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TCSH(1)			    General Commands Manual		       TCSH(1)

NAME
       tcsh - C	shell with file	name completion	and command line editing

SYNOPSIS
       tcsh [-bcdefFimnqstvVxX]	[-Dname[=value]] [arg ...]
       tcsh -l

DESCRIPTION
       tcsh  is	 an enhanced but completely compatible version of the Berkeley
       UNIX C shell, csh(1).  It is a command language interpreter usable both
       as an interactive login shell and a shell script	command	processor.  It
       includes	a command-line editor (see The command-line editor),  program-
       mable word completion (see Completion and listing), spelling correction
       (see Spelling correction), a history mechanism (see  History  substitu-
       tion),  job  control  (see Jobs)	and a C-like syntax.  The NEW FEATURES
       section describes major enhancements of tcsh over  csh(1).   Throughout
       this  manual, features of tcsh not found	in most	csh(1) implementations
       (specifically, the 4.4BSD csh) are labeled  with	 `(+)',	 and  features
       which are present in csh(1) but not usually documented are labeled with
       `(u)'.

   Argument list processing
       If the first argument (argument 0) to the shell is `-'  then  it	 is  a
       login shell.  A login shell can be also specified by invoking the shell
       with the	-l flag	as the only argument.

       The rest	of the flag arguments are interpreted as follows:

       -b  Forces a ``break'' from  option  processing,	 causing  any  further
	   shell arguments to be treated as non-option arguments.  The remain-
	   ing arguments will not be interpreted as shell options.   This  may
	   be used to pass options to a	shell script without confusion or pos-
	   sible subterfuge.  The shell	will not  run  a  set-user  ID	script
	   without this	option.

       -c  Commands  are  read	from  the  following  argument	(which must be
	   present, and	must be	a single  argument),  stored  in  the  command
	   shell  variable  for	 reference, and	executed.  Any remaining argu-
	   ments are placed in the argv	shell variable.

       -d  The shell loads the directory stack from  ~/.cshdirs	 as  described
	   under Startup and shutdown, whether or not it is a login shell. (+)

       -Dname[=value]
	   Sets	the environment	variable name to value.	(Domain/OS only) (+)

       -e  The	shell  exits  if  any invoked command terminates abnormally or
	   yields a non-zero exit status.

       -f  The shell does not load any resource	or startup files,  or  perform
	   any command hashing,	and thus starts	faster.

       -F  The shell uses fork(2) instead of vfork(2) to spawn processes. (+)

       -i  The	shell is interactive and prompts for its top-level input, even
	   if it appears to not	be a terminal.	Shells are interactive without
	   this	option if their	inputs and outputs are terminals.

       -l  The shell is	a login	shell.	Applicable only	if -l is the only flag
	   specified.

       -m  The shell loads ~/.tcshrc even if it	does not belong	to the	effec-
	   tive	user.  Newer versions of su(1) can pass	-m to the shell. (+)

       -n  The	shell parses commands but does not execute them.  This aids in
	   debugging shell scripts.

       -q  The shell accepts SIGQUIT (see Signal handling) and behaves when it
	   is used under a debugger.  Job control is disabled. (u)

       -s  Command input is taken from the standard input.

       -t  The	shell reads and	executes a single line of input.  A `\'	may be
	   used	to escape the newline at the end of  this  line	 and  continue
	   onto	another	line.

       -v  Sets	 the  verbose  shell variable, so that command input is	echoed
	   after history substitution.

       -x  Sets	the echo shell variable, so that commands are  echoed  immedi-
	   ately before	execution.

       -V  Sets	the verbose shell variable even	before executing ~/.tcshrc.

       -X  Is to -x as -V is to	-v.

       --help
	   Print a help	message	on the standard	output and exit. (+)

       --version
	   Print the version/platform/compilation options on the standard out-
	   put and exit.  This information is also contained  in  the  version
	   shell variable. (+)

       After processing	of flag	arguments, if arguments	remain but none	of the
       -c, -i, -s, or -t options were given, the first argument	 is  taken  as
       the  name  of  a	 file of commands, or ``script'', to be	executed.  The
       shell opens this	file and saves its name	for possible resubstitution by
       `$0'.   Because	many systems use either	the standard version 6 or ver-
       sion 7 shells whose shell scripts are not compatible with  this	shell,
       the  shell uses such a `standard' shell to execute a script whose first
       character is not	a `#', i.e., that does not start with a	comment.

       Remaining arguments are placed in the argv shell	variable.

   Startup and shutdown
       A login shell begins  by	 executing  commands  from  the	 system	 files
       /etc/csh.cshrc  and  /etc/csh.login.   It  then	executes commands from
       files in	 the  user's  home  directory:	first  ~/.tcshrc  (+)  or,  if
       ~/.tcshrc  is not found,	~/.cshrc, then ~/.history (or the value	of the
       histfile	shell variable), then ~/.login,	and finally ~/.cshdirs (or the
       value  of  the  dirsfile	 shell	variable)  (+).	  The  shell  may read
       /etc/csh.login before instead of	 after	/etc/csh.cshrc,	 and  ~/.login
       before  instead	of  after  ~/.tcshrc or	~/.cshrc and ~/.history, if so
       compiled; see the version shell variable. (+)

       Non-login shells	read only /etc/csh.cshrc and ~/.tcshrc or ~/.cshrc  on
       startup.

       For  examples  of  startup  files, please consult http://tcshrc.source-
       forge.net.

       Commands	like stty(1) and tset(1), which	need  be  run  only  once  per
       login,  usually	go  in one's ~/.login file.  Users who need to use the
       same set	of files with both csh(1) and tcsh can have  only  a  ~/.cshrc
       which checks for	the existence of the tcsh shell	variable (q.v.)	before
       using tcsh-specific commands,  or  can  have  both  a  ~/.cshrc	and  a
       ~/.tcshrc  which	 sources (see the builtin command) ~/.cshrc.  The rest
       of this manual uses `~/.tcshrc' to mean `~/.tcshrc or, if ~/.tcshrc  is
       not found, ~/.cshrc'.

       In  the	normal case, the shell begins reading commands from the	termi-
       nal, prompting with `> '.  (Processing of arguments and the use of  the
       shell to	process	files containing command scripts are described later.)
       The shell repeatedly reads a line of  command  input,  breaks  it  into
       words,  places  it  on the command history list,	parses it and executes
       each command in the line.

       One can log out by typing `^D' on an empty line,	`logout' or `login' or
       via  the	 shell's  autologout mechanism (see the	autologout shell vari-
       able).  When a login shell terminates it	sets the logout	shell variable
       to  `normal' or `automatic' as appropriate, then	executes commands from
       the files /etc/csh.logout and ~/.logout.	 The shell  may	 drop  DTR  on
       logout if so compiled; see the version shell variable.

       The names of the	system login and logout	files vary from	system to sys-
       tem for compatibility with different csh(1) variants; see FILES.

   Editing
       We first	describe The command-line editor.  The Completion and  listing
       and  Spelling  correction  sections  describe two sets of functionality
       that are	implemented as editor commands but  which  deserve  their  own
       treatment.   Finally,  Editor  commands	lists and describes the	editor
       commands	specific to the	shell and their	default	bindings.

   The command-line editor (+)
       Command-line input can be edited	using key sequences  much  like	 those
       used  in	 GNU  Emacs or vi(1).  The editor is active only when the edit
       shell variable is set, which it is by default  in  interactive  shells.
       The  bindkey  builtin can display and change key	bindings.  Emacs-style
       key bindings are	used by	default	(unless	the shell was compiled	other-
       wise;  see  the version shell variable),	but bindkey can	change the key
       bindings	to vi-style bindings en	masse.

       The shell always	binds the arrow	keys (as defined in the	TERMCAP	 envi-
       ronment variable) to

	   down	   down-history
	   up	   up-history
	   left	   backward-char
	   right   forward-char

       unless  doing so	would alter another single-character binding.  One can
       set the arrow key escape	sequences to the empty string  with  settc  to
       prevent	these  bindings.   The ANSI/VT100 sequences for	arrow keys are
       always bound.

       Other key bindings are, for the most part, what Emacs and  vi(1)	 users
       would  expect  and  can	easily be displayed by bindkey,	so there is no
       need to list them here.	Likewise, bindkey can list the editor commands
       with a short description	of each.

       Note  that editor commands do not have the same notion of a ``word'' as
       does the	shell.	The editor delimits words  with	 any  non-alphanumeric
       characters  not in the shell variable wordchars,	while the shell	recog-
       nizes only whitespace and some of the characters	with special  meanings
       to it, listed under Lexical structure.

   Completion and listing (+)
       The shell is often able to complete words when given a unique abbrevia-
       tion.  Type part	of a word (for example `ls /usr/lost') and hit the tab
       key  to	run the	complete-word editor command.  The shell completes the
       filename	`/usr/lost' to `/usr/lost+found/',  replacing  the  incomplete
       word  with  the	complete word in the input buffer.  (Note the terminal
       `/'; completion adds a `/' to the end of	completed  directories	and  a
       space  to the end of other completed words, to speed typing and provide
       a visual	indicator of successful	completion.  The addsuffix shell vari-
       able  can  be  unset  to	 prevent this.)	 If no match is	found (perhaps
       `/usr/lost+found' doesn't exist), the terminal bell rings.  If the word
       is  already complete (perhaps there is a	`/usr/lost' on your system, or
       perhaps you were	thinking too far ahead and typed the  whole  thing)  a
       `/' or space is added to	the end	if it isn't already there.

       Completion  works  anywhere in the line,	not at just the	end; completed
       text pushes the rest of the line	to the right.  Completion in the  mid-
       dle  of a word often results in leftover	characters to the right	of the
       cursor that need	to be deleted.

       Commands	and variables can be completed in  much	 the  same  way.   For
       example,	 typing	`em[tab]' would	complete `em' to `emacs' if emacs were
       the only	command	on your	system beginning with  `em'.   Completion  can
       find  a	command	 in any	directory in path or if	given a	full pathname.
       Typing `echo $ar[tab]' would complete `$ar'  to	`$argv'	 if  no	 other
       variable	began with `ar'.

       The  shell  parses  the	input buffer to	determine whether the word you
       want to complete	should be completed as a filename,  command  or	 vari-
       able.   The  first word in the buffer and the first word	following `;',
       `|', `|&', `&&' or `||' is considered to	be a command.  A  word	begin-
       ning with `$' is	considered to be a variable.  Anything else is a file-
       name.  An empty line is `completed' as a	filename.

       You can list the	possible completions of	a word at any time  by	typing
       `^D'  to	 run the delete-char-or-list-or-eof editor command.  The shell
       lists the possible completions using the	ls-F builtin (q.v.)   and  re-
       prints the prompt and unfinished	command	line, for example:

	   > ls	/usr/l[^D]
	   lbin/       lib/	   local/      lost+found/
	   > ls	/usr/l

       If  the	autolist  shell	variable is set, the shell lists the remaining
       choices (if any)	whenever completion fails:

	   > set autolist
	   > nm	/usr/lib/libt[tab]
	   libtermcap.a@ libtermlib.a@
	   > nm	/usr/lib/libterm

       If autolist is set to `ambiguous', choices are listed only when comple-
       tion fails and adds no new characters to	the word being completed.

       A  filename  to be completed can	contain	variables, your	own or others'
       home directories	abbreviated with `~' (see Filename  substitution)  and
       directory  stack	entries	abbreviated with `=' (see Directory stack sub-
       stitution).  For	example,

	   > ls	~k[^D]
	   kahn	   kas	   kellogg
	   > ls	~ke[tab]
	   > ls	~kellogg/

       or

	   > set local = /usr/local
	   > ls	$lo[tab]
	   > ls	$local/[^D]
	   bin/	etc/ lib/ man/ src/
	   > ls	$local/

       Note that variables can also be expanded	explicitly  with  the  expand-
       variables editor	command.

       delete-char-or-list-or-eof  lists  at  only the end of the line;	in the
       middle of a line	it deletes the character under the cursor  and	on  an
       empty  line  it	logs  one  out	or, if ignoreeof is set, does nothing.
       `M-^D', bound to	the editor command list-choices, lists completion pos-
       sibilities  anywhere  on	 a  line,  and list-choices (or	any one	of the
       related editor commands that do or don't	delete,	list and/or  log  out,
       listed  under delete-char-or-list-or-eof) can be	bound to `^D' with the
       bindkey builtin command if so desired.

       The complete-word-fwd and complete-word-back editor commands (not bound
       to  any	keys  by default) can be used to cycle up and down through the
       list of possible	completions, replacing the current word	with the  next
       or previous word	in the list.

       The  shell  variable  fignore  can  be  set to a	list of	suffixes to be
       ignored by completion.  Consider	the following:

	   > ls
	   Makefile	   condiments.h~   main.o	   side.c
	   README	   main.c	   meal		   side.o
	   condiments.h	   main.c~
	   > set fignore = (.o \~)
	   > emacs ma[^D]
	   main.c   main.c~  main.o
	   > emacs ma[tab]
	   > emacs main.c

       `main.c~' and `main.o' are ignored by  completion  (but	not  listing),
       because they end	in suffixes in fignore.	 Note that a `\' was needed in
       front of	`~' to prevent it from being expanded  to  home	 as  described
       under Filename substitution.  fignore is	ignored	if only	one completion
       is possible.

       If the complete shell variable  is  set	to  `enhance',	completion  1)
       ignores	case  and  2) considers	periods, hyphens and underscores (`.',
       `-' and `_') to be word separators and hyphens and  underscores	to  be
       equivalent.  If you had the following files

	   comp.lang.c	    comp.lang.perl   comp.std.c++
	   comp.lang.c++    comp.std.c

       and  typed  `mail  -f  c.l.c[tab]',  it	would be completed to `mail -f
       comp.lang.c', and ^D  would  list  `comp.lang.c'	 and  `comp.lang.c++'.
       `mail  -f  c..c++[^D]'  would  list `comp.lang.c++' and `comp.std.c++'.
       Typing `rm a--file[^D]' in the following	directory

	   A_silly_file	   a-hyphenated-file	another_silly_file

       would list all three files, because case	is  ignored  and  hyphens  and
       underscores  are	 equivalent.   Periods,	however, are not equivalent to
       hyphens or underscores.

       Completion and listing are affected by several other  shell  variables:
       recexact	 can be	set to complete	on the shortest	possible unique	match,
       even if more typing might result	in a longer match:

	   > ls
	   fodder   foo	     food     foonly
	   > set recexact
	   > rm	fo[tab]

       just beeps, because `fo'	could expand to	`fod' or `foo',	but if we type
       another `o',

	   > rm	foo[tab]
	   > rm	foo

       the completion completes	on `foo', even though `food' and `foonly' also
       match.  autoexpand can be set to	run the	expand-history editor  command
       before each completion attempt, autocorrect can be set to spelling-cor-
       rect the	word to	be completed (see  Spelling  correction)  before  each
       completion attempt and correct can be set to complete commands automat-
       ically after one	hits `return'.	matchbeep can be set to	 make  comple-
       tion beep or not	beep in	a variety of situations, and nobeep can	be set
       to never	beep at	all.  nostat can be  set  to  a	 list  of  directories
       and/or patterns that match directories to prevent the completion	mecha-
       nism from stat(2)ing those directories.	listmax	and listmaxrows	can be
       set  to	limit  the  number  of	items and rows (respectively) that are
       listed without asking first.  recognize_only_executables	can be set  to
       make  the  shell	list only executables when listing commands, but it is
       quite slow.

       Finally,	the complete builtin command can be used to tell the shell how
       to  complete  words other than filenames, commands and variables.  Com-
       pletion and listing do not work on glob-patterns	(see Filename  substi-
       tution),	 but  the  list-glob  and  expand-glob editor commands perform
       equivalent functions for	glob-patterns.

   Spelling correction (+)
       The shell can sometimes correct the spelling of filenames, commands and
       variable	names as well as completing and	listing	them.

       Individual  words  can be spelling-corrected with the spell-word	editor
       command (usually	bound to M-s and M-S) and the entire input buffer with
       spell-line  (usually  bound to M-$).  The correct shell variable	can be
       set to `cmd' to correct the command name	or `all' to correct the	entire
       line  each  time	return is typed, and autocorrect can be	set to correct
       the word	to be completed	before each completion attempt.

       When spelling correction	is invoked in any of these ways	and the	 shell
       thinks that any part of the command line	is misspelled, it prompts with
       the corrected line:

	   > set correct = cmd
	   > lz	/usr/bin
	   CORRECT>ls /usr/bin (y|n|e|a)?

       One can answer `y' or space to execute the corrected line, `e' to leave
       the  uncorrected	 command in the	input buffer, `a' to abort the command
       as if `^C' had been hit,	and anything else to execute the original line
       unchanged.

       Spelling	 correction  recognizes	user-defined completions (see the com-
       plete builtin command).	If an input word in a  position	 for  which  a
       completion is defined resembles a word in the completion	list, spelling
       correction registers a misspelling and suggests the latter  word	 as  a
       correction.   However, if the input word	does not match any of the pos-
       sible completions for that position, spelling correction	does not  reg-
       ister a misspelling.

       Like  completion, spelling correction works anywhere in the line, push-
       ing the rest of the line	to the right and possibly leaving extra	 char-
       acters to the right of the cursor.

       Beware:	spelling  correction  is  not  guaranteed  to work the way one
       intends,	and is provided	mostly as an  experimental  feature.   Sugges-
       tions and improvements are welcome.

   Editor commands (+)
       `bindkey'  lists	 key  bindings	and  `bindkey  -l'  lists  and briefly
       describes editor	commands.  Only	new or especially  interesting	editor
       commands	 are  described	here.  See emacs(1) and	vi(1) for descriptions
       of each editor's	key bindings.

       The character or	characters to which each command is bound  by  default
       is  given  in  parentheses.  `^character' means a control character and
       `M-character' a meta character, typed as	escape-character on  terminals
       without	a  meta	key.  Case counts, but commands	that are bound to let-
       ters by default are bound to both lower-	and uppercase letters for con-
       venience.

       complete-word (tab)
	       Completes a word	as described under Completion and listing.

       complete-word-back (not bound)
	       Like complete-word-fwd, but steps up from the end of the	list.

       complete-word-fwd (not bound)
	       Replaces	 the  current  word with the first word	in the list of
	       possible	completions.  May be repeated to step down through the
	       list.   At the end of the list, beeps and reverts to the	incom-
	       plete word.

       complete-word-raw (^X-tab)
	       Like complete-word, but ignores user-defined completions.

       copy-prev-word (M-^_)
	       Copies the previous word	in the current	line  into  the	 input
	       buffer.	See also insert-last-word.

       dabbrev-expand (M-/)
	       Expands	the  current word to the most recent preceding one for
	       which the current is a leading substring, wrapping  around  the
	       history	list  (once)  if  necessary.  Repeating	dabbrev-expand
	       without any intervening typing changes  to  the	next  previous
	       word etc., skipping identical matches much like history-search-
	       backward	does.

       delete-char (not	bound)
	       Deletes the character under the cursor.	See also  delete-char-
	       or-list-or-eof.

       delete-char-or-eof (not bound)
	       Does  delete-char  if  there is a character under the cursor or
	       end-of-file on an empty line.  See also delete-char-or-list-or-
	       eof.

       delete-char-or-list (not	bound)
	       Does  delete-char  if  there is a character under the cursor or
	       list-choices at the end of the line.  See also  delete-char-or-
	       list-or-eof.

       delete-char-or-list-or-eof (^D)
	       Does  delete-char  if  there  is	 a character under the cursor,
	       list-choices at the end of the line or end-of-file on an	 empty
	       line.  See also those three commands, each of which does	only a
	       single action, and delete-char-or-eof, delete-char-or-list  and
	       list-or-eof,  each  of  which  does  a different	two out	of the
	       three.

       down-history (down-arrow, ^N)
	       Like up-history,	but steps down,	stopping at the	original input
	       line.

       end-of-file (not	bound)
	       Signals	an  end	 of file, causing the shell to exit unless the
	       ignoreeof shell variable	(q.v.) is set to  prevent  this.   See
	       also delete-char-or-list-or-eof.

       expand-history (M-space)
	       Expands history substitutions in	the current word.  See History
	       substitution.  See also magic-space, toggle-literal-history and
	       the autoexpand shell variable.

       expand-glob (^X-*)
	       Expands	the glob-pattern to the	left of	the cursor.  See File-
	       name substitution.

       expand-line (not	bound)
	       Like expand-history, but	expands	history	substitutions in  each
	       word in the input buffer,

       expand-variables	(^X-$)
	       Expands	the  variable to the left of the cursor.  See Variable
	       substitution.

       history-search-backward (M-p, M-P)
	       Searches	backwards through  the	history	 list  for  a  command
	       beginning  with	the current contents of	the input buffer up to
	       the cursor and copies it	into the  input	 buffer.   The	search
	       string  may  be a glob-pattern (see Filename substitution) con-
	       taining `*', `?', `[]' or `{}'.	 up-history  and  down-history
	       will  proceed  from  the	appropriate point in the history list.
	       Emacs mode only.	 See also history-search-forward and i-search-
	       back.

       history-search-forward (M-n, M-N)
	       Like history-search-backward, but searches forward.

       i-search-back (not bound)
	       Searches	 backward  like	 history-search-backward,  copies  the
	       first match into	the input buffer with the cursor positioned at
	       the  end	of the pattern,	and prompts with `bck: ' and the first
	       match.  Additional  characters  may  be	typed  to  extend  the
	       search,	i-search-back  may be typed to continue	searching with
	       the same	pattern, wrapping around the history  list  if	neces-
	       sary,  (i-search-back  must  be bound to	a single character for
	       this to work) or	one of the following special characters	may be
	       typed:

		   ^W	   Appends  the	 rest  of the word under the cursor to
			   the search pattern.
		   delete (or any character bound to backward-delete-char)
			   Undoes the effect of	the last character  typed  and
			   deletes  a  character  from	the  search pattern if
			   appropriate.
		   ^G	   If the previous search was successful,  aborts  the
			   entire  search.  If not, goes back to the last suc-
			   cessful search.
		   escape  Ends	the search, leaving the	current	 line  in  the
			   input buffer.

