  keep
       track  of  the current status of	the printer (everything	OK, out	of pa-
       per, etc.) and any pages	you have printed. Most of the time  the	 queue
       points to a printer connected directly to your computer via a USB port,
       however it can also point to a printer on your network,	a  printer  on
       the  Internet, or multiple printers depending on	the configuration. Re-
       gardless	of where the queue points, it will look	like any other printer
       to you and your applications.

       Every  time  you	print something, CUPS creates a	job which contains the
       queue you are sending the print to, the name of the  document  you  are
       printing,  and  the  page  descriptions.	 Job  are  numbered  (queue-1,
       queue-2,	and so forth) so you can monitor the job as it is  printed  or
       cancel  it  if you see a	mistake. When CUPS gets	a job for printing, it
       determines the best programs (filters, printer drivers, port  monitors,
       and  backends)  to  convert  the	pages into a printable format and then
       runs them to actually print the job.

       When the	print job is completely	printed, CUPS removes the job from the
       queue  and  moves on to any other jobs you have submitted. You can also
       be notified when	the job	is finished, or	if there are any errors	during
       printing, in several different ways.

   WHERE DO I BEGIN?
       The  easiest  way  to  start is by using	the web	interface to configure
       your printer. Go	to "http://localhost:631" and choose  the  Administra-
       tion  tab at the	top of the page. Click/press on	the Add	Printer	button
       and follow the prompts.

       When you	are asked for a	username and password, enter your login	 user-
       name and	password or the	"root" username	and password.

       After the printer is added you will be asked to set the default printer
       options (paper size, output mode,  etc.)	 for  the  printer.  Make  any
       changes	as needed and then click/press on the Set Default Options but-
       ton to save them.  Some	printers  also	support	 auto-configuration  -
       click/press  on	the Query Printer for Default Options button to	update
       the options automatically.

       Once you	have added the printer,	you can	print to it from any  applica-
       tion.  You can also choose Print	Test Page from the maintenance menu to
       print a simple test page	and verify that	everything  is	working	 prop-
       erly.

       You  can	also use the lpadmin(8)	and lpinfo(8) commands to add printers
       to CUPS.	 Additionally, your operating  system  may  include  graphical
       user interfaces or automatically	create printer queues when you connect
       a printer to your computer.

   HOW DO I GET	HELP?
       The CUPS	web site (http://www.CUPS.org) provides	access to the cups and
       cups-devel mailing lists, additional documentation and resources, and a
       bug report database. Most vendors also provide online discussion	forums
       to ask printing questions for your operating system of choice.

ENVIRONMENT
       CUPS  commands  use the following environment variables to override the
       default locations of files and so forth.	For  security  reasons,	 these
       environment variables are ignored for setuid programs:

       CUPS_ANYROOT
	    Whether to allow any X.509 certificate root	(Y or N).

       CUPS_CACHEDIR
	    The	directory where	semi-persistent	cache files can	be found.

       CUPS_DATADIR
	    The	directory where	data files can be found.

       CUPS_ENCRYPTION
	    The	 default  level	of encryption (Always, IfRequested, Never, Re-
	    quired).

       CUPS_EXPIREDCERTS
	    Whether to allow expired X.509 certificates	(Y or N).

       CUPS_GSSSERVICENAME
	    The	Kerberos service name used for authentication.

       CUPS_SERVER
	    The	hostname/IP address and	port  number  of  the  CUPS  scheduler
	    (hostname:port or ipaddress:port).

       CUPS_SERVERBIN
	    The	directory where	server helper programs,	filters, backend, etc.
	    can	be found.

       CUPS_SERVERROOT
	    The	root directory of the server.

       CUPS_STATEDIR
	    The	directory where	state files can	be found.

       CUPS_USER
	    Specifies the name of the user for print requests.

       HOME Specifies the home directory of the	current	user.

       IPP_PORT
	    Specifies the default port number for IPP requests.

       LOCALEDIR
	    Specifies the location of localization files.

       LPDEST
	    Specifies the default print	queue (System V	standard).

       PRINTER
	    Specifies the default print	queue (Berkeley	standard).

       TMPDIR
	    Specifies the location of temporary	files.

FILES
       ~/.cups/client.conf
       ~/.cups/lpoptions

CONFORMING TO
       CUPS conforms to	the Internet Printing Protocol version 2.1 and	imple-
       ments the Berkeley and System V UNIX print commands.

NOTES
       CUPS  printer  drivers, backends, and PPD files are deprecated and will
       no longer be supported in a future feature release of  CUPS.   Printers
       that  do	 not  support  IPP can be supported using applications such as
       ippeveprinter(1).

SEE ALSO
       cancel(1), client.conf(7),  cupsctl(8),	cupsd(8),  lp(1),  lpadmin(8),
       lpinfo(8),  lpoptions(1),  lpr(1), lprm(1), lpq(1), lpstat(1), CUPS On-
       line    Help	(http://localhost:631/help),	 CUPS	  Web	  Site
       (http://www.CUPS.org),	PWG   Internet	 Printing  Protocol  Workgroup
       (http://www.pwg.org/ipp)

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2007-2019 by Apple	Inc.

26 April 2019			     CUPS			       cups(1)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=cups&manpath=FreeBSD+12.1-RELEASE+and+Ports>

home | help