	       Any other character not bound to	self-insert-command terminates
	       the search, leaving the current line in the input  buffer,  and
	       is then interpreted as normal input.  In	particular, a carriage
	       return causes the current line  to  be  executed.   Emacs  mode
	       only.  See also i-search-fwd and	history-search-backward.

       i-search-fwd (not bound)
	       Like i-search-back, but searches	forward.

       insert-last-word	(M-_)
	       Inserts	the  last  word	of the previous	input line (`!$') into
	       the input buffer.  See also copy-prev-word.

       list-choices (M-^D)
	       Lists completion	possibilities as  described  under  Completion
	       and  listing.   See  also  delete-char-or-list-or-eof and list-
	       choices-raw.

       list-choices-raw	(^X-^D)
	       Like list-choices, but ignores user-defined completions.

       list-glob (^X-g,	^X-G)
	       Lists (via the ls-F builtin) matches to the  glob-pattern  (see
	       Filename	substitution) to the left of the cursor.

       list-or-eof (not	bound)
	       Does  list-choices  or  end-of-file on an empty line.  See also
	       delete-char-or-list-or-eof.

       magic-space (not	bound)
	       Expands history substitutions in	the current line, like expand-
	       history,	 and  inserts  a space.	 magic-space is	designed to be
	       bound to	the space bar, but is not bound	by default.

       normalize-command (^X-?)
	       Searches	for the	current	word in	PATH  and,  if	it  is	found,
	       replaces	 it  with  the	full  path to the executable.  Special
	       characters are quoted.  Aliases are  expanded  and  quoted  but
	       commands	 within	 aliases are not.  This	command	is useful with
	       commands	that take commands as arguments, e.g., `dbx'  and  `sh
	       -x'.

       normalize-path (^X-n, ^X-N)
	       Expands	the  current word as described under the `expand' set-
	       ting of the symlinks shell variable.

       overwrite-mode (unbound)
	       Toggles between input and overwrite modes.

       run-fg-editor (M-^Z)
	       Saves the current input line and	looks for a stopped job	with a
	       name  equal  to the last	component of the file name part	of the
	       EDITOR or VISUAL	environment variables, or, if neither is  set,
	       `ed'  or	 `vi'.	 If such a job is found, it is restarted as if
	       `fg %job' had been typed.  This is  used	 to  toggle  back  and
	       forth between an	editor and the shell easily.  Some people bind
	       this command to `^Z' so they can	do this	even more easily.

       run-help	(M-h, M-H)
	       Searches	for documentation on the current  command,  using  the
	       same  notion  of	 `current command' as the completion routines,
	       and prints it.  There is	no way to use  a  pager;  run-help  is
	       designed	 for  short help files.	 If the	special	alias helpcom-
	       mand is defined,	it is run with the  command  name  as  a  sole
	       argument.   Else,  documentation	should be in a file named com-
	       mand.help, command.1, command.6,	command.8  or  command,	 which
	       should  be  in one of the directories listed in the HPATH envi-
	       ronment variable.  If there is more than	one help file only the
	       first is	printed.

       self-insert-command (text characters)
	       In  insert mode (the default), inserts the typed	character into
	       the input line after the	character under	the cursor.  In	 over-
	       write  mode,  replaces  the character under the cursor with the
	       typed character.	 The input mode	is normally preserved  between
	       lines,  but the inputmode shell variable	can be set to `insert'
	       or `overwrite' to put the editor	in that	mode at	the  beginning
	       of each line.  See also overwrite-mode.

       sequence-lead-in	(arrow prefix, meta prefix, ^X)
	       Indicates that the following characters are part	of a multi-key
	       sequence.  Binding a command to	a  multi-key  sequence	really
	       creates	two  bindings: the first character to sequence-lead-in
	       and the whole sequence to the command.  All sequences beginning
	       with  a	character  bound  to  sequence-lead-in are effectively
	       bound to	undefined-key unless bound to another command.

       spell-line (M-$)
	       Attempts	to correct the spelling	of each	word in	the input buf-
	       fer,  like  spell-word, but ignores words whose first character
	       is one of `-', `!', `^' or `%', or which	contain	 `\',  `*'  or
	       `?',  to	 avoid	problems  with switches, substitutions and the
	       like.  See Spelling correction.

       spell-word (M-s,	M-S)
	       Attempts	to  correct  the  spelling  of	the  current  word  as
	       described  under	Spelling correction.  Checks each component of
	       a word which appears to be a pathname.

       toggle-literal-history (M-r, M-R)
	       Expands or `unexpands' history substitutions in the input  buf-
	       fer.   See  also	 expand-history	and the	autoexpand shell vari-
	       able.

       undefined-key (any unbound key)
	       Beeps.

       up-history (up-arrow, ^P)
	       Copies the previous entry in the	history	list  into  the	 input
	       buffer.	If histlit is set, uses	the literal form of the	entry.
	       May be repeated to step up through the history  list,  stopping
	       at the top.

       vi-search-back (?)
	       Prompts	with `?' for a search string (which may	be a glob-pat-
	       tern, as	with history-search-backward),	searches  for  it  and
	       copies it into the input	buffer.	 The bell rings	if no match is
	       found.  Hitting return ends the	search	and  leaves  the  last
	       match  in the input buffer.  Hitting escape ends	the search and
	       executes	the match.  vi mode only.

       vi-search-fwd (/)
	       Like vi-search-back, but	searches forward.

       which-command (M-?)
	       Does a which (see the description of the	 builtin  command)  on
	       the first word of the input buffer.

       yank-pop	(M-y)
	       When  executed  immediately  after  a yank or another yank-pop,
	       replaces	the yanked string with the next	previous  string  from
	       the  killring.  This  also has the effect of rotating the kill-
	       ring, such  that	 this  string  will  be	 considered  the  most
	       recently	 killed	 by  a	later yank command. Repeating yank-pop
	       will cycle through the killring any number of times.

   Lexical structure
       The shell splits	input lines into words at blanks and tabs.   The  spe-
       cial  characters	 `&', `|', `;',	`<', `>', `(', and `)' and the doubled
       characters `&&',	`||', `<<' and `>>' are	always separate	words, whether
       or not they are surrounded by whitespace.

       When the	shell's	input is not a terminal, the character `#' is taken to
       begin a comment.	 Each `#' and the rest of the input line on  which  it
       appears is discarded before further parsing.

       A  special  character  (including a blank or tab) may be	prevented from
       having its special meaning, and possibly	made part of another word,  by
       preceding  it  with  a backslash	(`\') or enclosing it in single	(`''),
       double (`"') or backward	(``') quotes.  When  not  otherwise  quoted  a
       newline	preceded  by a `\' is equivalent to a blank, but inside	quotes
       this sequence results in	a newline.

       Furthermore, all	Substitutions (see below) except History  substitution
       can  be	prevented  by  enclosing  the strings (or parts	of strings) in
       which they appear with single quotes or by quoting the crucial  charac-
       ter(s) (e.g., `$' or ``'	for Variable substitution or Command substitu-
       tion respectively) with `\'.   (Alias  substitution  is	no  exception:
       quoting	in any way any character of a word for which an	alias has been
       defined prevents	substitution of	the alias.  The	usual way  of  quoting
       an  alias  is  to precede it with a backslash.) History substitution is
       prevented by backslashes	but not	by single quotes.  Strings quoted with
       double  or  backward  quotes  undergo Variable substitution and Command
       substitution, but other substitutions are prevented.

       Text inside single or double quotes becomes a single word (or  part  of
       one).   Metacharacters  in these	strings, including blanks and tabs, do
       not form	separate words.	 Only in one special case (see Command substi-
       tution  below)  can a double-quoted string yield	parts of more than one
       word; single-quoted strings never do.   Backward	 quotes	 are  special:
       they  signal Command substitution (q.v.), which may result in more than
       one word.

       Quoting complex strings,	particularly strings which themselves  contain
       quoting characters, can be confusing.  Remember that quotes need	not be
       used as they are	in human writing!  It may be easier to	quote  not  an
       entire  string,	but only those parts of	the string which need quoting,
       using different types of	quoting	to do so if appropriate.

       The backslash_quote shell variable (q.v.) can  be  set  to  make	 back-
       slashes	always	quote  `\',  `'',  and `"'.  (+) This may make complex
       quoting tasks easier, but it can	cause syntax errors in csh(1) scripts.

   Substitutions
       We now describe the various transformations the shell performs  on  the
       input  in  the  order in	which they occur.  We note in passing the data
       structures involved and the commands and	variables which	 affect	 them.
       Remember	 that  substitutions  can be prevented by quoting as described
       under Lexical structure.

   History substitution
       Each command, or	``event'', input from the terminal  is	saved  in  the
       history	list.	The  previous command is always	saved, and the history
       shell variable can be set to a number to	save that many commands.   The
       histdup	shell variable can be set to not save duplicate	events or con-
       secutive	duplicate events.

       Saved commands are numbered sequentially	from 1 and  stamped  with  the
       time.   It  is not usually necessary to use event numbers, but the cur-
       rent event number can be	made part of the prompt	by placing an  `!'  in
       the prompt shell	variable.

       The  shell  actually saves history in expanded and literal (unexpanded)
       forms.  If the histlit shell variable is	set, commands that display and
       store history use the literal form.

       The  history  builtin  command  can print, store	in a file, restore and
       clear the history list at any time, and the savehist and	histfile shell
       variables  can be can be	set to store the history list automatically on
       logout and restore it on	login.

       History substitutions introduce words from the history  list  into  the
       input  stream, making it	easy to	repeat commands, repeat	arguments of a
       previous	command	in the current command,	or fix	spelling  mistakes  in
       the  previous  command  with  little typing and a high degree of	confi-
       dence.

       History substitutions begin with	the character  `!'.   They  may	 begin
       anywhere	 in  the  input	 stream, but they do not nest.	The `!'	may be
       preceded	by a `\' to prevent its	special	meaning;  for  convenience,  a
       `!'  is	passed unchanged when it is followed by	a blank, tab, newline,
       `=' or `('.  History substitutions also occur when an input line	begins
       with  `^'.   This  special  abbreviation	 will be described later.  The
       characters used to signal history substitution (`!'  and	 `^')  can  be
       changed	by setting the histchars shell variable.  Any input line which
       contains	a history substitution is printed before it is executed.

       A history substitution may have an ``event specification'', which indi-
       cates  the  event  from	which words are	to be taken, a ``word designa-
       tor'', which selects particular words from the chosen event,  and/or  a
       ``modifier'', which manipulates the selected words.

       An event	specification can be

	   n	   A number, referring to a particular event
	   -n	   An  offset,	referring  to  the  event n before the current
		   event
	   #	   The current	event.	 This  should  be  used	 carefully  in
		   csh(1), where there is no check for recursion.  tcsh	allows
		   10 levels of	recursion.  (+)
	   !	   The previous	event (equivalent to `-1')
	   s	   The most recent event whose	first  word  begins  with  the
		   string s
	   ?s?	   The	most  recent  event  which contains the	string s.  The
		   second `?' can be omitted if	it is immediately followed  by
		   a newline.

       For example, consider this bit of someone's history list:

	    9  8:30    nroff -man wumpus.man
	   10  8:31    cp wumpus.man wumpus.man.old
	   11  8:36    vi wumpus.man
	   12  8:37    diff wumpus.man.old wumpus.man

       The  commands  are shown	with their event numbers and time stamps.  The
       current event, which we haven't typed in	yet, is	event 13.   `!11'  and
       `!-2'  refer to event 11.  `!!' refers to the previous event, 12.  `!!'
       can be abbreviated `!' if it is	followed  by  `:'  (`:'	 is  described
       below).	 `!n' refers to	event 9, which begins with `n'.	 `!?old?' also
       refers to event 12, which contains `old'.  Without word designators  or
       modifiers  history  references simply expand to the entire event, so we
       might type `!cp'	to redo	the copy command or `!!|more'  if  the	`diff'
       output scrolled off the top of the screen.

       History	references  may	 be  insulated	from the surrounding text with
       braces if necessary.  For example, `!vdoc' would	 look  for  a  command
       beginning  with	`vdoc',	 and,  in  this	 example,  not	find  one, but
       `!{v}doc' would expand unambiguously to `vi  wumpus.mandoc'.   Even  in
       braces, history substitutions do	not nest.

       (+) While csh(1)	expands, for example, `!3d' to event 3 with the	letter
       `d' appended to it, tcsh	expands	it to the last	event  beginning  with
       `3d';  only  completely numeric arguments are treated as	event numbers.
       This makes it possible to recall	events	beginning  with	 numbers.   To
       expand `!3d' as in csh(1) say `!{3}d'.

       To  select words	from an	event we can follow the	event specification by
       a `:' and a designator for the desired words.  The words	 of  an	 input
       line are	numbered from 0, the first (usually command) word being	0, the
       second word (first argument) being 1, etc.  The basic word  designators
       are:

	   0	   The first (command) word
	   n	   The nth argument
	   ^	   The first argument, equivalent to `1'
	   $	   The last argument
	   %	   The word matched by an ?s? search
	   x-y	   A range of words
	   -y	   Equivalent to `0-y'
	   *	   Equivalent  to `^-$', but returns nothing if	the event con-
		   tains only 1	word
	   x*	   Equivalent to `x-$'
	   x-	   Equivalent to `x*', but omitting the	last word (`$')

       Selected	words are inserted into	the command line separated  by	single
       blanks.	 For example, the `diff' command in the	previous example might
       have been typed as `diff	!!:1.old !!:1' (using `:1' to select the first
       argument	 from  the previous event) or `diff !-2:2 !-2:1' to select and
       swap the	arguments from the `cp'	command.  If we	didn't care about  the
       order  of  the `diff' we	might have said	`diff !-2:1-2' or simply `diff
       !-2:*'.	The `cp'  command  might  have	been  written  `cp  wumpus.man
       !#:1.old',  using `#' to	refer to the current event.  `!n:- hurkle.man'
       would reuse the first two words from the	`nroff'	command	to say	`nroff
       -man hurkle.man'.

       The `:' separating the event specification from the word	designator can
       be omitted if the argument selector begins with a `^', `$', `*',	`%' or
       `-'.   For  example,  our  `diff' command might have been `diff !!^.old
       !!^' or,	equivalently, `diff !!$.old !!$'.  However, if `!!' is	abbre-
       viated `!', an argument selector	beginning with `-' will	be interpreted
       as an event specification.

       A history reference may have a word designator but no event  specifica-
       tion.   It then references the previous command.	 Continuing our	`diff'
       example,	we could have said simply `diff	!^.old	!^'  or,  to  get  the
       arguments in the	opposite order,	just `diff !*'.

       The  word  or  words  in	 a history reference can be edited, or ``modi-
       fied'', by following it with one	or more	modifiers, each	preceded by  a
       `:':

	   h	   Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.
	   t	   Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.
	   r	   Remove a filename extension `.xxx', leaving the root	name.
	   e	   Remove all but the extension.
	   u	   Uppercase the first lowercase letter.
	   l	   Lowercase the first uppercase letter.
	   s/l/r/  Substitute  l  for  r.   l is simply	a string like r, not a
		   regular expression as in the	eponymous ed(1)	command.   Any
		   character  may  be used as the delimiter in place of	`/'; a
		   `\' can be used to quote the	delimiter inside l and r.  The
		   character  `&'  in  the r is	replaced by l; `\' also	quotes
		   `&'.	 If l is empty (``''), the l from a previous substitu-
		   tion	 or  the  s  from a previous search or event number in
		   event specification is used.	 The trailing delimiter	may be
		   omitted if it is immediately	followed by a newline.
	   &	   Repeat the previous substitution.
	   g	   Apply the following modifier	once to	each word.
	   a (+)   Apply the following modifier	as many	times as possible to a
		   single word.	 `a' and `g' can be used together to  apply  a
		   modifier  globally.	 With  the `s' modifier, only the pat-
		   terns contained in the original word	are  substituted,  not
		   patterns that contain any substitution result.
	   p	   Print the new command line but do not execute it.
	   q	   Quote  the  substituted words, preventing further substitu-
		   tions.
	   x	   Like	q, but break into words	at blanks, tabs	and newlines.

       Modifiers are applied to	only the first modifiable word (unless `g'  is
       used).  It is an	error for no word to be	modifiable.

       For  example,  the `diff' command might have been written as `diff wum-
       pus.man.old !#^:r', using `:r' to remove	`.old' from the	first argument
       on  the	same  line (`!#^').  We	could say `echo	hello out there', then
       `echo !*:u' to capitalize `hello', `echo	!*:au' to say it out loud,  or
       `echo  !*:agu'  to really shout.	 We might follow `mail -s "I forgot my
       password" rot' with `!:s/rot/root' to correct the  spelling  of	`root'
       (but see	Spelling correction for	a different approach).

       There is	a special abbreviation for substitutions.  `^',	when it	is the
       first character on an input line, is equivalent	to  `!:s^'.   Thus  we
       might have said `^rot^root' to make the spelling	correction in the pre-
       vious example.  This is the only	history	substitution  which  does  not
       explicitly begin	with `!'.

       (+) In csh as such, only	one modifier may be applied to each history or
       variable	expansion.  In tcsh, more than one may be used,	for example

	   % mv	wumpus.man /usr/man/man1/wumpus.1
	   % man !$:t:r
	   man wumpus

       In csh, the result would	be `wumpus.1:r'.  A substitution followed by a
       colon may need to be insulated from it with braces:

	   > mv	a.out /usr/games/wumpus
	   > setenv PATH !$:h:$PATH
	   Bad ! modifier: $.
	   > setenv PATH !{-2$:h}:$PATH
	   setenv PATH /usr/games:/bin:/usr/bin:.

       The  first attempt would	succeed	in csh but fails in tcsh, because tcsh
       expects another modifier	after the second colon rather than `$'.

       Finally,	history	can be accessed	through	the editor as well as  through
       the  substitutions  just	described.  The	up- and	down-history, history-
       search-backward and -forward, i-search-back  and	 -fwd,	vi-search-back
       and  -fwd,  copy-prev-word  and insert-last-word	editor commands	search
       for events in the history list and copy them  into  the	input  buffer.
       The toggle-literal-history editor command switches between the expanded
       and literal forms of history lines in the input buffer.	expand-history
       and expand-line expand history substitutions in the current word	and in
       the entire input	buffer respectively.

   Alias substitution
       The shell maintains a list of aliases  which  can  be  set,  unset  and
       printed	by  the	 alias	and unalias commands.  After a command line is
       parsed into simple commands (see	Commands) the first word of each  com-
       mand,  left-to-right, is	checked	to see if it has an alias.  If so, the
       first word is replaced by the alias.  If	the alias contains  a  history
       reference, it undergoes History substitution (q.v.) as though the orig-
       inal command were the previous input line.  If the alias	does not  con-
       tain a history reference, the argument list is left untouched.

       Thus  if	 the  alias  for `ls' were `ls -l' the command `ls /usr' would
       become `ls -l /usr', the	argument list here being undisturbed.  If  the
       alias  for `lookup' were	`grep !^ /etc/passwd' then `lookup bill' would
       become `grep bill /etc/passwd'.	 Aliases  can  be  used	 to  introduce
       parser metasyntax.  For example,	`alias print 'pr \!* | lpr'' defines a
       ``command'' (`print') which pr(1)s its arguments	to the line printer.

       Alias substitution is repeated until the	first word of the command  has
       no  alias.  If an alias substitution does not change the	first word (as
       in the previous example)	it is flagged to prevent a loop.  Other	 loops
       are detected and	cause an error.

       Some aliases are	referred to by the shell; see Special aliases.

   Variable substitution
       The  shell  maintains a list of variables, each of which	has as value a
       list of zero or more words.  The	values of shell	variables can be  dis-
       played  and  changed with the set and unset commands.  The system main-
       tains its own list of ``environment'' variables.	  These	 can  be  dis-
       played and changed with printenv, setenv	and unsetenv.

       (+)  Variables  may  be	made read-only with `set -r' (q.v.)  Read-only
       variables may not be modified or	unset; attempting to do	so will	 cause
       an  error.  Once	made read-only,	a variable cannot be made writable, so
       `set -r'	should be used with caution.  Environment variables cannot  be
       made read-only.

       Some  variables	are  set  by  the  shell  or  referred	to by it.  For
       instance, the argv variable is an image of the shell's  argument	 list,
       and  words  of  this  variable's	value are referred to in special ways.
       Some of the variables referred to by the	shell are toggles;  the	 shell
       does  not  care	what their value is, only whether they are set or not.
       For instance, the verbose variable is a	toggle	which  causes  command
       input  to  be  echoed.	The -v command line option sets	this variable.
       Special shell variables lists all variables which are  referred	to  by
       the shell.

       Other  operations treat variables numerically.  The `@' command permits
       numeric calculations to be performed and	the result assigned to a vari-
       able.   Variable	 values	 are,  however,	always represented as (zero or
       more) strings.  For the purposes	of numeric operations, the null	string
       is considered to	be zero, and the second	and subsequent words of	multi-
       word values are ignored.

       After the input line is aliased and parsed, and before each command  is
       executed,  variable  substitution is performed keyed by `$' characters.
       This expansion can be prevented by preceding the	`$' with a `\'	except
       within  `"'s  where  it	always	occurs,	and within `''s	where it never
       occurs.	Strings	quoted by ``' are interpreted later (see Command  sub-
       stitution  below) so `$'	substitution does not occur there until	later,
       if at all.  A `$' is passed unchanged if	followed by a blank,  tab,  or
       end-of-line.

       Input/output redirections are recognized	before variable	expansion, and
       are variable expanded separately.   Otherwise,  the  command  name  and
       entire  argument	 list  are expanded together.  It is thus possible for
       the first (command) word	(to this point)	 to  generate  more  than  one
       word,  the  first  of  which  becomes the command name, and the rest of
       which become arguments.

       Unless enclosed in `"' or given the `:q'	modifier the results of	 vari-
       able  substitution  may eventually be command and filename substituted.
       Within `"', a variable whose value consists of multiple	words  expands
       to a (portion of	a) single word,	with the words of the variable's value
       separated by blanks.  When the `:q' modifier is applied to a  substitu-
       tion  the  variable  will expand	to multiple words with each word sepa-
       rated by	a blank	and quoted to prevent later command or	filename  sub-
       stitution.

       The  following metasequences are	provided for introducing variable val-
       ues into	the shell input.  Except as noted, it is an error to reference
       a variable which	is not set.

       $name
       ${name} Substitutes the words of	the value of variable name, each sepa-
	       rated by	a blank.  Braces insulate name from following  charac-
	       ters which would	otherwise be part of it.  Shell	variables have
	       names consisting	of letters and digits starting with a  letter.
	       The  underscore	character  is considered a letter.  If name is
	       not a shell variable, but is set	in the environment, then  that
	       value  is returned (but some of the other forms given below are
	       not available in	this case).
       $name[selector]
       ${name[selector]}
	       Substitutes only	the selected words from	 the  value  of	 name.
	       The  selector  is subjected to `$' substitution and may consist
	       of a single number or two numbers  separated  by	 a  `-'.   The
	       first word of a variable's value	is numbered `1'.  If the first
	       number of a range is omitted it defaults	to `1'.	 If  the  last
	       member  of  a  range  is	 omitted it defaults to	`$#name'.  The
	       selector	`*' selects all	words.	It is not an error for a range
	       to be empty if the second argument is omitted or	in range.
       $0      Substitutes  the	 name  of the file from	which command input is
	       being read.  An error occurs if the name	is not known.
       $number
       ${number}
	       Equivalent to `$argv[number]'.
       $*      Equivalent to `$argv', which is equivalent to `$argv[*]'.

       The `:' modifiers described  under  History  substitution,  except  for
       `:p',  can be applied to	the substitutions above.  More than one	may be
       used.  (+) Braces may be	needed to  insulate  a	variable  substitution
       from a literal colon just as with History substitution (q.v.); any mod-
       ifiers must appear within the braces.

       The following substitutions can not be modified with `:'	modifiers.

       $?name
       ${?name}
	       Substitutes the string `1' if name is set, `0' if it is not.
       $?0     Substitutes `1' if the current input filename is	known, `0'  if
	       it is not.  Always `0' in interactive shells.
       $#name
       ${#name}
	       Substitutes the number of words in name.
       $#      Equivalent to `$#argv'.	(+)
       $%name
       ${%name}
	       Substitutes the number of characters in name.  (+)
       $%number
       ${%number}
	       Substitutes the number of characters in $argv[number].  (+)
       $?      Equivalent to `$status'.	 (+)
       $$      Substitutes the (decimal) process number	of the (parent)	shell.
       $!      Substitutes the (decimal) process number	of the last background
	       process started by this shell.  (+)
       $_      Substitutes the command line of the last	command	executed.  (+)
       $<      Substitutes a line from the standard  input,  with  no  further
	       interpretation  thereafter.   It	 can  be used to read from the
	       keyboard	in a shell script.  (+)	While csh always quotes	$<, as
	       if  it  were equivalent to `$<:q', tcsh does not.  Furthermore,
	       when tcsh is waiting for	a line to be typed the user  may  type
	       an  interrupt  to interrupt the sequence	into which the line is
	       to be substituted, but csh does not allow this.

       The editor command expand-variables, normally bound to `^X-$',  can  be
       used to interactively expand individual variables.

   Command, filename and directory stack substitution
       The remaining substitutions are applied selectively to the arguments of
       builtin commands.  This means that portions of  expressions  which  are
       not  evaluated  are  not	 subjected  to these expansions.  For commands
       which are not internal to the shell, the	command	 name  is  substituted
       separately from the argument list.  This	occurs very late, after	input-
       output redirection is performed,	and in a child of the main shell.

   Command substitution
       Command substitution is indicated by a command enclosed	in  ``'.   The
       output  from  such  a  command is broken	into separate words at blanks,
       tabs and	newlines, and null words are discarded.	 The output  is	 vari-
       able and	command	substituted and	put in place of	the original string.

       Command	substitutions  inside  double  quotes  (`"') retain blanks and
       tabs; only newlines force new words.  The single	final newline does not
       force  a	 new word in any case.	It is thus possible for	a command sub-
       stitution to yield only part of a word, even if the command  outputs  a
       complete	line.

       By  default, the	shell since version 6.12 replaces all newline and car-
       riage return characters in the command by spaces.  If this is  switched
       off by unsetting	csubstnonl, newlines separate commands as usual.

   Filename substitution
       If a word contains any of the characters	`*', `?', `[' or `{' or	begins
       with the	character `~' it is a  candidate  for  filename	 substitution,
       also  known  as	``globbing''.  This word is then regarded as a pattern
       (``glob-pattern''), and replaced	with an	alphabetically sorted list  of
       file names which	match the pattern.

       In matching filenames, the character `.'	at the beginning of a filename
       or immediately following	a `/', as well as the character	 `/'  must  be
       matched	explicitly.   The  character `*' matches any string of charac-
       ters, including the null	string.	 The character `?' matches any	single
       character.   The	 sequence  `[...]'  matches  any one of	the characters
       enclosed.  Within `[...]',  a  pair  of	characters  separated  by  `-'
       matches any character lexically between the two.

       (+)  Some  glob-patterns	 can be	negated: The sequence `[^...]' matches
       any single character not	specified by the characters and/or  ranges  of
       characters in the braces.

       An entire glob-pattern can also be negated with `^':

	   > echo *
	   bang	crash crunch ouch
	   > echo ^cr*
	   bang	ouch

       Glob-patterns  which  do	not use	`?', `*', or `[]' or which use `{}' or
       `~' (below) are not negated correctly.

       The metanotation	`a{b,c,d}e' is a shorthand for `abe ace	 ade'.	 Left-
       to-right	 order	is preserved: `/usr/source/s1/{oldls,ls}.c' expands to
       `/usr/source/s1/oldls.c /usr/source/s1/ls.c'.  The results  of  matches
       are   sorted  separately	 at  a	low  level  to	preserve  this	order:
       `../{memo,*box}'	might expand to	`../memo ../box	../mbox'.  (Note  that
       `memo'  was not sorted with the results of matching `*box'.)  It	is not
       an error	when this construct expands to files which do not  exist,  but
       it  is  possible	 to  get an error from a command to which the expanded
       list is passed.	This construct may be nested.  As a special  case  the
       words `{', `}' and `{}' are passed undisturbed.

       The  character `~' at the beginning of a	filename refers	to home	direc-
       tories.	Standing alone,	i.e., `~', it expands to  the  invoker's  home
       directory  as  reflected	in the value of	the home shell variable.  When
       followed	by a name consisting of	letters, digits	and `-'	characters the
       shell  searches	for  a	user with that name and	substitutes their home
       directory; thus `~ken' might expand to `/usr/ken' and `~ken/chmach'  to
       `/usr/ken/chmach'.   If	the  character	`~' is followed	by a character
       other than a letter or `/' or appears elsewhere than at	the  beginning
       of  a  word,  it	 is  left undisturbed.	A command like `setenv MANPATH
       /usr/man:/usr/local/man:~/lib/man' does not, therefore, do home	direc-
       tory substitution as one	might hope.

       It is an	error for a glob-pattern containing `*', `?', `[' or `~', with
       or without `^', not to match any	files.	However, only one pattern in a
       list  of	 glob-patterns	must  match a file (so that, e.g., `rm *.a *.c
       *.o' would fail only if there were no files in  the  current  directory
       ending  in `.a',	`.c', or `.o'),	and if the nonomatch shell variable is
       set a pattern (or list of  patterns)  which  matches  nothing  is  left
       unchanged rather	than causing an	error.

       The  noglob shell variable can be set to	prevent	filename substitution,
       and the expand-glob editor command, normally bound to  `^X-*',  can  be
       used to interactively expand individual filename	substitutions.

   Directory stack substitution	(+)
       The  directory stack is a list of directories, numbered from zero, used
       by the pushd, popd and dirs builtin commands (q.v.).  dirs  can	print,
       store in	a file,	restore	and clear the directory	stack at any time, and
       the savedirs and	dirsfile shell variables  can  be  set	to  store  the
       directory  stack	 automatically on logout and restore it	on login.  The
       dirstack	shell variable can be examined to see the directory stack  and
       set to put arbitrary directories	into the directory stack.

       The character `=' followed by one or more digits	expands	to an entry in
       the directory stack.  The special case `=-' expands to the last	direc-
       tory in the stack.  For example,

	   > dirs -v
	   0	   /usr/bin
	   1	   /usr/spool/uucp
	   2	   /usr/accts/sys
	   > echo =1
	   /usr/spool/uucp
	   > echo =0/calendar
	   /usr/bin/calendar
	   > echo =-
	   /usr/accts/sys

       The  noglob  and	 nonomatch  shell variables and	the expand-glob	editor
       command apply to	directory stack	as well	as filename substitutions.

   Other substitutions (+)
       There  are  several  more  transformations  involving  filenames,   not
       strictly	related	to the above but mentioned here	for completeness.  Any
       filename	may be expanded	to a full  path	 when  the  symlinks  variable
       (q.v.)  is  set	to `expand'.  Quoting prevents this expansion, and the
       normalize-path editor command does it on	demand.	 The normalize-command
       editor  command	expands	 commands  in  PATH into full paths on demand.
       Finally,	cd and pushd  interpret	 `-'  as  the  old  working  directory
       (equivalent  to the shell variable owd).	 This is not a substitution at
       all, but	an abbreviation	recognized by only those  commands.   Nonethe-
       less, it	too can	be prevented by	quoting.

   Commands
       The  next  three	 sections describe how the shell executes commands and
       deals with their	input and output.

   Simple commands, pipelines and sequences
       A simple	command	is a sequence of words,	the first of  which  specifies
       the  command to be executed.  A series of simple	commands joined	by `|'
       characters forms	a pipeline.  The output	of each	command	in a  pipeline
       is connected to the input of the	next.

       Simple  commands	 and  pipelines	may be joined into sequences with `;',
       and will	be executed sequentially.  Commands and	pipelines can also  be
       joined  into  sequences with `||' or `&&', indicating, as in the	C lan-
       guage, that the second is to be executed	only if	 the  first  fails  or
       succeeds	respectively.

       A  simple  command,  pipeline or	sequence may be	placed in parentheses,
       `()', to	form a simple command, which may in turn be a component	 of  a
       pipeline	 or sequence.  A command, pipeline or sequence can be executed
       without waiting for it to terminate by following	it with	an `&'.

   Builtin and non-builtin command execution
       Builtin commands	are executed within the	shell.	If any component of  a
       pipeline	except the last	is a builtin command, the pipeline is executed
       in a subshell.

       Parenthesized commands are always executed in a subshell.

	   (cd;	pwd); pwd

       thus prints the home directory, leaving you where  you  were  (printing
       this after the home directory), while

	   cd; pwd

       leaves  you  in	the  home  directory.  Parenthesized commands are most
       often used to prevent cd	from affecting the current shell.

       When a command to be executed is	found not to be	a builtin command  the
       shell  attempts to execute the command via execve(2).  Each word	in the
       variable	path names a directory in which	the shell will	look  for  the
       command.	  If  the shell	is not given a -f option, the shell hashes the
       names in	these directories into an internal table so that it  will  try
       an  execve(2) in	only a directory where there is	a possibility that the
       command resides there.  This greatly speeds  command  location  when  a
       large  number of	directories are	present	in the search path. This hash-
       ing mechanism is	not used:

       1.  If hashing is turned	explicitly off via unhash.

       2.  If the shell	was given a -f argument.

       3.  For each directory component	of path	which does not	begin  with  a
	   `/'.

       4.  If the command contains a `/'.

       In  the	above  four cases the shell concatenates each component	of the
       path vector with	the given command name to form a path name of  a  file
       which  it  then attempts	to execute it. If execution is successful, the
       search stops.

       If the file has execute permissions but is not  an  executable  to  the
       system  (i.e.,  it  is  neither	an executable binary nor a script that
       specifies its interpreter), then	it is assumed to be a file  containing
       shell  commands	and a new shell	is spawned to read it.	The shell spe-
       cial alias may be set to	specify	an interpreter other  than  the	 shell
       itself.

       On  systems which do not	understand the `#!' script interpreter conven-
       tion the	shell may be compiled to emulate it;  see  the	version	 shell
       variable.  If so, the shell checks the first line of the	file to	see if
       it is of	the form `#!interpreter	arg ...'.  If it is, the shell	starts
       interpreter  with  the  given args and feeds the	file to	it on standard
       input.

   Input/output
       The standard input and standard output of a command may	be  redirected
       with the	following syntax:

       < name  Open  file  name	(which is first	variable, command and filename
	       expanded) as the	standard input.
       << word Read the	shell input up to a line which is identical  to	 word.
	       word  is	not subjected to variable, filename or command substi-
	       tution, and each	input line is compared to word before any sub-
	       stitutions  are done on this input line.	 Unless	a quoting `\',
	       `"', `' or ``' appears in word variable and  command  substitu-
	       tion  is	 performed  on	the intervening	lines, allowing	`\' to
	       quote `$', `\' and ``'.	Commands which	are  substituted  have
	       all  blanks, tabs, and newlines preserved, except for the final
	       newline which is	dropped.  The resultant	text is	placed	in  an
	       anonymous temporary file	which is given to the command as stan-
	       dard input.
       > name
       _! name
       __ name
       __! name
	       The file	name is	used as	standard output.  If the file does not
	       exist  then it is created; if the file exists, it is truncated,
	       its previous contents being lost.

	       If the shell variable noclobber is set, then the	file must  not
	       exist  or  be  a	 character  special  file (e.g., a terminal or
	       `/dev/null') or an error	results.  This helps prevent  acciden-
	       tal  destruction	 of  files.  In	this case the `!' forms	can be
	       used to suppress	this check.

	       The forms involving `&' route the diagnostic  output  into  the
	       specified  file	as  well  as  the  standard  output.   name is
	       expanded	in the same way	as `<' input filenames are.
       >> name
       ___ name
       __! name
       ___! name
	       Like `>', but appends output to the end of name.	 If the	 shell
	       variable	noclobber is set, then it is an	error for the file not
	       to exist, unless	one of the `!' forms is	given.

       A command receives the environment in which the shell  was  invoked  as
       modified	by the input-output parameters and the presence	of the command
       in a pipeline.  Thus, unlike some previous shells, commands run from  a
       file  of	 shell	commands have no access	to the text of the commands by
       default;	rather they receive the	original standard input	of the	shell.
       The `<<'	mechanism should be used to present inline data.  This permits
       shell command scripts to	function as components of pipelines and	allows
       the  shell  to  block  read  its	input.	Note that the default standard
       input for a command run detached	is not the empty file  /dev/null,  but
       the original standard input of the shell.  If this is a terminal	and if
       the process attempts to read from the terminal, then the	 process  will
       block and the user will be notified (see	Jobs).

       Diagnostic output may be	directed through a pipe	with the standard out-
       put.  Simply use	the form `|&' rather than just `|'.

       The shell cannot	presently  redirect  diagnostic	 output	 without  also
       redirecting  standard  output,  but  `(command >	output-file) >&	error-
       file' is	often an acceptable workaround.	 Either	output-file or	error-
       file may	be `/dev/tty' to send output to	the terminal.

   Features
       Having  described  how  the  shell accepts, parses and executes command
       lines, we now turn to a variety of its useful features.

   Control flow
       The shell contains a number of commands which can be used  to  regulate
       the  flow  of  control in command files (shell scripts) and (in limited
       but useful ways)	from terminal input.  These commands  all  operate  by
       forcing the shell to reread or skip in its input	and, due to the	imple-
       mentation, restrict the placement of some of the	commands.

       The foreach, switch, and	while statements, as well as the  if-then-else
       form  of	 the if	statement, require that	the major keywords appear in a
       single simple command on	an input line as shown below.

       If the shell's input is not seekable, the shell buffers up input	 when-
       ever a loop is being read and performs seeks in this internal buffer to
       accomplish the rereading	implied	by the loop.  (To the extent that this
       allows, backward	gotos will succeed on non-seekable inputs.)

   Expressions
       The  if,	 while and exit	builtin	commands use expressions with a	common
       syntax.	The expressions	can include any	of the operators described  in
       the  next  three	 sections.  Note that the @ builtin command (q.v.) has
       its own separate	syntax.

   Logical, arithmetical and comparison	operators
       These operators are similar to those of C and have the same precedence.
       They include

	   ||  &&  |  ^	 &  ==	!=  =~	!~  <=	>=
	   <  >	<<  >>	+  -  *	 /  %  !  ~  (	)

       Here  the  precedence  increases	to the right, `==' `!='	`=~' and `!~',
       `<=' `>=' `<' and `>', `<<' and `>>', `+' and  `-',  `*'	 `/'  and  `%'
       being, in groups, at the	same level.  The `==' `!=' `=~'	and `!~' oper-
       ators compare their arguments as	strings; all others  operate  on  num-
       bers.   The  operators `=~' and `!~' are	like `!=' and `==' except that
       the right hand side  is	a  glob-pattern	 (see  Filename	 substitution)
       against	which the left hand operand is matched.	 This reduces the need
       for use of the switch builtin command in	shell scripts when all that is
       really needed is	pattern	matching.

       Null  or	 missing  arguments  are  considered  `0'.  The	results	of all
       expressions are strings,	which represent	decimal	numbers.  It is	impor-
       tant  to	note that no two components of an expression can appear	in the
       same word; except when adjacent to components of	expressions which  are
       syntactically  significant to the parser	(`&' `|' `<' `>' `(' `)') they
       should be surrounded by spaces.

   Command exit	status
       Commands	can be executed	in expressions and their exit status  returned
       by enclosing them in braces (`{}').  Remember that the braces should be
       separated from the words	of the command by spaces.  Command  executions
       succeed,	returning true,	i.e., `1', if the command exits	with status 0,
       otherwise they fail, returning false, i.e., `0'.	 If more detailed sta-
       tus information is required then	the command should be executed outside
       of an expression	and the	status shell variable examined.

   File	inquiry	operators
       Some of these operators perform true/false tests	on files  and  related
       objects.	 They are of the form -op file,	where op is one	of

	   r   Read access
	   w   Write access
	   x   Execute access
	   X   Executable  in the path or shell	builtin, e.g., `-X ls' and `-X
	       ls-F' are generally true, but `-X /bin/ls' is not (+)
	   e   Existence
	   o   Ownership
	   z   Zero size
	   s   Non-zero	size (+)
	   f   Plain file
	   d   Directory
	   l   Symbolic	link (+) *
	   b   Block special file (+)
	   c   Character special file (+)
	   p   Named pipe (fifo) (+) *
	   S   Socket special file (+) *
	   u   Set-user-ID bit is set (+)
	   g   Set-group-ID bit	is set (+)
	   k   Sticky bit is set (+)
	   t   file (which must	be a digit) is an open file descriptor	for  a
	       terminal	device (+)
	   R   Has been	migrated (convex only) (+)
	   L   Applies	subsequent  operators in a multiple-operator test to a
	       symbolic	link rather than to the	file to	which the link	points
	       (+) *

       file  is	command	and filename expanded and then tested to see if	it has
       the specified relationship to the real user.  If	file does not exist or
       is  inaccessible	 or, for the operators indicated by `*', if the	speci-
       fied file type does not exist on	the current system, then all enquiries
       return false, i.e., `0'.

       These  operators	may be combined	for conciseness: `-xy file' is equiva-
       lent to `-x file	&& -y file'.  (+) For example, `-fx' is	true  (returns
       `1') for	plain executable files,	but not	for directories.

       L may be	used in	a multiple-operator test to apply subsequent operators
       to a symbolic link rather than to the file to which  the	 link  points.
       For  example, `-lLo' is true for	links owned by the invoking user.  Lr,
       Lw and Lx are always true for links and false for non-links.  L	has  a
       different  meaning  when	it is the last operator	in a multiple-operator
       test; see below.

       It is possible but not useful, and  sometimes  misleading,  to  combine
       operators  which	 expect	file to	be a file with operators which do not,
       (e.g., X	and t).	 Following L with a non-file operator can lead to par-
       ticularly strange results.

       Other  operators	 return	 other information, i.e., not just `0' or `1'.
       (+) They	have the same format as	before;	op may be one of

	   A	   Last	file access time, as the number	of seconds  since  the
		   epoch
	   A:	   Like	A, but in timestamp format, e.g., `Fri May 14 16:36:10
		   1993'
	   M	   Last	file modification time
	   M:	   Like	M, but in timestamp format
	   C	   Last	inode modification time
	   C:	   Like	C, but in timestamp format
	   D	   Device number
	   I	   Inode number
	   F	   Composite file identifier, in the form device:inode
	   L	   The name of the file	pointed	to by a	symbolic link
	   N	   Number of (hard) links
	   P	   Permissions,	in octal, without leading zero
	   P:	   Like	P, with	leading	zero
	   Pmode   Equivalent to `-P file & mode', e.g., `-P22	file'  returns
		   `22'	 if  file  is  writable	by group and other, `20' if by
		   group only, and `0' if by neither
	   Pmode:  Like	Pmode:,	with leading zero
	   U	   Numeric userid
	   U:	   Username, or	the numeric userid if the username is unknown
	   G	   Numeric groupid
	   G:	   Groupname, or the  numeric  groupid	if  the	 groupname  is
		   unknown
	   Z	   Size, in bytes

       Only one	of these operators may appear in a multiple-operator test, and
       it must be the last.  Note that L has a different meaning at the	end of
       and  elsewhere  in  a  multiple-operator	 test.	Because	`0' is a valid
       return value for	many of	these operators, they do not return  `0'  when
       they fail: most return `-1', and	F returns `:'.

       If  the	shell  is  compiled  with POSIX	defined	(see the version shell
       variable), the result of	a file inquiry is based	on the permission bits
       of  the	file  and not on the result of the access(2) system call.  For
       example,	if one tests a file with -w whose permissions would ordinarily
       allow writing but which is on a file system mounted read-only, the test
       will succeed in a POSIX shell but fail in a non-POSIX shell.

       File inquiry operators can also be evaluated with the filetest  builtin
       command (q.v.) (+).

   Jobs
       The  shell  associates  a  job with each	pipeline.  It keeps a table of
       current jobs, printed by	the jobs command, and assigns them small inte-
       ger  numbers.  When a job is started asynchronously with	`&', the shell
       prints a	line which looks like

	   [1] 1234

       indicating that the job which was started asynchronously	was job	number
       1 and had one (top-level) process, whose	process	id was 1234.

       If  you are running a job and wish to do	something else you may hit the
       suspend key (usually `^Z'), which sends a STOP signal  to  the  current
       job.  The shell will then normally indicate that	the job	has been `Sus-
       pended' and print another prompt.  If the listjobs  shell  variable  is
       set,  all  jobs	will be	listed like the	jobs builtin command; if it is
       set to `long' the listing will be in long format, like `jobs -l'.   You
       can  then manipulate the	state of the suspended job.  You can put it in
       the ``background'' with the bg command or run some other	 commands  and
       eventually  bring  the  job back	into the ``foreground''	with fg.  (See
       also the	run-fg-editor editor command.)	A `^Z'	takes  effect  immedi-
       ately  and is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input
       are discarded when it is	typed.	The wait builtin  command  causes  the
       shell to	wait for all background	jobs to	complete.

       The  `^]' key sends a delayed suspend signal, which does	not generate a
       STOP signal until a program attempts to read(2) it, to the current job.
       This  can  usefully be typed ahead when you have	prepared some commands
       for a job which you wish	to stop	after it has read them.	 The `^Y'  key
       performs	 this function in csh(1); in tcsh, `^Y'	is an editing command.
       (+)

       A job being run in the background stops if it tries to  read  from  the
       terminal.   Background jobs are normally	allowed	to produce output, but
       this can	be disabled by giving the command `stty	tostop'.  If  you  set
       this  tty  option, then background jobs will stop when they try to pro-
       duce output like	they do	when they try to read input.

       There are several ways to refer to jobs in the  shell.	The  character
       `%'  introduces	a job name.  If	you wish to refer to job number	1, you
       can name	it as `%1'.  Just naming a job brings it  to  the  foreground;
       thus  `%1' is a synonym for `fg %1', bringing job 1 back	into the fore-
       ground.	Similarly, saying `%1 &' resumes job 1 in the background, just
       like  `bg %1'.  A job can also be named by an unambiguous prefix	of the
       string typed in to start	it: `%ex' would	normally restart  a  suspended
       ex(1)  job,  if there were only one suspended job whose name began with
       the string `ex'.	 It is also possible to	say `%?string'	to  specify  a
       job whose text contains string, if there	is only	one such job.

       The shell maintains a notion of the current and previous	jobs.  In out-
       put pertaining to jobs, the current job is marked with a	 `+'  and  the
       previous	 job with a `-'.  The abbreviations `%+', `%', and (by analogy
       with the	syntax of the history mechanism) `%%' all refer	to the current
       job, and	`%-' refers to the previous job.

       The job control mechanism requires that the stty(1) option `new'	be set
       on some systems.	 It is an artifact from	a `new'	implementation of  the
       tty  driver  which  allows  generation of interrupt characters from the
       keyboard	to tell	jobs to	stop.  See stty(1) and the setty builtin  com-
       mand for	details	on setting options in the new tty driver.

   Status reporting
       The shell learns	immediately whenever a process changes state.  It nor-
       mally informs you whenever a job	becomes	blocked	 so  that  no  further
       progress	 is  possible, but only	right before it	prints a prompt.  This
       is done so that it does not otherwise disturb your work.	 If,  however,
       you  set	 the  shell variable notify, the shell will notify you immedi-
       ately of	changes	of status in background	jobs.  There is	also  a	 shell
       command	notify which marks a single process so that its	status changes
       will be immediately reported.  By  default  notify  marks  the  current
       process;	 simply	 say  `notify' after starting a	background job to mark
       it.

       When you	try to leave the shell while jobs are  stopped,	 you  will  be
       warned  that  `You  have	stopped	jobs.' You may use the jobs command to
       see what	they are.  If you do this or immediately try  to  exit	again,
       the  shell will not warn	you a second time, and the suspended jobs will
       be terminated.

   Automatic, periodic and timed events	(+)
       There are various ways to run commands and take other actions automati-
       cally  at  various  times in the	``life cycle'' of the shell.  They are
       summarized here,	and described in detail	under the appropriate  Builtin
       commands, Special shell variables and Special aliases.

       The  sched  builtin command puts	commands in a scheduled-event list, to
       be executed by the shell	at a given time.

       The beepcmd, cwdcmd, periodic,  precmd,	postcmd,  and  jobcmd  Special
       aliases	can  be	 set, respectively, to execute commands	when the shell
       wants to	ring the bell, when the	working	directory changes, every  tpe-
       riod  minutes,  before  each prompt, before each	command	gets executed,
       after each command gets executed, and when  a  job  is  started	or  is
       brought into the	foreground.

       The  autologout	shell variable can be set to log out or	lock the shell
       after a given number of minutes of inactivity.

       The mail	shell variable can be set to check for new mail	periodically.

       The printexitvalue shell	variable can be	set to print the  exit	status
       of commands which exit with a status other than zero.

       The  rmstar  shell  variable can	be set to ask the user,	when `rm *' is
       typed, if that is really	what was meant.

       The time	shell variable can be set to execute the time builtin  command
       after the completion of any process that	takes more than	a given	number
       of CPU seconds.

       The watch and who shell variables can be	set to	report	when  selected
       users log in or out, and	the log	builtin	command	reports	on those users
       at any time.

   Native Language System support (+)
       The shell is eight bit clean (if	so compiled;  see  the	version	 shell
       variable)  and  thus  supports  character sets needing this capability.
       NLS support differs depending on	whether	or not the shell was  compiled
       to  use	the  system's NLS (again, see version).	 In either case, 7-bit
       ASCII is	the default character code (e.g., the classification of	 which
       characters  are	printable)  and	 sorting,  and	changing  the  LANG or
       LC_CTYPE	environment variables causes a check for possible  changes  in
       these respects.

       When  using  the	 system's  NLS,	the setlocale(3) function is called to
       determine appropriate character code/classification and sorting	(e.g.,
       a  'en_CA.UTF-8'	 would yield "UTF-8" as	a character code).  This func-
       tion typically examines the LANG	and  LC_CTYPE  environment  variables;
       refer  to the system documentation for further details.	When not using
       the system's NLS, the shell simulates  it  by  assuming	that  the  ISO
       8859-1  character  set is used whenever either of the LANG and LC_CTYPE
       variables are set, regardless of	their values.  Sorting is not affected
       for the simulated NLS.

       In addition, with both real and simulated NLS, all printable characters
       in the range \200-\377, i.e., those  that  have	M-char	bindings,  are
       automatically  rebound to self-insert-command.  The corresponding bind-
       ing for the escape-char sequence, if any, is left alone.	 These charac-
       ters are	not rebound if the NOREBIND environment	variable is set.  This
       may be useful for the simulated NLS  or	a  primitive  real  NLS	 which
       assumes	full  ISO 8859-1.  Otherwise, all M-char bindings in the range
       \240-\377 are effectively undone.  Explicitly  rebinding	 the  relevant
       keys with bindkey is of course still possible.

       Unknown	characters (i.e., those	that are neither printable nor control
       characters) are printed in the format \nnn.  If the tty is not in 8 bit
       mode,  other  8	bit characters are printed by converting them to ASCII
       and using standout mode.	 The shell never changes the 7/8 bit  mode  of
       the  tty	 and tracks user-initiated changes of 7/8 bit mode.  NLS users
       (or, for	that matter, those who want to use a meta  key)	 may  need  to
       explicitly  set	the  tty in 8 bit mode through the appropriate stty(1)
       command in, e.g., the ~/.login file.

   OS variant support (+)
       A number	of new builtin commands	are provided to	 support  features  in
       particular  operating  systems.	 All  are  described  in detail	in the
       Builtin commands	section.

       On  systems  that  support  TCF	(aix-ibm370,  aix-ps2),	 getspath  and
       setspath	 get  and set the system execution path, getxvers and setxvers
       get and set the experimental version prefix and migrate	migrates  pro-
       cesses  between	sites.	The jobs builtin prints	the site on which each
       job is executing.

       Under BS2000, bs2cmd executes commands  of  the	underlying  BS2000/OSD
       operating system.

       Under  Domain/OS,  inlib	 adds shared libraries to the current environ-
       ment, rootnode changes the rootnode and ver changes the systype.

       Under Mach, setpath is equivalent to Mach's setpath(1).

       Under Masscomp/RTU and Harris CX/UX, universe sets the universe.

       Under Harris CX/UX, ucb or att runs a command under the specified  uni-
       verse.

       Under Convex/OS,	warp prints or sets the	universe.

       The  VENDOR, OSTYPE and MACHTYPE	environment variables indicate respec-
       tively the vendor, operating system and	machine	 type  (microprocessor
       class  or  machine model) of the	system on which	the shell thinks it is
       running.	 These are particularly	useful when sharing one's home	direc-
       tory between several types of machines; one can,	for example,

	   set path = (~/bin.$MACHTYPE /usr/ucb	/bin /usr/bin .)

       in  one's ~/.login and put executables compiled for each	machine	in the
       appropriate directory.

       The version shell variable indicates what options were chosen when  the
       shell was compiled.

       Note  also  the	newgrp builtin,	the afsuser and	echo_style shell vari-
       ables and the system-dependent locations	of  the	 shell's  input	 files
       (see FILES).

   Signal handling
       Login  shells  ignore  interrupts when reading the file ~/.logout.  The
       shell ignores quit signals unless started with -q.  Login shells	 catch
       the terminate signal, but non-login shells inherit the terminate	behav-
       ior from	their parents.	Other signals have the values which the	 shell
       inherited from its parent.

       In  shell scripts, the shell's handling of interrupt and	terminate sig-
       nals can	be controlled with onintr, and its handling of hangups can  be
       controlled with hup and nohup.

       The  shell  exits on a hangup (see also the logout shell	variable).  By
       default,	the shell's children do	too, but the shell does	not send  them
       a hangup	when it	exits.	hup arranges for the shell to send a hangup to
       a child when it exits, and nohup	sets a child to	ignore hangups.

   Terminal management (+)
       The shell uses  three  different	 sets  of  terminal  (``tty'')	modes:
       `edit',	used  when editing, `quote', used when quoting literal charac-
       ters, and `execute', used when executing	 commands.   The  shell	 holds
       some settings in	each mode constant, so commands	which leave the	tty in
       a confused state	do not interfere  with	the  shell.   The  shell  also
       matches	changes	 in the	speed and padding of the tty.  The list	of tty
       modes that are kept constant can	be  examined  and  modified  with  the
       setty  builtin.	Note that although the editor uses CBREAK mode (or its
       equivalent), it takes typed-ahead characters anyway.

       The echotc, settc and telltc commands can be  used  to  manipulate  and
       debug terminal capabilities from	the command line.

       On systems that support SIGWINCH	or SIGWINDOW, the shell	adapts to win-
       dow resizing automatically and adjusts the environment variables	 LINES
       and  COLUMNS  if	set.  If the environment variable TERMCAP contains li#
       and co# fields, the shell adjusts them to reflect the new window	size.

REFERENCE
       The next	sections of this manual	describe all of	the available  Builtin
       commands, Special aliases and Special shell variables.

   Builtin commands
       %job    A synonym for the fg builtin command.

       %job &  A synonym for the bg builtin command.

       :       Does nothing, successfully.

       @
       @ name =	expr
       @ name[index] = expr
       @ name++|--
       @ name[index]++|--
	       The first form prints the values	of all shell variables.

	       The  second  form assigns the value of expr to name.  The third
	       form assigns the	value of expr to  the  index'th	 component  of
	       name; both name and its index'th	component must already exist.

	       expr  may  contain  the	operators `*', `+', etc., as in	C.  If
	       expr contains `<', `>', `&' or `' then at least	that  part  of
	       expr  must be placed within `()'.  Note that the	syntax of expr
	       has nothing to do with that described under Expressions.

	       The fourth and fifth forms increment (`++') or decrement	(`--')
	       name or its index'th component.

	       The space between `@' and name is required.  The	spaces between
	       name and	`=' and	between	`=' and	expr are optional.  Components
	       of expr must be separated by spaces.

       alias [name [wordlist]]
	       Without	arguments,  prints all aliases.	 With name, prints the
	       alias for name.	With name and wordlist,	 assigns  wordlist  as
	       the  alias  of  name.  wordlist is command and filename substi-
	       tuted.  name may	not be `alias' or  `unalias'.	See  also  the
	       unalias builtin command.

       alloc   Shows  the  amount of dynamic memory acquired, broken down into
	       used and	free memory.  With an argument	shows  the  number  of
	       free  and  used	blocks	in each	size category.	The categories
	       start at	size 8 and double at each step.	 This command's	output
	       may  vary  across  system types,	because	systems	other than the
	       VAX may use a different memory allocator.

       bg [%job	...]
	       Puts the	specified jobs (or,  without  arguments,  the  current
	       job)  into  the	background,  continuing	each if	it is stopped.
	       job may be a number, a string, `', `%', `+' or `-' as described
	       under Jobs.

       bindkey [-l|-d|-e|-v|-u]	(+)
       bindkey [-a] [-b] [-k] [-r] [--]	key (+)
       bindkey [-a] [-b] [-k] [-c|-s] [--] key command (+)
	       Without	options,  the  first form lists	all bound keys and the
	       editor command to which each is bound, the  second  form	 lists
	       the  editor  command  to	 which key is bound and	the third form
	       binds the editor	command	command	to key.	 Options include:

	       -l  Lists all editor commands and a short description of	each.
	       -d  Binds all keys to the standard  bindings  for  the  default
		   editor.
	       -e  Binds all keys to the standard GNU Emacs-like bindings.
	       -v  Binds all keys to the standard vi(1)-like bindings.
	       -a  Lists  or  changes key-bindings in the alternative key map.
		   This	is the key map used in vi command mode.
	       -b  key is interpreted as a control character written  ^charac-
		   ter (e.g., `^A') or C-character (e.g., `C-A'), a meta char-
		   acter written M-character (e.g.,  `M-A'),  a	 function  key
		   written  F-string (e.g., `F-string'), or an extended	prefix
		   key written X-character (e.g., `X-A').
	       -k  key is interpreted as a symbolic arrow key name, which  may
		   be one of `down', `up', `left' or `right'.
	       -r  Removes  key's  binding.  Be	careful: `bindkey -r' does not
		   bind	key to self-insert-command (q.v.), it unbinds key com-
		   pletely.
	       -c  command  is	interpreted  as	 a builtin or external command
		   instead of an editor	command.
	       -s  command is taken as a literal string	and treated as	termi-
		   nal	input  when  key  is typed.  Bound keys	in command are
		   themselves reinterpreted, and this continues	for ten	levels
		   of interpretation.
	       --  Forces  a break from	option processing, so the next word is
		   taken as key	even if	it begins with '-'.
	       -u (or any invalid option)
		   Prints a usage message.

	       key may be a single character or	a string.   If	a  command  is
	       bound  to  a string, the	first character	of the string is bound
	       to sequence-lead-in and the entire string is bound to the  com-
	       mand.

	       Control	characters in key can be literal (they can be typed by
	       preceding them with the editor command quoted-insert,  normally
	       bound  to  `^V')	 or written caret-character style, e.g., `^A'.
	       Delete is written `^?'  (caret-question mark).  key and command
	       can  contain backslashed	escape sequences (in the style of Sys-
	       tem V echo(1)) as follows:

		   \a	   Bell
		   \b	   Backspace
		   \e	   Escape
		   \f	   Form	feed
		   \n	   Newline
		   \r	   Carriage return
		   \t	   Horizontal tab
		   \v	   Vertical tab
		   \nnn	   The ASCII character corresponding to	the octal num-
			   ber nnn

	       `\'  nullifies  the special meaning of the following character,
	       if it has any, notably `\' and `^'.

       bs2cmd bs2000-command (+)
	       Passes bs2000-command to	the  BS2000  command  interpreter  for
	       execution.  Only	 non-interactive commands can be executed, and
	       it is not possible to execute any command  that	would  overlay
	       the image of the	current	process, like /EXECUTE or /CALL-PROCE-
	       DURE. (BS2000 only)

       break   Causes execution	to resume after	the end	of the nearest enclos-
	       ing  foreach  or	 while.	 The remaining commands	on the current
	       line are	executed.  Multi-level breaks  are  thus  possible  by
	       writing them all	on one line.

       breaksw Causes a	break from a switch, resuming after the	endsw.

       builtins	(+)
	       Prints the names	of all builtin commands.

       bye (+) A  synonym  for	the logout builtin command.  Available only if
	       the shell was so	compiled; see the version shell	variable.

       case label:
	       A label in a switch statement as	discussed below.

       cd [-p] [-l] [-n|-v] [name]
	       If a directory name  is	given,	changes	 the  shell's  working
	       directory to name.  If not, changes to home.  If	name is	`-' it
	       is interpreted as the previous  working	directory  (see	 Other
	       substitutions).	 (+) If	name is	not a subdirectory of the cur-
	       rent directory (and does	not begin with `/',  `./'  or  `../'),
	       each  component	of the variable	cdpath is checked to see if it
	       has a subdirectory name.	 Finally, if all else fails  but  name
	       is  a  shell variable whose value begins	with `/', then this is
	       tried to	see if it is a directory.

	       With -p,	prints the final directory stack, just like dirs.  The
	       -l,  -n and -v flags have the same effect on cd as on dirs, and
	       they imply -p.  (+)

	       See also	the implicitcd shell variable.

       chdir   A synonym for the cd builtin command.

       complete	[command [word/pattern/list[:select]/[[suffix]/] ...]] (+)
	       Without arguments, lists	all completions.  With command,	 lists
	       completions  for	 command.  With	command	and word etc., defines
	       completions.

	       command may be a	full command name or a glob-pattern (see File-
	       name  substitution).   It  can  begin with `-' to indicate that
	       completion should be used only when command is ambiguous.

	       word specifies which word relative to the current word is to be
	       completed, and may be one of the	following:

		   c   Current-word  completion.   pattern  is	a glob-pattern
		       which must match	the beginning of the current  word  on
		       the  command  line.  pattern is ignored when completing
		       the current word.
		   C   Like c, but includes pattern when completing  the  cur-
		       rent word.
		   n   Next-word  completion.  pattern is a glob-pattern which
		       must match the beginning	of the previous	 word  on  the
		       command line.
		   N   Like  n,	 but  must match the beginning of the word two
		       before the current word.
		   p   Position-dependent completion.  pattern	is  a  numeric
		       range,  with  the same syntax used to index shell vari-
		       ables, which must include the current word.

	       list, the list of possible completions, may be one of the  fol-
	       lowing:

		   a	   Aliases
		   b	   Bindings (editor commands)
		   c	   Commands (builtin or	external commands)
		   C	   External  commands  which  begin  with the supplied
			   path	prefix
		   d	   Directories
		   D	   Directories which begin with	the supplied path pre-
			   fix
		   e	   Environment variables
		   f	   Filenames
		   F	   Filenames which begin with the supplied path	prefix
		   g	   Groupnames
		   j	   Jobs
		   l	   Limits
		   n	   Nothing
		   s	   Shell variables
		   S	   Signals
		   t	   Plain (``text'') files
		   T	   Plain  (``text'')  files  which begin with the sup-
			   plied path prefix
		   v	   Any variables
		   u	   Usernames
		   x	   Like	n, but	prints	select	when  list-choices  is
			   used.
		   X	   Completions
		   $var	   Words from the variable var
		   (...)   Words from the given	list
		   `...`   Words from the output of command

	       select  is an optional glob-pattern.  If	given, words from only
	       list that match select are considered  and  the	fignore	 shell
	       variable	 is  ignored.	The last three types of	completion may
	       not have	a select pattern, and x	uses select as an  explanatory
	       message when the	list-choices editor command is used.

	       suffix  is  a  single  character	to be appended to a successful
	       completion.  If null, no	character is appended.	If omitted (in
	       which  case  the	fourth delimiter can also be omitted), a slash
	       is appended to directories and a	space to other words.

	       Now for some examples.  Some commands take only directories  as
	       arguments, so there's no	point completing plain files.

		   > complete cd 'p/1/d/'

	       completes  only	the  first  word following `cd'	(`p/1')	with a
	       directory.  p-type completion can also be used to  narrow  down
	       command completion:

		   > co[^D]
		   complete compress
		   > complete -co* 'p/0/(compress)/'
		   > co[^D]
		   > compress

	       This completion completes commands (words in position 0,	`p/0')
	       which begin with	`co' (thus matching `co*') to `compress'  (the
	       only  word  in  the list).  The leading `-' indicates that this
	       completion is to	be used	with only ambiguous commands.

		   > complete find 'n/-user/u/'

	       is an example of	n-type completion.  Any	word following	`find'
	       and immediately following `-user' is completed from the list of
	       users.

		   > complete cc 'c/-I/d/'

	       demonstrates c-type completion.	Any word  following  `cc'  and
	       beginning  with	`-I' is	completed as a directory.  `-I'	is not
	       taken as	part of	the directory because we used lowercase	c.

	       Different lists are useful with different commands.

		   > complete alias 'p/1/a/'
		   > complete man 'p/*/c/'
		   > complete set 'p/1/s/'
		   > complete true 'p/1/x:Truth	has no options./'

	       These complete words following `alias' with aliases, `man' with
	       commands,  and `set' with shell variables.  `true' doesn't have
	       any options, so x does nothing when completion is attempted and
	       prints  `Truth  has  no	options.'  when	completion choices are
	       listed.

	       Note that the man example, and several  other  examples	below,
	       could just as well have used 'c/*' or 'n/*' as 'p/*'.

	       Words  can be completed from a variable evaluated at completion
	       time,

		   > complete ftp 'p/1/$hostnames/'
		   > set hostnames = (rtfm.mit.edu tesla.ee.cornell.edu)
		   > ftp [^D]
		   rtfm.mit.edu	tesla.ee.cornell.edu
		   > ftp [^C]
		   >  set  hostnames  =	  (rtfm.mit.edu	  tesla.ee.cornell.edu
		   uunet.uu.net)
		   > ftp [^D]
		   rtfm.mit.edu	tesla.ee.cornell.edu uunet.uu.net

	       or from a command run at	completion time:

		   > complete kill 'p/*/`ps | awk \{print\ \$1\}`/'
		   > kill -9 [^D]
		   23113 23377 23380 23406 23429 23529 23530 PID

	       Note  that the complete command does not	itself quote its argu-
	       ments, so the braces, space and `$' in  `{print	$1}'  must  be
	       quoted explicitly.

	       One command can have multiple completions:

		   > complete dbx 'p/2/(core)/'	'p/*/c/'

	       completes the second argument to	`dbx' with the word `core' and
	       all other arguments with	commands.  Note	 that  the  positional
	       completion   is	specified  before  the	next-word  completion.
	       Because completions are evaluated from left to  right,  if  the
	       next-word completion were specified first it would always match
	       and the positional completion would never be executed.  This is
	       a common	mistake	when defining a	completion.

	       The  select  pattern  is	useful when a command takes files with
	       only particular forms as	arguments.  For	example,

		   > complete cc 'p/*/f:*.[cao]/'

	       completes `cc' arguments	to files ending	in only	`.c', `.a', or
	       `.o'.  select can also exclude files, using negation of a glob-
	       pattern as described under Filename  substitution.   One	 might
	       use

		   > complete rm 'p/*/f:^*.{c,h,cc,C,tex,1,man,l,y}/'

	       to  exclude  precious  source  code  from  `rm' completion.  Of
	       course, one could still type excluded names manually  or	 over-
	       ride  the  completion  mechanism	using the complete-word-raw or
	       list-choices-raw	editor commands	(q.v.).

	       The `C',	`D', `F' and `T' lists are like	`c', `d', `f' and  `t'
	       respectively,  but  they	use the	select argument	in a different
	       way: to restrict	completion to files beginning with a  particu-
	       lar path	prefix.	 For example, the Elm mail program uses	`=' as
	       an abbreviation for one's mail directory.  One might use

		   > complete elm c@=@F:$HOME/Mail/@

	       to complete `elm	-f =' as if it were `elm  -f  ~/Mail/'.	  Note
	       that  we	 used  `@'  instead of `/' to avoid confusion with the
	       select argument,	and we used `$HOME'  instead  of  `~'  because
	       home  directory	substitution  works at only the	beginning of a
	       word.

	       suffix is used to add a nonstandard suffix (not	space  or  `/'
	       for directories)	to completed words.

		   > complete finger 'c/*@/$hostnames/'	'p/1/u/@'

	       completes arguments to `finger' from the	list of	users, appends
	       an `@', and then	completes after	the `@'	from  the  `hostnames'
	       variable.   Note	 again	the order in which the completions are
	       specified.

	       Finally,	here's a complex example for inspiration:

		   > complete find \
		   'n/-name/f/'	'n/-newer/f/' 'n/-{,n}cpio/f/' \
		   'n/-exec/c/'	'n/-ok/c/' 'n/-user/u/'	\
		   'n/-group/g/' 'n/-fstype/(nfs 4.2)/'	\
		   'n/-type/(b c d f l p s)/' \
		   'c/-/(name newer cpio ncpio exec ok user \
		   group fstype	type atime ctime depth inum \
		   ls mtime nogroup nouser perm	print prune \
		   size	xdev)/'	\
		   'p/*/d/'

	       This completes words following `-name',	`-newer',  `-cpio'  or
	       `ncpio'	(note  the pattern which matches both) to files, words
	       following `-exec' or `-ok' to commands, words following	`user'
	       and  `group' to users and groups	respectively and words follow-
	       ing `-fstype' or	`-type'	to members of  the  given  lists.   It
	       also  completes	the  switches  themselves  from	the given list
	       (note the use of	c-type completion) and completes anything  not
	       otherwise completed to a	directory.  Whew.

	       Remember	 that  programmed  completions are ignored if the word
	       being completed is a tilde substitution (beginning with `~') or
	       a  variable  (beginning with `$').  complete is an experimental
	       feature,	and the	syntax may change in future  versions  of  the
	       shell.  See also	the uncomplete builtin command.

       continue
	       Continues  execution of the nearest enclosing while or foreach.
	       The rest	of the commands	on the current line are	executed.

       default:
	       Labels the default case in a switch statement.  It should  come
	       after all case labels.

       dirs [-l] [-n|-v]
       dirs -S|-L [filename] (+)
       dirs -c (+)
	       The  first  form	 prints	 the  directory	stack.	The top	of the
	       stack is	at the left and	the first directory in	the  stack  is
	       the  current  directory.	 With -l, `~' or `~name' in the	output
	       is expanded explicitly to home or  the  pathname	 of  the  home
	       directory  for  user  name.   (+)  With -n, entries are wrapped
	       before they reach the edge of the screen.  (+) With -v, entries
	       are  printed  one  per line, preceded by	their stack positions.
	       (+) If more than	one of -n or -v	is given, -v takes precedence.
	       -p is accepted but does nothing.

	       With  -S, the second form saves the directory stack to filename
	       as a series of cd and  pushd  commands.	 With  -L,  the	 shell
	       sources	filename,  which  is presumably	a directory stack file
	       saved by	the -S option or the savedirs  mechanism.   In	either
	       case,  dirsfile is used if filename is not given	and ~/.cshdirs
	       is used if dirsfile is unset.

	       Note that login shells  do  the	equivalent  of	`dirs  -L'  on
	       startup	and,  if  savedirs  is	set, `dirs -S' before exiting.
	       Because only ~/.tcshrc is normally sourced  before  ~/.cshdirs,
	       dirsfile	should be set in ~/.tcshrc rather than ~/.login.

	       The last	form clears the	directory stack.

       echo [-n] word ...
	       Writes  each  word to the shell's standard output, separated by
	       spaces and terminated with a  newline.	The  echo_style	 shell
	       variable	 may  be  set to emulate (or not) the flags and	escape
	       sequences of the	BSD and/or System  V  versions	of  echo;  see
	       echo(1).

       echotc [-sv] arg	... (+)
	       Exercises  the  terminal	capabilities (see termcap(5)) in args.
	       For example, 'echotc home' sends	the cursor to the  home	 posi-
	       tion,  'echotc  cm  3  10' sends	it to column 3 and row 10, and
	       'echotc ts 0; echo "This	is a test."; echotc fs'	 prints	 "This
	       is a test."  in the status line.

	       If arg is 'baud', 'cols', 'lines', 'meta' or 'tabs', prints the
	       value of	that capability	("yes" or  "no"	 indicating  that  the
	       terminal	does or	does not have that capability).	 One might use
	       this to make the	output from a shell  script  less  verbose  on
	       slow  terminals,	or limit command output	to the number of lines
	       on the screen:

		   > set history=`echotc lines`
		   > @ history--

	       Termcap strings may contain wildcards which will	not echo  cor-
	       rectly.	 One  should  use  double  quotes when setting a shell
	       variable	to a terminal capability string, as in	the  following
	       example that places the date in the status line:

		   > set tosl="`echotc ts 0`"
		   > set frsl="`echotc fs`"
		   > echo -n "$tosl";date; echo	-n "$frsl"

	       With  -s,  nonexistent  capabilities  return  the  empty	string
	       rather than causing an error.  With -v, messages	are verbose.

       else
       end
       endif
       endsw   See the description of  the  foreach,  if,  switch,  and	 while
	       statements below.

       eval arg	...
	       Treats  the  arguments  as  input to the	shell and executes the
	       resulting command(s) in the context of the current shell.  This
	       is  usually used	to execute commands generated as the result of
	       command or variable substitution, because parsing occurs	before
	       these substitutions.  See tset(1) for a sample use of eval.

       exec command
	       Executes	the specified command in place of the current shell.

       exit [expr]
	       The shell exits either with the value of	the specified expr (an
	       expression, as described	under Expressions) or,	without	 expr,
	       with the	value 0.

       fg [%job	...]
	       Brings  the  specified jobs (or,	without	arguments, the current
	       job) into the foreground, continuing each  if  it  is  stopped.
	       job may be a number, a string, `', `%', `+' or `-' as described
	       under Jobs.  See	also the run-fg-editor editor command.

       filetest	-op file ... (+)
	       Applies op (which is a file inquiry operator as described under
	       File inquiry operators) to each file and	returns	the results as
	       a space-separated list.

       foreach name (wordlist)
       ...
       end     Successively sets the variable name to each member of  wordlist
	       and  executes the sequence of commands between this command and
	       the matching end.  (Both	foreach	and end	must appear  alone  on
	       separate	 lines.)   The builtin command continue	may be used to
	       continue	the loop prematurely and the builtin command break  to
	       terminate  it  prematurely.  When this command is read from the
	       terminal, the loop is read once prompting with `foreach?	'  (or
	       prompt2)	 before	 any  statements in the	loop are executed.  If
	       you make	a mistake typing in a loop at the terminal you can rub
	       it out.

       getspath	(+)
	       Prints the system execution path.  (TCF only)

       getxvers	(+)
	       Prints the experimental version prefix.	(TCF only)

       glob wordlist
	       Like  echo,  but	the `-n' parameter is not recognized and words
	       are delimited by	null characters	in  the	 output.   Useful  for
	       programs	 which wish to use the shell to	filename expand	a list
	       of words.

       goto word
	       word is filename	and command-substituted	to yield a  string  of
	       the  form `label'.  The shell rewinds its input as much as pos-
	       sible, searches for a line of the form `label:',	possibly  pre-
	       ceded  by  blanks  or  tabs, and	continues execution after that
	       line.

       hashstat
	       Prints a	statistics line	indicating how effective the  internal
	       hash table has been at locating commands	(and avoiding exec's).
	       An exec is attempted for	each component of the path  where  the
	       hash  function  indicates a possible hit, and in	each component
	       which does not begin with a `/'.

	       On machines without vfork(2), prints only the number  and  size
	       of hash buckets.

       history [-hTr] [n]
       history -S|-L|-M	[filename] (+)
       history -c (+)
	       The  first  form	 prints	the history event list.	 If n is given
	       only the	n most recent events are printed or saved.   With  -h,
	       the  history list is printed without leading numbers.  If -T is
	       specified, timestamps are printed also in comment form.	 (This
	       can be used to produce files suitable for loading with 'history
	       -L' or 'source -h'.)  With -r, the order	of  printing  is  most
	       recent first rather than	oldest first.

	       With  -S,  the  second form saves the history list to filename.
	       If the first word of the	savehist shell variable	is  set	 to  a
	       number,	at most	that many lines	are saved.  If the second word
	       of savehist is set to `merge', the history list is merged  with
	       the  existing history file instead of replacing it (if there is
	       one) and	sorted by time stamp.  (+) Merging is intended for  an
	       environment  like  the  X  Window System	with several shells in
	       simultaneous use.  Currently it succeeds	only when  the	shells
	       quit nicely one after another.

	       With -L,	the shell appends filename, which is presumably	a his-
	       tory list saved by the -S option	or the savehist	mechanism,  to
	       the  history list.  -M is like -L, but the contents of filename
	       are merged into the history list	and sorted by  timestamp.   In
	       either  case,  histfile	is  used  if filename is not given and
	       ~/.history is used if  histfile	is  unset.   `history  -L'  is
	       exactly	like  'source  -h'  except  that it does not require a
	       filename.

	       Note that login shells do the equivalent	 of  `history  -L'  on
	       startup	and,  if savehist is set, `history -S' before exiting.
	       Because only ~/.tcshrc is normally sourced  before  ~/.history,
	       histfile	should be set in ~/.tcshrc rather than ~/.login.

	       If  histlit  is	set, the first and second forms	print and save
	       the literal (unexpanded)	form of	the history list.

	       The last	form clears the	history	list.

       hup [command] (+)
	       With command, runs command such that it will exit on  a	hangup
	       signal  and  arranges  for the shell to send it a hangup	signal
	       when the	shell exits.  Note that	commands  may  set  their  own
	       response	 to  hangups,  overriding  hup.	  Without  an argument
	       (allowed	in only	a shell	script), causes	the shell to exit on a
	       hangup  for  the	remainder of the script.  See also Signal han-
	       dling and the nohup builtin command.

       if (expr) command
	       If expr (an expression, as described under Expressions)	evalu-
	       ates  true, then	command	is executed.  Variable substitution on
	       command happens early, at the same time it does for the rest of
	       the  if	command.   command  must  be  a	simple command,	not an
	       alias, a	pipeline, a command list or  a	parenthesized  command
	       list,  but  it  may  have  arguments.  Input/output redirection
	       occurs even if expr is false and	command	is thus	not  executed;
	       this is a bug.

       if (expr) then
       ...
       else if (expr2) then
       ...
       else
       ...
       endif   If  the	specified  expr	is true	then the commands to the first
	       else are	executed; otherwise if expr2 is	true then the commands
	       to  the	second	else are executed, etc.	 Any number of else-if
	       pairs are possible; only	one endif is needed.  The else part is
	       likewise	 optional.   (The  words else and endif	must appear at
	       the beginning of	input lines; the if must appear	alone  on  its
	       input line or after an else.)

       inlib shared-library ...	(+)
	       Adds  each shared-library to the	current	environment.  There is
	       no way to remove	a shared library.  (Domain/OS only)

       jobs [-l]
	       Lists the active	jobs.  With -l,	lists process IDs in  addition
	       to  the normal information.  On TCF systems, prints the site on
	       which each job is executing.

       kill [-s	signal]	%job|pid ...
       kill -l The first and second forms sends	the specified signal  (or,  if
	       none  is	 given,	 the TERM (terminate) signal) to the specified
	       jobs or processes.  job may be a	number,	a string, `', `%', `+'
	       or  `-'	as  described under Jobs.  Signals are either given by
	       number or by name (as given in /usr/include/signal.h,  stripped
	       of  the	prefix	`SIG').	  There	is no default job; saying just
	       `kill' does not send a signal to	the current job.  If the  sig-
	       nal  being  sent	 is TERM (terminate) or	HUP (hangup), then the
	       job or process is sent a	CONT (continue)	signal as  well.   The
	       third form lists	the signal names.

       limit [-h] [resource [maximum-use]]
	       Limits  the consumption by the current process and each process
	       it creates to not individually exceed maximum-use on the	speci-
	       fied  resource.	 If  no	maximum-use is given, then the current
	       limit is	printed; if no resource	is given, then all limitations
	       are  given.   If	the -h flag is given, the hard limits are used
	       instead of the current limits.  The hard	limits impose a	 ceil-
	       ing  on	the values of the current limits.  Only	the super-user
	       may raise the hard limits, but a	user may lower	or  raise  the
	       current limits within the legal range.

	       Controllable  resources	currently include (if supported	by the
	       OS):

	       cputime
		      the maximum number of cpu-seconds	to  be	used  by  each
		      process

	       filesize
		      the largest single file which can	be created

	       datasize
		      the  maximum growth of the data+stack region via sbrk(2)
		      beyond the end of	the program text

	       stacksize
		      the maximum size	of  the	 automatically-extended	 stack
		      region

	       coredumpsize
		      the size of the largest core dump	that will be created

	       memoryuse
		      the maximum amount of physical memory a process may have
		      allocated	to it at a given time

	       heapsize
		      the maximum amount of memory a process may allocate  per
		      brk() system call

	       descriptors or openfiles
		      the maximum number of open files for this	process

	       concurrency
		      the maximum number of threads for	this process

	       memorylocked
		      the  maximum  size  which	a process may lock into	memory
		      using mlock(2)

	       maxproc
		      the maximum number of simultaneous  processes  for  this
		      user id

	       sbsize the maximum size of socket buffer	usage for this user

	       maximum-use  may	be given as a (floating	point or integer) num-
	       ber followed by a scale factor.	 For  all  limits  other  than
	       cputime the default scale is `k'	or `kilobytes' (1024 bytes); a
	       scale factor of `m' or  `megabytes'  may	 also  be  used.   For
	       cputime the default scaling is `seconds', while `m' for minutes
	       or `h' for hours, or a time of the form `mm:ss' giving  minutes
	       and seconds may be used.

	       For both	resource names and scale factors, unambiguous prefixes
	       of the names suffice.

       log (+) Prints the watch	shell variable and reports on each user	 indi-
	       cated  in  watch	who is logged in, regardless of	when they last
	       logged in.  See also watchlog.

       login   Terminates a login shell, replacing  it	with  an  instance  of
	       /bin/login.  This  is one way to	log off, included for compati-
	       bility with sh(1).

       logout  Terminates a login shell.  Especially useful  if	 ignoreeof  is
	       set.

       ls-F [-switch ...] [file	...] (+)
	       Lists  files like `ls -F', but much faster.  It identifies each
	       type of special file in the listing with	a special character:

	       /   Directory
	       *   Executable
	       #   Block device
	       %   Character device
	       |   Named pipe (systems with named pipes	only)
	       =   Socket (systems with	sockets	only)
	       @   Symbolic link (systems with symbolic	links only)
	       +   Hidden directory (AIX only)	or  context  dependent	(HP/UX
		   only)
	       :   Network special (HP/UX only)

	       If  the	listlinks  shell  variable  is set, symbolic links are
	       identified in more detail (on only systems that have  them,  of
	       course):

	       @   Symbolic link to a non-directory
	       >   Symbolic link to a directory
	       &   Symbolic link to nowhere

	       listlinks  also	slows  down ls-F and causes partitions holding
	       files pointed to	by symbolic links to be	mounted.

	       If the listflags	shell variable is set to `x', `a' or  `A',  or
	       any combination thereof (e.g., `xA'), they are used as flags to
	       ls-F, making it act like	`ls -xF', `ls -Fa', `ls	-FA' or	a com-
	       bination	 (e.g.,	 `ls -FxA').  On machines where	`ls -C'	is not
	       the default, ls-F acts like `ls -CF', unless listflags contains
	       an  `x',	 in which case it acts like `ls	-xF'.  ls-F passes its
	       arguments to ls(1) if it	is given any switches,	so  `alias  ls
	       ls-F' generally does the	right thing.

	       The  ls-F builtin can list files	using different	colors depend-
	       ing on the filetype or extension.  See the color	tcsh  variable
	       and the LS_COLORS environment variable.

       migrate [-site] pid|%jobid ... (+)
       migrate -site (+)
	       The  first  form	migrates the process or	job to the site	speci-
	       fied or the default site	determined by the  system  path.   The
	       second  form  is	 equivalent to `migrate	-site $$': it migrates
	       the current process to the specified site.  Migrating the shell
	       itself  can  cause  unexpected behavior,	because	the shell does
	       not like	to lose	its tty.  (TCF only)

       newgrp [-] group	(+)
	       Equivalent to `exec newgrp'; see	newgrp(1).  Available only  if
	       the shell was so	compiled; see the version shell	variable.

       nice [+number] [command]
	       Sets the	scheduling priority for	the shell to number, or, with-
	       out number, to 4.  With command,	runs command at	the  appropri-
	       ate priority.  The greater the number, the less cpu the process
	       gets.  The super-user may specify negative  priority  by	 using
	       `nice -number ...'.  Command is always executed in a sub-shell,
	       and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if statements
	       apply.

       nohup [command]
	       With command, runs command such that it will ignore hangup sig-
	       nals.  Note  that  commands  may	 set  their  own  response  to
	       hangups,	 overriding  nohup.   Without  an argument (allowed in
	       only a shell script), causes the	shell to  ignore  hangups  for
	       the  remainder of the script.  See also Signal handling and the
	       hup builtin command.

       notify [%job ...]
	       Causes the shell	to notify the  user  asynchronously  when  the
	       status of any of	the specified jobs (or,	without	%job, the cur-
	       rent job) changes, instead of waiting until the next prompt  as
	       is  usual.   job	may be a number, a string, `', `%', `+'	or `-'
	       as described under Jobs.	 See also the notify shell variable.

       onintr [-|label]
	       Controls	the action of the shell	on interrupts.	Without	 argu-
	       ments,  restores	the default action of the shell	on interrupts,
	       which is	to terminate shell scripts or to return	to the	termi-
	       nal command input level.	 With `-', causes all interrupts to be
	       ignored.	 With label, causes  the  shell	 to  execute  a	 `goto
	       label'  when an interrupt is received or	a child	process	termi-
	       nates because it	was interrupted.

	       onintr is ignored if the	shell is running detached and in  sys-
	       tem  startup  files  (see FILES), where interrupts are disabled
	       anyway.

       popd [-p] [-l] [-n|-v] [+n]
	       Without arguments, pops the directory stack and returns to  the
	       new top directory.  With	a number `+n', discards	the n'th entry
	       in the stack.

	       Finally,	all forms of popd print	 the  final  directory	stack,
	       just  like  dirs.  The pushdsilent shell	variable can be	set to
	       prevent this and	the -p flag can	be given to override  pushdsi-
	       lent.   The -l, -n and -v flags have the	same effect on popd as
	       on dirs.	 (+)

       printenv	[name] (+)
	       Prints the names	and values of all  environment	variables  or,
	       with name, the value of the environment variable	name.

       pushd [-p] [-l] [-n|-v] [name|+n]
	       Without arguments, exchanges the	top two	elements of the	direc-
	       tory stack.  If pushdtohome is  set,  pushd  without  arguments
	       does  `pushd  ~',  like	cd.  (+) With name, pushes the current
	       working directory onto the directory stack and changes to name.
	       If name is `-' it is interpreted	as the previous	working	direc-
	       tory (see Filename substitution).  (+) If dunique is set, pushd
	       removes	any instances of name from the stack before pushing it
	       onto the	stack.	(+) With a number `+n',	rotates	the  nth  ele-
	       ment  of	 the  directory	stack around to	be the top element and
	       changes to  it.	 If  dextract  is  set,	 however,  `pushd  +n'
	       extracts	the nth	directory, pushes it onto the top of the stack
	       and changes to it.  (+)

	       Finally,	all forms of pushd print the  final  directory	stack,
	       just  like  dirs.  The pushdsilent shell	variable can be	set to
	       prevent this and	the -p flag can	be given to override  pushdsi-
	       lent.  The -l, -n and -v	flags have the same effect on pushd as
	       on dirs.	 (+)

       rehash  Causes the internal hash	table of the contents of the  directo-
	       ries  in	the path variable to be	recomputed.  This is needed if
	       new commands are	added to directories in	 path  while  you  are
	       logged  in.   This should be necessary only if you add commands
	       to one of your own directories,	or  if	a  systems  programmer
	       changes	the  contents  of one of the system directories.  Also
	       flushes the cache of home directories built by tilde expansion.

       repeat count command
	       The specified command, which is subject to  the	same  restric-
	       tions  as  the  command	in the one line	if statement above, is
	       executed	count times.  I/O  redirections	 occur	exactly	 once,
	       even if count is	0.

       rootnode	//nodename (+)
	       Changes	the rootnode to	//nodename, so that `/'	will be	inter-
	       preted as `//nodename'.	(Domain/OS only)

       sched (+)
       sched [+]hh:mm command (+)
       sched -n	(+)
	       The first form prints  the  scheduled-event  list.   The	 sched
	       shell  variable	may  be	 set to	define the format in which the
	       scheduled-event list is printed.	 The second form adds  command
	       to the scheduled-event list.  For example,

		   > sched 11:00 echo It\'s eleven o\'clock.

	       causes  the shell to echo `It's eleven o'clock.'	at 11 AM.  The
	       time may	be in 12-hour AM/PM format

		   > sched 5pm set prompt='[%h]	It\'s after 5; go home:	>'

	       or may be relative to the current time:

		   > sched +2:15 /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -sother

	       A relative time specification may not use  AM/PM	 format.   The
	       third form removes item n from the event	list:

		   > sched
			1  Wed Apr  4 15:42  /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -sother
			2   Wed	Apr  4 17:00  set prompt=[%h] It's after 5; go
		   home: >
		   > sched -2
		   > sched
			1  Wed Apr  4 15:42  /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -sother

	       A command in the	scheduled-event	list is	executed  just	before
	       the  first prompt is printed after the time when	the command is
	       scheduled.  It is possible to miss the exact time when the com-
	       mand  is	 to be run, but	an overdue command will	execute	at the
	       next prompt.  A command which comes  due	 while	the  shell  is
	       waiting	for user input is executed immediately.	 However, nor-
	       mal operation of	an already-running command will	not be	inter-
	       rupted so that a	scheduled-event	list element may be run.

	       This  mechanism	is  similar to,	but not	the same as, the at(1)
	       command on some Unix systems.  Its major	disadvantage  is  that
	       it  may	not  run a command at exactly the specified time.  Its
	       major advantage is that because sched runs  directly  from  the
	       shell,  it  has access to shell variables and other structures.
	       This provides a mechanism for changing one's  working  environ-
	       ment based on the time of day.

       set
       set name	...
       set name=word ...
       set [-r]	[-f|-l]	name=(wordlist)	... (+)
       set name[index]=word ...
       set -r (+)
       set -r name ... (+)
       set -r name=word	... (+)
	       The  first  form	 of  the command prints	the value of all shell
	       variables.  Variables which contain more	 than  a  single  word
	       print  as a parenthesized word list.  The second	form sets name
	       to the null string.  The	third form sets	 name  to  the	single
	       word.   The  fourth  form  sets	name  to  the list of words in
	       wordlist.  In all cases	the  value  is	command	 and  filename
	       expanded.   If -r is specified, the value is set	read-only.  If
	       -f or -l	are specified, set only	 unique	 words	keeping	 their
	       order.	-f  prefers the	first occurrence of a word, and	-l the
	       last.  The fifth	form sets the index'th component  of  name  to
	       word;  this component must already exist.  The sixth form lists
	       only the	names of all shell variables that are read-only.   The
	       seventh	form  makes  name  read-only,  whether or not it has a
	       value.  The second form sets name  to  the  null	 string.   The
	       eighth  form is the same	as the third form, but make name read-
	       only at the same	time.

	       These arguments can be repeated to set  and/or  make  read-only
	       multiple	 variables  in	a  single set command.	Note, however,
	       that variable expansion happens for all	arguments  before  any
	       setting	occurs.	  Note	also  that `=' can be adjacent to both
	       name and	word or	separated from both by whitespace, but	cannot
	       be  adjacent  to	 only  one  or	the other.  See	also the unset
	       builtin command.

       setenv [name [value]]
	       Without arguments, prints the names and values of all  environ-
	       ment variables.	Given name, sets the environment variable name
	       to value	or, without value, to the null string.

       setpath path (+)
	       Equivalent to setpath(1).  (Mach	only)

       setspath	LOCAL|site|cpu ... (+)
	       Sets the	system execution path.	(TCF only)

       settc cap value (+)
	       Tells the shell to believe that the terminal capability cap (as
	       defined in termcap(5)) has the value value.  No sanity checking
	       is done.	 Concept terminal users	may have to `settc xn  no'  to
	       get proper wrapping at the rightmost column.

       setty [-d|-q|-x]	[-a] [[+|-]mode] (+)
	       Controls	 which	tty  modes (see	Terminal management) the shell
	       does not	allow to change.  -d, -q or -x tells setty to  act  on
	       the `edit', `quote' or `execute'	set of tty modes respectively;
	       without -d, -q or -x, `execute' is used.

	       Without other arguments,	setty lists the	modes  in  the	chosen
	       set  which are fixed on (`+mode') or off	(`-mode').  The	avail-
	       able modes, and thus the	display, vary from system  to  system.
	       With  -a,  lists	all tty	modes in the chosen set	whether	or not
	       they are	fixed.	With +mode, -mode or mode, fixes  mode	on  or
	       off  or removes control from mode in the	chosen set.  For exam-
	       ple, `setty +echok echoe' fixes `echok' mode on and allows com-
	       mands  to  turn	`echoe'	mode on	or off,	both when the shell is
	       executing commands.

       setxvers	[string] (+)
	       Set the experimental version prefix to string, or removes it if
	       string is omitted.  (TCF	only)

       shift [variable]
	       Without	arguments,  discards argv[1] and shifts	the members of
	       argv to the left.  It is	an error for argv not to be set	or  to
	       have  less than one word	as value.  With	variable, performs the
	       same function on	variable.

       source [-h] name	[args ...]
	       The shell reads and executes commands from name.	 The  commands
	       are  not	 placed	 on  the history list.	If any args are	given,
	       they are	placed in argv.	 (+) source commands may be nested; if
	       they  are  nested  too  deeply  the  shell  may run out of file
	       descriptors.  An	error in a source at any level terminates  all
	       nested  source  commands.   With	-h, commands are placed	on the
	       history list instead of being executed, much like `history -L'.

       stop %job|pid ...
	       Stops the specified jobs	or processes which  are	 executing  in
	       the background.	job may	be a number, a string, `', `%',	`+' or
	       `-' as described	under Jobs.  There is no default  job;	saying
	       just `stop' does	not stop the current job.

       suspend Causes  the shell to stop in its	tracks,	much as	if it had been
	       sent a stop signal with ^Z.  This is most often	used  to  stop
	       shells started by su(1).

       switch (string)
       case str1:
	   ...
	   breaksw
       ...
       default:
	   ...
	   breaksw
       endsw   Each  case label	is successively	matched, against the specified
	       string which is first command and filename expanded.  The  file
	       metacharacters  `*',  `?'  and `[...]'  may be used in the case
	       labels, which are variable expanded.  If	 none  of  the	labels
	       match  before  a	 `default'  label is found, then the execution
	       begins after the	 default  label.   Each	 case  label  and  the
	       default label must appear at the	beginning of a line.  The com-
	       mand breaksw causes execution  to  continue  after  the	endsw.
	       Otherwise  control  may	fall  through  case labels and default
	       labels as in C.	If no label matches and	there is  no  default,
	       execution continues after the endsw.

       telltc (+)
	       Lists the values	of all terminal	capabilities (see termcap(5)).

       termname	[terminal type]	(+)
	       Tests if	terminal type (or the current value of TERM if no ter-
	       minal type is given) has	an entry in the	 hosts	termcap(5)  or
	       terminfo(5)  database.  Prints  the terminal type to stdout and
	       returns 0 if an entry is	present	otherwise returns 1.

       time [command]
	       Executes	command	(which must be a simple	command, not an	alias,
	       a pipeline, a command list or a parenthesized command list) and
	       prints a	time summary as	described under	the time variable.  If
	       necessary,  an extra shell is created to	print the time statis-
	       tic when	the command completes.	Without	command, prints	a time
	       summary for the current shell and its children.

       umask [value]
	       Sets  the file creation mask to value, which is given in	octal.
	       Common values for the mask are 002, giving all  access  to  the
	       group  and  read	 and execute access to others, and 022,	giving
	       read and	execute	access	to  the	 group	and  others.   Without
	       value, prints the current file creation mask.

       unalias pattern
	       Removes	all  aliases  whose  names match pattern.  `unalias *'
	       thus removes all	aliases.  It is	not an error for nothing to be
	       unaliased.

       uncomplete pattern (+)
	       Removes all completions whose names match pattern.  `uncomplete
	       *' thus removes all completions.	 It is not an error for	 noth-
	       ing to be uncompleted.

       unhash  Disables	 use  of  the internal hash table to speed location of
	       executed	programs.

       universe	universe (+)
	       Sets the	universe to universe.  (Masscomp/RTU only)

       unlimit [-h] [resource]
	       Removes the limitation on resource or, if no resource is	speci-
	       fied,  all  resource  limitations.   With -h, the corresponding
	       hard limits are removed.	 Only  the  super-user	may  do	 this.
	       Note  that  unlimit may not exit	successful, since most systems
	       do not allow descriptors	to be unlimited.

       unset pattern
	       Removes all variables whose names match	pattern,  unless  they
	       are  read-only.	 `unset	 *'  thus removes all variables	unless
	       they are	read-only; this	is a bad idea.	It is not an error for
	       nothing to be unset.

       unsetenv	pattern
	       Removes	all  environment  variables whose names	match pattern.
	       `unsetenv *' thus removes all environment variables; this is  a
	       bad idea.  It is	not an error for nothing to be unsetenved.

       ver [systype [command]] (+)
	       Without	arguments, prints SYSTYPE.  With systype, sets SYSTYPE
	       to systype.  With systype and command, executes	command	 under
	       systype.	  systype  may	be  `bsd4.3'  or `sys5.3'.  (Domain/OS
	       only)

       wait    The shell waits for all	background  jobs.   If	the  shell  is
	       interactive,  an	 interrupt will	disrupt	the wait and cause the
	       shell to	print the names	and job	 numbers  of  all  outstanding
	       jobs.

       warp universe (+)
	       Sets the	universe to universe.  (Convex/OS only)

       watchlog	(+)
	       An  alternate  name for the log builtin command (q.v.).	Avail-
	       able only if the	shell was so compiled; see the	version	 shell
	       variable.

       where command (+)
	       Reports	all  known  instances  of  command, including aliases,
	       builtins	and executables	in path.

       which command (+)
	       Displays	the command that will be executed by the  shell	 after
	       substitutions,  path  searching,	 etc.	The builtin command is
	       just like which(1), but it correctly reports tcsh  aliases  and
	       builtins	 and  is  10 to	100 times faster.  See also the	which-
	       command editor command.

       while (expr)
       ...
       end     Executes	the commands between the while and  the	 matching  end
	       while  expr  (an	 expression,  as  described under Expressions)
	       evaluates non-zero.  while and end must appear alone  on	 their
	       input  lines.   break  and continue may be used to terminate or
	       continue	the loop prematurely.  If the input is a terminal, the
	       user  is	prompted the first time	through	the loop as with fore-
	       ach.

   Special aliases (+)
       If set, each of these aliases executes automatically at	the  indicated
       time.  They are all initially undefined.

       beepcmd Runs when the shell wants to ring the terminal bell.

       cwdcmd  Runs  after every change	of working directory.  For example, if
	       the user	is working on an X window system using xterm(1)	and  a
	       re-parenting  window  manager  that supports title bars such as
	       twm(1) and does

		   > alias cwdcmd  'echo -n "^[]2;${HOST}:$cwd ^G"'

	       then the	shell will change the title of the running xterm(1) to
	       be  the name of the host, a colon, and the full current working
	       directory.  A fancier way to do that is

		   >	      alias	     cwdcmd	     'echo	    -n
		   "^[]2;${HOST}:$cwd^G^[]1;${HOST}^G"'

	       This  will  put the hostname and	working	directory on the title
	       bar but only the	hostname in the	icon manager menu.

	       Note that putting a cd, pushd or	popd in	cwdcmd	may  cause  an
	       infinite	loop.  It is the author's opinion that anyone doing so
	       will get	what they deserve.

       jobcmd  Runs before each	command	gets executed,	or  when  the  command
	       changes	state.	 This  is  similar to postcmd, but it does not
	       print builtins.

		   > alias jobcmd  'echo -n "^[]2\;\!#^G"'

	       then executing vi foo.c will put	 the  command  string  in  the
	       xterm title bar.

       helpcommand
	       Invoked	by  the	run-help editor	command.  The command name for
	       which help is sought is passed as sole argument.	 For  example,
	       if one does

		   > alias helpcommand '\!:1 --help'

	       then  the  help	display	of the command itself will be invoked,
	       using the GNU help calling convention.  Currently there	is  no
	       easy  way to account for	various	calling	conventions (e.g., the
	       customary Unix `-h'), except by using a table of	many commands.

       periodic
	       Runs every tperiod minutes.  This provides a  convenient	 means
	       for checking on common but infrequent changes such as new mail.
	       For example, if one does

		   > set tperiod = 30
		   > alias periodic checknews

	       then the	checknews(1) program runs every	30 minutes.  If	 peri-
	       odic  is	set but	tperiod	is unset or set	to 0, periodic behaves
	       like precmd.

       precmd  Runs just before	each prompt is printed.	 For example,  if  one
	       does

		   > alias precmd date

	       then  date(1)  runs just	before the shell prompts for each com-
	       mand.  There are	no limits on what precmd can be	set to do, but
	       discretion should be used.

       postcmd Runs before each	command	gets executed.

		   > alias postcmd  'echo -n "^[]2\;\!#^G"'

	       then  executing	vi  foo.c  will	 put the command string	in the
	       xterm title bar.

       shell   Specifies the interpreter for executable	scripts	which  do  not
	       themselves  specify an interpreter.  The	first word should be a
	       full path name to the desired interpreter (e.g.,	`/bin/csh'  or
	       `/usr/local/bin/tcsh').

   Special shell variables
       The  variables  described  in  this section have	special	meaning	to the
       shell.

       The  shell  sets	 addsuffix,  argv,  autologout,	 csubstnonl,  command,
       echo_style,  edit,  gid,	 group,	 home,	loginsh,  oid,	path,  prompt,
       prompt2,	prompt3, shell,	shlvl, tcsh, term, tty,	uid, user and  version
       at  startup;  they do not change	thereafter unless changed by the user.
       The shell updates cwd, dirstack,	owd and	 status	 when  necessary,  and
       sets logout on logout.

       The shell synchronizes group, home, path, shlvl,	term and user with the
       environment variables of	the same names:	whenever the environment vari-
       able  changes  the  shell  changes  the corresponding shell variable to
       match (unless the shell variable	is read-only) and  vice	 versa.	  Note
       that  although  cwd  and	PWD have identical meanings, they are not syn-
       chronized in this manner, and that the  shell  automatically  intercon-
       verts the different formats of path and PATH.

       addsuffix (+)
	       If  set,	filename completion adds `/' to	the end	of directories
	       and a space to the end of normal	files when  they  are  matched
	       exactly.	 Set by	default.

       afsuser (+)
	       If set, autologout's autolock feature uses its value instead of
	       the local username for kerberos authentication.

       ampm (+)
	       If set, all times are shown in 12-hour AM/PM format.

       argv    The arguments to	the shell.  Positional	parameters  are	 taken
	       from  argv,  i.e., `$1' is replaced by `$argv[1]', etc.	Set by
	       default,	but usually empty in interactive shells.

       autocorrect (+)
	       If set, the spell-word editor command is	invoked	 automatically
	       before each completion attempt.

       autoexpand (+)
	       If  set,	the expand-history editor command is invoked automati-
	       cally before each completion attempt.

       autolist	(+)
	       If set, possibilities are listed	after an ambiguous completion.
	       If  set	to  `ambiguous', possibilities are listed only when no
	       new characters are added	by completion.

       autologout (+)
	       The first word is the number of minutes	of  inactivity	before
	       automatic  logout.   The	 optional second word is the number of
	       minutes of inactivity before automatic locking.	When the shell
	       automatically logs out, it prints `auto-logout',	sets the vari-
	       able logout to `automatic' and exits.  When the shell automati-
	       cally locks, the	user is	required to enter his password to con-
	       tinue working.  Five incorrect  attempts	 result	 in  automatic
	       logout.	Set to `60' (automatic logout after 60 minutes,	and no
	       locking)	by default in login and	superuser shells, but  not  if
	       the shell thinks	it is running under a window system (i.e., the
	       DISPLAY environment variable is set), the tty is	 a  pseudo-tty
	       (pty)  or  the shell was	not so compiled	(see the version shell
	       variable).  See also the	afsuser	and logout shell variables.

       backslash_quote (+)
	       If set, backslashes (`\') always	quote `\', `'',	and `"'.  This
	       may  make complex quoting tasks easier, but it can cause	syntax
	       errors in csh(1)	scripts.

       catalog The file	name  of  the  message	catalog.   If  set,  tcsh  use
	       `tcsh.${catalog}'  as  a	 message  catalog  instead  of default
	       `tcsh'.

       cdpath  A list of directories in	which cd should	search for subdirecto-
	       ries if they aren't found in the	current	directory.

       color   If  set,	 it  enables color display for the builtin ls-F	and it
	       passes --color=auto to ls.  Alternatively, it  can  be  set  to
	       only ls-F or only ls to enable color to only one	command.  Set-
	       ting it to nothing is equivalent	to setting it to (ls-F ls).

       colorcat
	       If set, it enables color	escape sequence	for NLS	message	files.
	       And display colorful NLS	messages.

       command (+)
	       If  set,	 the command which was passed to the shell with	the -c
	       flag (q.v.).

       complete	(+)
	       If set to `enhance', completion 1) ignores case and 2)  consid-
	       ers  periods,  hyphens and underscores (`.', `-'	and `_') to be
	       word separators and hyphens and underscores to  be  equivalent.
	       If set to `igncase', the	completion becomes case	insensitive.

       continue	(+)
	       If  set	to  a  list  of	 commands, the shell will continue the
	       listed commands,	instead	of starting a new one.

       continue_args (+)
	       Same as continue, but the shell will execute:

		   echo	`pwd` $argv > ~/.<cmd>_pause; %<cmd>

       correct (+)
	       If set to `cmd',	commands are automatically spelling-corrected.
	       If set to `complete', commands are automatically	completed.  If
	       set to `all', the entire	command	line is	corrected.

       csubstnonl (+)
	       If set, newlines	and carriage returns in	 command  substitution
	       are replaced by spaces.	Set by default.

       cwd     The  full  pathname  of	the  current  directory.  See also the
	       dirstack	and owd	shell variables.

       dextract	(+)
	       If set, `pushd +n' extracts the nth directory from  the	direc-
	       tory stack rather than rotating it to the top.

       dirsfile	(+)
	       The  default location in	which `dirs -S'	and `dirs -L' look for
	       a history file.	If unset, ~/.cshdirs is	 used.	 Because  only
	       ~/.tcshrc  is  normally	sourced	 before	 ~/.cshdirs,  dirsfile
	       should be set in	~/.tcshrc rather than ~/.login.

       dirstack	(+)
	       An array	 of  all  the  directories  on	the  directory	stack.
	       `$dirstack[1]' is the current working directory,	`$dirstack[2]'
	       the first directory on the stack, etc.  Note that  the  current
	       working directory is `$dirstack[1]' but `=0' in directory stack
	       substitutions, etc.  One	can change the	stack  arbitrarily  by
	       setting	dirstack,  but	the first element (the current working
	       directory) is always correct.  See also the cwd and  owd	 shell
	       variables.

       dspmbyte	(+)
	       Has an affect iff 'dspm'	is listed as part of the version shell
	       variable.  If set to `euc', it enables display and editing EUC-
	       kanji(Japanese) code.  If set to	`sjis',	it enables display and
	       editing Shift-JIS(Japanese) code.  If set to `big5', it enables
	       display	and  editing Big5(Chinese) code.  If set to `utf8', it
	       enables display and editing Utf8(Unicode) code.	If set to  the
	       following  format,  it  enables display and editing of original
	       multi-byte code format:

		   > set dspmbyte = 0000....(256 bytes)....0000

	       The table requires just 256 bytes.  Each	character of 256 char-
	       acters  corresponds  (from  left	 to  right) to the ASCII codes
	       0x00, 0x01, ... 0xff.  Each character is	set  to	 number	 0,1,2
	       and 3.  Each number has the following meaning:
		 0 ... not used	for multi-byte characters.
		 1 ... used for	the first byte of a multi-byte character.
		 2 ... used for	the second byte	of a multi-byte	character.
		 3  ...	 used  for  both  the  first byte and second byte of a
	       multi-byte character.

		 Example:
	       If set to `001322', the first  character	 (means	 0x00  of  the
	       ASCII code) and second character	(means 0x01 of ASCII code) are
	       set to `0'.  Then, it is	not used  for  multi-byte  characters.
	       The  3rd	 character (0x02) is set to '1', indicating that it is
	       used for	the first byte of a  multi-byte	 character.   The  4th
	       character(0x03) is set '3'.  It is used for both	the first byte
	       and the second byte of a	multi-byte character.  The 5th and 6th
	       characters (0x04,0x05) are set to '2', indicating that they are
	       used for	the second byte	of a multi-byte	character.

	       The GNU fileutils version of ls cannot display multi-byte file-
	       names  without  the -N (	--literal ) option.   If you are using
	       this version, set the second word of dspmbyte to	"ls".  If not,
	       for example, "ls-F -l" cannot display multi-byte	filenames.

		 Note:
	       This  variable  can only	be used	if KANJI and DSPMBYTE has been
	       defined at compile time.

       dunique (+)
	       If set, pushd removes any instances  of	name  from  the	 stack
	       before pushing it onto the stack.

       echo    If  set,	 each command with its arguments is echoed just	before
	       it is executed.	For non-builtin	commands all expansions	 occur
	       before echoing.	Builtin	commands are echoed before command and
	       filename	substitution, because  these  substitutions  are  then
	       done selectively.  Set by the -x	command	line option.

       echo_style (+)
	       The style of the	echo builtin.  May be set to

	       bsd     Don't echo a newline if the first argument is `-n'.
	       sysv    Recognize backslashed escape sequences in echo strings.
	       both    Recognize  both	the  `-n'  flag	and backslashed	escape
		       sequences; the default.
	       none    Recognize neither.

	       Set by default to the local system default.  The	BSD and	System
	       V  options are described	in the echo(1) man pages on the	appro-
	       priate systems.

       edit (+)
	       If set, the command-line	editor is used.	  Set  by  default  in
	       interactive shells.

       ellipsis	(+)
	       If set, the `%c'/`%.' and `%C' prompt sequences (see the	prompt
	       shell variable) indicate	skipped	directories with  an  ellipsis
	       (`...')	instead	of `/<skipped>'.

       fignore (+)
	       Lists file name suffixes	to be ignored by completion.

       filec   In tcsh,	completion is always used and this variable is ignored
	       by default. If edit is unset, then the traditional csh  comple-
	       tion is used.  If set in	csh, filename completion is used.

       gid (+) The user's real group ID.

       group (+)
	       The user's group	name.

       highlight
	       If  set,	 the incremental search	match (in i-search-back	and i-
	       search-fwd) and the region between the mark and the cursor  are
	       highlighted in reverse video.

	       Highlighting  requires  more  frequent  terminal	 writes, which
	       introduces extra	overhead. If you care about  terminal  perfor-
	       mance, you may want to leave this unset.

       histchars
	       A  string value determining the characters used in History sub-
	       stitution (q.v.).  The first character of its value is used  as
	       the history substitution	character, replacing the default char-
	       acter `!'.  The second character	 of  its  value	 replaces  the
	       character `^' in	quick substitutions.

       histdup (+)
	       Controls	handling of duplicate entries in the history list.  If
	       set to `all' only unique	history	events are entered in the his-
	       tory  list.  If set to `prev' and the last history event	is the
	       same as the current command, then the current  command  is  not
	       entered	in  the	history.  If set to `erase' and	the same event
	       is found	in the history list, that old event  gets  erased  and
	       the  current one	gets inserted.	Note that the `prev' and `all'
	       options renumber	history	events so there	are no gaps.

       histfile	(+)
	       The default location in which `history  -S'  and	 `history  -L'
	       look  for a history file.  If unset, ~/.history is used.	 hist-
	       file is useful when sharing the	same  home  directory  between
	       different  machines,  or	when saving separate histories on dif-
	       ferent terminals.  Because only ~/.tcshrc is  normally  sourced
	       before  ~/.history,  histfile should be set in ~/.tcshrc	rather
	       than ~/.login.

       histlit (+)
	       If set, builtin and editor commands and the savehist  mechanism
	       use the literal (unexpanded) form of lines in the history list.
	       See also	the toggle-literal-history editor command.

       history The first word indicates	the number of history events to	 save.
	       The optional second word	(+) indicates the format in which his-
	       tory is printed;	if not given,  `%h\t%T\t%R\n'  is  used.   The
	       format  sequences  are  described  below	under prompt; note the
	       variable	meaning	of `%R'.  Set to `100' by default.

       home    Initialized to the home directory of the	invoker.  The filename
	       expansion of `~'	refers to this variable.

       ignoreeof
	       If  set	to  the	 empty string or `0' and the input device is a
	       terminal, the end-of-file command  (usually  generated  by  the
	       user by typing `^D' on an empty line) causes the	shell to print
	       `Use "exit" to leave tcsh.' instead of exiting.	This  prevents
	       the  shell  from	 accidentally being killed.  Historically this
	       setting exited after 26	successive  EOF's  to  avoid  infinite
	       loops.	If set to a number n, the shell	ignores	n - 1 consecu-
	       tive end-of-files and exits on the nth.	(+) If unset,  `1'  is
	       used, i.e., the shell exits on a	single `^D'.

       implicitcd (+)
	       If set, the shell treats	a directory name typed as a command as
	       though it were a	request	to change to that directory.   If  set
	       to  verbose,  the change	of directory is	echoed to the standard
	       output.	This behavior is inhibited  in	non-interactive	 shell
	       scripts,	 or  for  command  strings  with  more	than one word.
	       Changing	directory takes	precedence over	executing a like-named
	       command,	 but  it is done after alias substitutions.  Tilde and
	       variable	expansions work	as expected.

       inputmode (+)
	       If set to `insert' or `overwrite', puts the  editor  into  that
	       input mode at the beginning of each line.

       killdup (+)
	       Controls	 handling  of  duplicate entries in the	kill ring.  If
	       set to `all' only unique	strings	are entered in the kill	 ring.
	       If  set to `prev' and the last killed string is the same	as the
	       current killed string, then the current string is  not  entered
	       in the ring.  If	set to `erase' and the same string is found in
	       the kill	ring, the old string is	erased and the current one  is
	       inserted.

       killring	(+)
	       Indicates  the number of	killed strings to keep in memory.  Set
	       to `30' by default.  If unset or	set  to	 less  than  `2',  the
	       shell  will only	keep the most recently killed string.  Strings
	       are put in the killring by  the	editor	commands  that	delete
	       (kill)  strings	of text, e.g. backward-delete-word, kill-line,
	       etc, as well as the copy-region-as-kill command.	 The yank edi-
	       tor  command will yank the most recently	killed string into the
	       command-line, while yank-pop (see Editor	commands) can be  used
	       to yank earlier killed strings.

       listflags (+)
	       If  set	to  `x', `a' or	`A', or	any combination	thereof	(e.g.,
	       `xA'), they are used as flags to	ls-F, making it	act  like  `ls
	       -xF',  `ls  -Fa',  `ls -FA' or a	combination (e.g., `ls -FxA'):
	       `a' shows all files (even if they start with a `.'), `A'	 shows
	       all  files  but	`.'  and `..', and `x' sorts across instead of
	       down.  If the second word of listflags is set, it  is  used  as
	       the path	to `ls(1)'.

       listjobs	(+)
	       If set, all jobs	are listed when	a job is suspended.  If	set to
	       `long', the listing is in long format.

       listlinks (+)
	       If set, the ls-F	builtin	command	shows  the  type  of  file  to
	       which each symbolic link	points.

       listmax (+)
	       The  maximum number of items which the list-choices editor com-
	       mand will list without asking first.

       listmaxrows (+)
	       The maximum number of rows of items which the list-choices edi-
	       tor command will	list without asking first.

       loginsh (+)
	       Set  by the shell if it is a login shell.  Setting or unsetting
	       it within a shell has no	effect.	 See also shlvl.

       logout (+)
	       Set by the shell	to `normal' before  a  normal  logout,	`auto-
	       matic'  before  an  automatic logout, and `hangup' if the shell
	       was killed by a hangup signal (see Signal handling).  See  also
	       the autologout shell variable.

       mail    The  names  of  the  files or directories to check for incoming
	       mail, separated by whitespace, and  optionally  preceded	 by  a
	       numeric	word.	Before	each prompt, if	10 minutes have	passed
	       since the last check, the shell checks each file	and says  `You
	       have new	mail.' (or, if mail contains multiple files, `You have
	       new mail	in name.') if the filesize is  greater	than  zero  in
	       size and	has a modification time	greater	than its access	time.

	       If  you	are  in	 a  login shell, then no mail file is reported
	       unless it has been  modified  after  the	 time  the  shell  has
	       started	up,  to	 prevent  redundant notifications.  Most login
	       programs	will tell you whether or not you have  mail  when  you
	       log in.

	       If  a  file  specified  in  mail	is a directory,	the shell will
	       count each file within that directory as	 a  separate  message,
	       and  will  report  `You	have n mails.' or `You have n mails in
	       name.' as appropriate.  This functionality is provided  primar-
	       ily  for	those systems which store mail in this manner, such as
	       the Andrew Mail System.

	       If the first word of mail is numeric it is taken	as a different
	       mail checking interval, in seconds.

	       Under  very  rare circumstances,	the shell may report `You have
	       mail.' instead of `You have new mail.'

       matchbeep (+)
	       If  set	to  `never',  completion  never	 beeps.	  If  set   to
	       `nomatch',  it  beeps  only  when there is no match.  If	set to
	       `ambiguous', it beeps when there	are multiple matches.  If  set
	       to  `notunique',	 it  beeps  when  there	is one exact and other
	       longer matches.	If unset, `ambiguous' is used.

       nobeep (+)
	       If set, beeping is completely disabled.	See also visiblebell.

       noclobber
	       If set, restrictions are	placed on output redirection to	insure
	       that  files  are	not accidentally destroyed and that `>>' redi-
	       rections	 refer	to  existing  files,  as  described   in   the
	       Input/output section.

       noding  If  set,	 disable  the  printing	 of `DING!' in the prompt time
	       specifiers at the change	of hour.

       noglob  If set, Filename	substitution and Directory stack  substitution
	       (q.v.)  are  inhibited.	 This  is most useful in shell scripts
	       which do	not deal with filenames, or after a list of  filenames
	       has been	obtained and further expansions	are not	desirable.

       nokanji (+)
	       If  set	and  the  shell	 supports Kanji	(see the version shell
	       variable), it is	disabled so that the meta key can be used.

       nonomatch
	       If set, a Filename substitution or Directory stack substitution
	       (q.v.)  which  does  not	 match	any  existing  files  is  left
	       untouched rather	than causing an	error.	It is still  an	 error
	       for  the	 substitution  to  be  malformed, e.g.,	`echo [' still
	       gives an	error.

       nostat (+)
	       A list of directories (or glob-patterns	which  match  directo-
	       ries;  see  Filename substitution) that should not be stat(2)ed
	       during a	completion operation.  This is usually used to exclude
	       directories  which  take	 too much time to stat(2), for example
	       /afs.

       notify  If set, the shell  announces  job  completions  asynchronously.
	       The  default is to present job completions just before printing
	       a prompt.

       oid (+) The user's real organization ID.	 (Domain/OS only)

       owd (+) The old working directory, equivalent to	the `-'	used by	cd and
	       pushd.  See also	the cwd	and dirstack shell variables.

       padhour If set, enable the printing of padding '0' for hours, in	24 and
	       12 hour formats.	 E.G.: 07:45:42	vs. 7:45:42

       path    A list of directories in	which to look for executable commands.
	       A  null	word  specifies	the current directory.	If there is no
	       path variable then only full path names will execute.  path  is
	       set  by the shell at startup from the PATH environment variable
	       or, if PATH does	not exist, to a	system-dependent default some-
	       thing  like  `(/usr/local/bin  /usr/bsd /bin /usr/bin .)'.  The
	       shell may put `.' first or last in path	or  omit  it  entirely
	       depending  on  how it was compiled; see the version shell vari-
	       able.  A	shell which is given neither the -c nor	the -t	option
	       hashes  the  contents  of the directories in path after reading
	       ~/.tcshrc and each time path is reset.  If one adds a new  com-
	       mand  to	a directory in path while the shell is active, one may
	       need to do a rehash for the shell to find it.

       printexitvalue (+)
	       If set and an interactive program exits with a non-zero status,
	       the shell prints	`Exit status'.

       prompt  The  string  which  is printed before reading each command from
	       the terminal.  prompt may include any of	the following  format-
	       ting  sequences	(+),  which are	replaced by the	given informa-
	       tion:

	       %/  The current working directory.
	       %~  The current working directory, but with one's  home	direc-
		   tory	 represented  by `~' and other users' home directories
		   represented	by  `~user'  as	 per  Filename	 substitution.
		   `~user'  substitution happens only if the shell has already
		   used	`~user'	in a pathname in the current session.
	       %c[[0]n], %.[[0]n]
		   The trailing	component of the current working directory, or
		   n  trailing	components if a	digit n	is given.  If n	begins
		   with	`0', the number	 of  skipped  components  precede  the
		   trailing  component(s)  in the format `/<skipped>trailing'.
		   If the ellipsis shell variable is set,  skipped  components
		   are	represented  by	 an  ellipsis  so  the	whole  becomes
		   `...trailing'.  `~' substitution is done as in `%~'	above,
		   but	the  `~'  component  is	ignored	when counting trailing
		   components.
	       %C  Like	%c, but	without	`~' substitution.
	       %h, %!, !
		   The current history event number.
	       %M  The full hostname.
	       %m  The hostname	up to the first	`.'.
	       %S (%s)
		   Start (stop)	standout mode.
	       %B (%b)
		   Start (stop)	boldfacing mode.
	       %U (%u)
		   Start (stop)	underline mode.
	       %t, %@
		   The time of day in 12-hour AM/PM format.
	       %T  Like	`%t', but in 24-hour format (but see  the  ampm	 shell
		   variable).
	       %p  The	`precise'  time	 of  day in 12-hour AM/PM format, with
		   seconds.
	       %P  Like	`%p', but in 24-hour format (but see  the  ampm	 shell
		   variable).
	       \c  c is	parsed as in bindkey.
	       ^c  c is	parsed as in bindkey.
	       %%  A single `%'.
	       %n  The user name.
	       %j  The number of jobs.
	       %d  The weekday in `Day'	format.
	       %D  The day in `dd' format.
	       %w  The month in	`Mon' format.
	       %W  The month in	`mm' format.
	       %y  The year in `yy' format.
	       %Y  The year in `yyyy' format.
	       %l  The shell's tty.
	       %L  Clears  from	the end	of the prompt to end of	the display or
		   the end of the line.
	       %$  Expands the shell or	environment variable name  immediately
		   after the `$'.
	       %#  `>'	(or the	first character	of the promptchars shell vari-
		   able) for normal users, `#' (or  the	 second	 character  of
		   promptchars)	for the	superuser.
	       %{string%}
		   Includes string as a	literal	escape sequence.  It should be
		   used	only to	change terminal	attributes and should not move
		   the	cursor	location.  This	cannot be the last sequence in
		   prompt.
	       %?  The return code of the command  executed  just  before  the
		   prompt.
	       %R  In prompt2, the status of the parser.  In prompt3, the cor-
		   rected string.  In history, the history string.

	       `%B', `%S', `%U'	and `%{string%}' are available in only	eight-
	       bit-clean shells; see the version shell variable.

	       The  bold,  standout  and underline sequences are often used to
	       distinguish a superuser shell.  For example,

		   > set prompt	= "%m [%h] %B[%@]%b [%/] you rang? "
		   tut [37] [2:54pm] [/usr/accts/sys] you rang?	_

	       If `%t',	`%@', `%T', `%p', or `%P' is used, and noding  is  not
	       set,  then print	`DING!'	on the change of hour (i.e, `:00' min-
	       utes) instead of	the actual time.

	       Set by default to `%# ' in interactive shells.

       prompt2 (+)
	       The string with which to	prompt in while	and foreach loops  and
	       after  lines  ending  in	`\'.  The same format sequences	may be
	       used as in prompt (q.v.); note the variable  meaning  of	 `%R'.
	       Set by default to `%R? '	in interactive shells.

       prompt3 (+)
	       The  string  with  which	 to  prompt  when confirming automatic
	       spelling	correction.  The same format sequences may be used  as
	       in  prompt  (q.v.);  note the variable meaning of `%R'.	Set by
	       default to `CORRECT>%R (y|n|e|a)? ' in interactive shells.

       promptchars (+)
	       If  set	(to  a	two-character  string),	 the  `%#'  formatting
	       sequence	 in  the  prompt  shell	 variable is replaced with the
	       first character for normal users	and the	second	character  for
	       the superuser.

       pushdtohome (+)
	       If set, pushd without arguments does `pushd ~', like cd.

       pushdsilent (+)
	       If set, pushd and popd do not print the directory stack.

       recexact	(+)
	       If set, completion completes on an exact	match even if a	longer
	       match is	possible.

       recognize_only_executables (+)
	       If set, command listing displays	only files in  the  path  that
	       are executable.	Slow.

       rmstar (+)
	       If set, the user	is prompted before `rm *' is executed.

       rprompt (+)
	       The string to print on the right-hand side of the screen	(after
	       the command input) when the prompt is being  displayed  on  the
	       left.   It recognizes the same formatting characters as prompt.
	       It will automatically disappear and reappear as	necessary,  to
	       ensure  that command input isn't	obscured, and will appear only
	       if the prompt, command input, and itself	will fit  together  on
	       the  first  line.   If  edit  isn't  set,  then rprompt will be
	       printed after the prompt	and before the command input.

       savedirs	(+)
	       If set, the shell does `dirs -S'	before exiting.	 If the	 first
	       word  is	 set  to  a  number, at	most that many directory stack
	       entries are saved.

       savehist
	       If set, the shell does `history -S'  before  exiting.   If  the
	       first  word  is	set  to	 a number, at most that	many lines are
	       saved.  (The number must	be less	than or	equal to history.)  If
	       the  second  word is set	to `merge', the	history	list is	merged
	       with the	existing history file  instead	of  replacing  it  (if
	       there  is  one)	and  sorted  by	time stamp and the most	recent
	       events are retained.  (+)

       sched (+)
	       The format in which the sched builtin command prints  scheduled
	       events;	if  not	 given,	 `%h\t%T\t%R\n'	 is  used.  The	format
	       sequences are described above under prompt; note	 the  variable
	       meaning of `%R'.

       shell   The  file  in which the shell resides.  This is used in forking
	       shells to interpret files which	have  execute  bits  set,  but
	       which  are  not executable by the system.  (See the description
	       of Builtin and non-builtin command execution.)  Initialized  to
	       the (system-dependent) home of the shell.

       shlvl (+)
	       The  number of nested shells.  Reset to 1 in login shells.  See
	       also loginsh.

       status  The status returned by the  last	 command.   If	it  terminated
	       abnormally, then	0200 is	added to the status.  Builtin commands
	       which fail return exit status `1', all other  builtin  commands
	       return status `0'.

       symlinks	(+)
	       Can be set to several different values to control symbolic link
	       (`symlink') resolution:

	       If set to `chase', whenever the current directory changes to  a
	       directory  containing  a	 symbolic  link, it is expanded	to the
	       real name of the	directory to which the link points.  This does
	       not work	for the	user's home directory; this is a bug.

	       If  set	to  `ignore',  the  shell tries	to construct a current
	       directory relative to the current directory before the link was
	       crossed.	  This	means  that  cding through a symbolic link and
	       then `cd	..'ing returns one to the  original  directory.	  This
	       affects only builtin commands and filename completion.

	       If  set	to  `expand', the shell	tries to fix symbolic links by
	       actually	expanding arguments which look like path names.	  This
	       affects	any  command,  not just	builtins.  Unfortunately, this
	       does not	work for hard-to-recognize filenames,  such  as	 those
	       embedded	 in  command  options.	 Expansion may be prevented by
	       quoting.	 While this setting is usually the most	convenient, it
	       is  sometimes  misleading and sometimes confusing when it fails
	       to recognize an argument	which should be	expanded.   A  compro-
	       mise  is	 to use	`ignore' and use the editor command normalize-
	       path (bound by default to ^X-n) when necessary.

	       Some examples are in order.  First,  let's  set	up  some  play
	       directories:

		   > cd	/tmp
		   > mkdir from	from/src to
		   > ln	-s from/src to/dst

	       Here's the behavior with	symlinks unset,

		   > cd	/tmp/to/dst; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to/dst
		   > cd	..; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/from

	       here's the behavior with	symlinks set to	`chase',

		   > cd	/tmp/to/dst; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/from/src
		   > cd	..; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/from

	       here's the behavior with	symlinks set to	`ignore',

		   > cd	/tmp/to/dst; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to/dst
		   > cd	..; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to

	       and here's the behavior with symlinks set to `expand'.

		   > cd	/tmp/to/dst; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to/dst
		   > cd	..; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to
		   > cd	/tmp/to/dst; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/to/dst
		   > cd	".."; echo $cwd
		   /tmp/from
		   > /bin/echo ..
		   /tmp/to
		   > /bin/echo ".."
		   ..

	       Note  that  `expand'  expansion 1) works	just like `ignore' for
	       builtins	like cd, 2) is prevented by quoting,  and  3)  happens
	       before filenames	are passed to non-builtin commands.

       tcsh (+)
	       The  version number of the shell	in the format `R.VV.PP', where
	       `R' is the major	release	number,	`VV' the current  version  and
	       `PP' the	patchlevel.

       term    The  terminal type.  Usually set	in ~/.login as described under
	       Startup and shutdown.

       time    If set to a number, then	the time builtin (q.v.)	executes auto-
	       matically  after	 each  command which takes more	than that many
	       CPU seconds.  If	there is a second word,	it is used as a	format
	       string  for  the	output of the time builtin.  (u) The following
	       sequences may be	used in	the format string:

	       %U  The time the	process	spent in user mode in cpu seconds.
	       %S  The time the	process	spent in kernel	mode in	cpu seconds.
	       %E  The elapsed (wall clock) time in seconds.
	       %P  The CPU percentage computed as (%U +	%S) / %E.
	       %W  Number of times the process was swapped.
	       %X  The average amount in (shared) text space used in Kbytes.
	       %D  The average amount in (unshared) data/stack space  used  in
		   Kbytes.
	       %K  The total space used	(%X + %D) in Kbytes.
	       %M  The	maximum	 memory	 the process had in use	at any time in
		   Kbytes.
	       %F  The number of major page faults (page needed	to be  brought
		   from	disk).
	       %R  The number of minor page faults.
	       %I  The number of input operations.
	       %O  The number of output	operations.
	       %r  The number of socket	messages received.
	       %s  The number of socket	messages sent.
	       %k  The number of signals received.
	       %w  The number of voluntary context switches (waits).
	       %c  The number of involuntary context switches.

	       Only  the first four sequences are supported on systems without
	       BSD resource limit functions.  The default time format is  `%Uu
	       %Ss  %E	%P  %X+%Dk  %I+%Oio %Fpf+%Ww' for systems that support
	       resource	usage reporting	and `%Uu %Ss %E	%P' for	 systems  that
	       do not.

	       Under Sequent's DYNIX/ptx, %X, %D, %K, %r and %s	are not	avail-
	       able, but the following additional sequences are:

	       %Y  The number of system	calls performed.
	       %Z  The number of pages which are zero-filled on	demand.
	       %i  The number of times	a  process's  resident	set  size  was
		   increased by	the kernel.
	       %d  The	number	of  times  a  process's	 resident set size was
		   decreased by	the kernel.
	       %l  The number of read system calls performed.
	       %m  The number of write system calls performed.
	       %p  The number of reads from raw	disk devices.
	       %q  The number of writes	to raw disk devices.

	       and  the	 default  time	format	is  `%Uu  %Ss  %E  %P  %I+%Oio
	       %Fpf+%Ww'.   Note  that	the  CPU percentage can	be higher than
	       100% on multi-processors.

       tperiod (+)
	       The period, in minutes, between executions of the periodic spe-
	       cial alias.

       tty (+) The name	of the tty, or empty if	not attached to	one.

       uid (+) The user's real user ID.

       user    The user's login	name.

       verbose If  set,	 causes	the words of each command to be	printed, after
	       history substitution (if	any).  Set  by	the  -v	 command  line
	       option.

       version (+)
	       The  version  ID	stamp.	It contains the	shell's	version	number
	       (see tcsh), origin, release date, vendor, operating system  and
	       machine (see VENDOR, OSTYPE and MACHTYPE) and a comma-separated
	       list of options which were set at compile time.	Options	 which
	       are set by default in the distribution are noted.

	       8b    The shell is eight	bit clean; default
	       7b    The shell is not eight bit	clean
	       wide  The shell is multibyte encoding clean (like UTF-8)
	       nls   The system's NLS is used; default for systems with	NLS
	       lf    Login  shells  execute  /etc/csh.login  before instead of
		     after /etc/csh.cshrc and ~/.login before instead of after
		     ~/.tcshrc and ~/.history.
	       dl    `.' is put	last in	path for security; default
	       nd    `.' is omitted from path for security
	       vi    vi-style editing is the default rather than emacs
	       dtr   Login shells drop DTR when	exiting
	       bye   bye  is a synonym for logout and log is an	alternate name
		     for watchlog
	       al    autologout	is enabled; default
	       kan   Kanji is used if appropriate  according  to  locale  set-
		     tings, unless the nokanji shell variable is set
	       sm    The system's malloc(3) is used
	       hb    The `#!<program> <args>' convention is emulated when exe-
		     cuting shell scripts
	       ng    The newgrp	builtin	is available
	       rh    The shell attempts	 to  set  the  REMOTEHOST  environment
		     variable
	       afs   The shell verifies	your password with the kerberos	server
		     if	local authentication fails.  The afsuser  shell	 vari-
		     able  or  the  AFSUSER environment	variable override your
		     local username if set.

	       An administrator	may enter additional strings to	indicate  dif-
	       ferences	in the local version.

       visiblebell (+)
	       If  set,	 a  screen flash is used rather	than the audible bell.
	       See also	nobeep.

       watch (+)
	       A list of user/terminal pairs to	watch for logins and  logouts.
	       If  either  the user is `any' all terminals are watched for the
	       given user and  vice  versa.   Setting  watch  to  `(any	 any)'
	       watches all users and terminals.	 For example,

		   set watch = (george ttyd1 any console $user any)

	       reports activity	of the user `george' on	ttyd1, any user	on the
	       console,	and oneself (or	a trespasser) on any terminal.

	       Logins and logouts are checked every 10 minutes by default, but
	       the  first  word	of watch can be	set to a number	to check every
	       so many minutes.	 For example,

		   set watch = (1 any any)

	       reports any login/logout	once every minute.  For	the impatient,
	       the  log	 builtin  command triggers a watch report at any time.
	       All current logins are reported (as with	the log	builtin)  when
	       watch is	first set.

	       The who shell variable controls the format of watch reports.

       who (+) The  format string for watch messages.  The following sequences
	       are replaced by the given information:

	       %n  The name of the user	who logged in/out.
	       %a  The observed	action,	i.e., `logged  on',  `logged  off'  or
		   `replaced olduser on'.
	       %l  The terminal	(tty) on which the user	logged in/out.
	       %M  The	full  hostname	of  the	remote host, or	`local'	if the
		   login/logout	was from the local host.
	       %m  The hostname	of the remote host up to the first  `.'.   The
		   full	 name is printed if it is an IP	address	or an X	Window
		   System display.

	       %M and %m are available on only systems that store  the	remote
	       hostname	 in  /etc/utmp.	  If unset, `%n	has %a %l from %m.' is
	       used, or	`%n has	%a %l.'	 on  systems  which  don't  store  the
	       remote hostname.

       wordchars (+)
	       A  list of non-alphanumeric characters to be considered part of
	       a word by the forward-word,  backward-word  etc.,  editor  com-
	       mands.  If unset, `*?_-.[]~=' is	used.

ENVIRONMENT
       AFSUSER (+)
	       Equivalent to the afsuser shell variable.

       COLUMNS The  number  of	columns	in the terminal.  See Terminal manage-
	       ment.

       DISPLAY Used by X Window	System (see X(1)).  If set, the	shell does not
	       set autologout (q.v.).

       EDITOR  The pathname to a default editor.  See also the VISUAL environ-
	       ment variable and the run-fg-editor editor command.

       GROUP (+)
	       Equivalent to the group shell variable.

       HOME    Equivalent to the home shell variable.

       HOST (+)
	       Initialized to the name of the machine on which	the  shell  is
	       running,	as determined by the gethostname(2) system call.

       HOSTTYPE	(+)
	       Initialized  to	the type of machine on which the shell is run-
	       ning, as	determined at compile time.  This variable is obsolete
	       and will	be removed in a	future version.

       HPATH (+)
	       A  colon-separated  list	 of  directories in which the run-help
	       editor command looks for	command	documentation.

       LANG    Gives the preferred character environment.  See Native Language
	       System support.

       LC_CTYPE
	       If  set,	 only ctype character handling is changed.  See	Native
	       Language	System support.

       LINES   The number of lines in the terminal.  See Terminal management.

       LS_COLORS
	       The format of this variable is reminiscent  of  the  termcap(5)
	       file  format; a colon-separated list of expressions of the form
	       "xx=string", where "xx" is a two-character variable name.   The
	       variables with their associated defaults	are:

		   no	0      Normal (non-filename) text
		   fi	0      Regular file
		   di	01;34  Directory
		   ln	01;36  Symbolic	link
		   pi	33     Named pipe (FIFO)
		   so	01;35  Socket
		   do	01;35  Door
		   bd	01;33  Block device
		   cd	01;32  Character device
		   ex	01;32  Executable file
		   mi	(none) Missing file (defaults to fi)
		   or	(none) Orphaned	symbolic link (defaults	to ln)
		   lc	^[[    Left code
		   rc	m      Right code
		   ec	(none) End code	(replaces lc+no+rc)

	       You  need to include only the variables you want	to change from
	       the default.

	       File names can also be colorized	based on  filename  extension.
	       This  is	 specified  in the LS_COLORS variable using the	syntax
	       "*ext=string".  For example, using ISO 6429 codes, to color all
	       C-language  source files	blue you would specify "*.c=34".  This
	       would color all files ending in .c in blue (34) color.

	       Control characters can be  written  either  in  C-style-escaped
	       notation,  or  in  stty-like  ^-notation.  The C-style notation
	       adds ^[ for Escape, _ for a normal space	character, and	?  for
	       Delete.	 In  addition,	the ^[ escape character	can be used to
	       override	the default interpretation of ^[, ^, : and =.

	       Each file will be written as <lc> <color-code> <rc>  <filename>
	       <ec>.   If  the	<ec> code is undefined,	the sequence <lc> <no>
	       <rc> will be used instead.  This	is generally  more  convenient
	       to  use,	 but  less general.  The left, right and end codes are
	       provided	so you don't have to type common parts over  and  over
	       again  and  to  support weird terminals;	you will generally not
	       need to change them at all unless your terminal	does  not  use
	       ISO 6429	color sequences	but a different	system.

	       If your terminal	does use ISO 6429 color	codes, you can compose
	       the type	codes (i.e., all except	the lc,	rc, and	ec codes) from
	       numerical  commands  separated  by semicolons.  The most	common
	       commands	are:

		       0   to restore default color
		       1   for brighter	colors
		       4   for underlined text
		       5   for flashing	text
		       30  for black foreground
		       31  for red foreground
		       32  for green foreground
		       33  for yellow (or brown) foreground
		       34  for blue foreground
		       35  for purple foreground
		       36  for cyan foreground
		       37  for white (or gray) foreground
		       40  for black background
		       41  for red background
		       42  for green background
		       43  for yellow (or brown) background
		       44  for blue background
		       45  for purple background
		       46  for cyan background
		       47  for white (or gray) background

	       Not all commands	will work on all systems or display devices.

	       A few terminal programs do not recognize	the default  end  code
	       properly.   If all text gets colorized after you	do a directory
	       listing,	try changing the no and	fi codes from 0	to the numeri-
	       cal codes for your standard fore- and background	colors.

       MACHTYPE	(+)
	       The  machine  type  (microprocessor class or machine model), as
	       determined at compile time.

       NOREBIND	(+)
	       If set, printable characters are	not  rebound  to  self-insert-
	       command.	 See Native Language System support.

       OSTYPE (+)
	       The operating system, as	determined at compile time.

       PATH    A colon-separated list of directories in	which to look for exe-
	       cutables.  Equivalent to	the path shell variable, but in	a dif-
	       ferent format.

       PWD (+) Equivalent  to  the cwd shell variable, but not synchronized to
	       it; updated only	after an actual	directory change.

       REMOTEHOST (+)
	       The host	from which the user has	logged in remotely, if this is
	       the  case  and  the shell is able to determine it.  Set only if
	       the shell was so	compiled; see the version shell	variable.

       SHLVL (+)
	       Equivalent to the shlvl shell variable.

       SYSTYPE (+)
	       The current system type.	 (Domain/OS only)

       TERM    Equivalent to the term shell variable.

       TERMCAP The terminal capability string.	See Terminal management.

       USER    Equivalent to the user shell variable.

       VENDOR (+)
	       The vendor, as determined at compile time.

       VISUAL  The pathname to a default full-screen  editor.	See  also  the
	       EDITOR  environment  variable and the run-fg-editor editor com-
	       mand.

FILES
       /etc/csh.cshrc  Read first by every shell.  ConvexOS, Stellix and Intel
		       use  /etc/cshrc	and  NeXTs  use	/etc/cshrc.std.	 A/UX,
		       AMIX, Cray and IRIX have	no equivalent in  csh(1),  but
		       read  this  file	 in tcsh anyway.  Solaris 2.x does not
		       have it either, but tcsh	reads /etc/.cshrc.  (+)
       /etc/csh.login  Read by login shells after  /etc/csh.cshrc.   ConvexOS,
		       Stellix	 and   Intel   use   /etc/login,   NeXTs   use
		       /etc/login.std, Solaris 2.x uses	/etc/.login and	 A/UX,
		       AMIX, Cray and IRIX use /etc/cshrc.
       ~/.tcshrc (+)   Read by every shell after /etc/csh.cshrc	or its equiva-
		       lent.
       ~/.cshrc	       Read by every shell, if ~/.tcshrc doesn't exist,	 after
		       /etc/csh.cshrc  or  its	equivalent.   This manual uses
		       `~/.tcshrc' to mean `~/.tcshrc or, if ~/.tcshrc is  not
		       found, ~/.cshrc'.
       ~/.history      Read  by	 login	shells	after ~/.tcshrc	if savehist is
		       set, but	see also histfile.
       ~/.login	       Read by login shells  after  ~/.tcshrc  or  ~/.history.
		       The  shell  may	be  compiled  to  read ~/.login	before
		       instead of after	~/.tcshrc and ~/.history; see the ver-
		       sion shell variable.
       ~/.cshdirs (+)  Read by login shells after ~/.login if savedirs is set,
		       but see also dirsfile.
       /etc/csh.logout Read by login shells at logout.	ConvexOS, Stellix  and
		       Intel  use  /etc/logout	and NeXTs use /etc/logout.std.
		       A/UX, AMIX, Cray	and IRIX have no equivalent in csh(1),
		       but  read  this	file in	tcsh anyway.  Solaris 2.x does
		       not have	it either, but tcsh reads /etc/.logout.	 (+)
       ~/.logout       Read by login shells at logout after /etc/csh.logout or
		       its equivalent.
       /bin/sh	       Used  to	 interpret  shell  scripts not starting	with a
		       `#'.
       /tmp/sh*	       Temporary file for `<<'.
       /etc/passwd     Source of home directories for `~name' substitutions.

       The order in which startup files	are read may differ if the  shell  was
       so compiled; see	Startup	and shutdown and the version shell variable.

NEW FEATURES (+)
       This  manual  describes tcsh as a single	entity,	but experienced	csh(1)
       users will want to pay special attention	to tcsh's new features.

       A command-line editor, which supports  GNU  Emacs  or  vi(1)-style  key
       bindings.  See The command-line editor and Editor commands.

       Programmable,  interactive word completion and listing.	See Completion
       and listing and the complete and	uncomplete builtin commands.

       Spelling	correction (q.v.) of filenames,	commands and variables.

       Editor commands (q.v.) which perform other useful functions in the mid-
       dle of typed commands, including	documentation lookup (run-help), quick
       editor restarting (run-fg-editor) and  command  resolution  (which-com-
       mand).

       An  enhanced  history  mechanism.  Events in the	history	list are time-
       stamped.	 See also the history command and its associated  shell	 vari-
       ables,  the  previously	undocumented `#' event specifier and new modi-
       fiers under History substitution, the *-history,	 history-search-*,  i-
       search-*,  vi-search-*  and  toggle-literal-history editor commands and
       the histlit shell variable.

       Enhanced	directory parsing and directory	stack handling.	 See  the  cd,
       pushd, popd and dirs commands and their associated shell	variables, the
       description of Directory	stack substitution, the	dirstack, owd and sym-
       links shell variables and the normalize-command and normalize-path edi-
       tor commands.

       Negation	in glob-patterns.  See Filename	substitution.

       New File	inquiry	operators (q.v.) and a	filetest  builtin  which  uses
       them.

       A  variety  of  Automatic,  periodic  and timed events (q.v.) including
       scheduled events, special aliases, automatic logout and terminal	 lock-
       ing, command timing and watching	for logins and logouts.

       Support for the Native Language System (see Native Language System sup-
       port), OS variant features (see OS variant support and  the  echo_style
       shell variable) and system-dependent file locations (see	FILES).

       Extensive terminal-management capabilities.  See	Terminal management.

       New  builtin  commands including	builtins, hup, ls-F, newgrp, printenv,
       which and where (q.v.).

       New variables that make useful  information  easily  available  to  the
       shell.	See  the  gid, loginsh,	oid, shlvl, tcsh, tty, uid and version
       shell variables and the HOST, REMOTEHOST, VENDOR, OSTYPE	 and  MACHTYPE
       environment variables.

       A new syntax for	including useful information in	the prompt string (see
       prompt).	 and special prompts for loops and  spelling  correction  (see
       prompt2 and prompt3).

       Read-only variables.  See Variable substitution.

BUGS
       When  a	suspended command is restarted,	the shell prints the directory
       it started in if	this is	different from the  current  directory.	  This
       can be misleading (i.e.,	wrong) as the job may have changed directories
       internally.

       Shell  builtin  functions  are  not   stoppable/restartable.    Command
       sequences  of the form `a ; b ; c' are also not handled gracefully when
       stopping	is attempted.  If you suspend `b', the shell will then immedi-
       ately  execute  `c'.   This  is especially noticeable if	this expansion
       results from an alias.  It suffices to place the	sequence  of  commands
       in ()'s to force	it to a	subshell, i.e.,	`( a ; b ; c )'.

       Control	over tty output	after processes	are started is primitive; per-
       haps this will inspire someone to  work	on  a  good  virtual  terminal
       interface.   In	a  virtual  terminal  interface	 much more interesting
       things could be done with output	control.

       Alias substitution is most often	used to	clumsily simulate shell	proce-
       dures; shell procedures should be provided rather than aliases.

       Commands	 within	 loops	are  not  placed in the	history	list.  Control
       structures should be parsed rather than being  recognized  as  built-in
       commands.   This	would allow control commands to	be placed anywhere, to
       be combined with	`|', and to be used with `&' and `;' metasyntax.

       foreach doesn't ignore here documents when looking for its end.

       It should be possible to	use the	`:' modifiers on the output of command
       substitutions.

       The  screen  update for lines longer than the screen width is very poor
       if the terminal cannot move the cursor up (i.e.,	terminal type `dumb').

       HPATH and NOREBIND don't	need to	be environment variables.

       Glob-patterns which do not use `?', `*' or `[]' or which	 use  `{}'  or
       `~' are not negated correctly.

       The  single-command  form  of  if  does	output redirection even	if the
       expression is false and the command is not executed.

       ls-F includes file identification characters when sorting filenames and
       does  not  handle  control  characters in filenames well.  It cannot be
       interrupted.

       Command substitution supports multiple commands and conditions, but not
       cycles or backward gotos.

       Report bugs at http://bugs.gw.com/, preferably with fixes.  If you want
       to help maintain	and test tcsh,	send  mail  to	tcsh-request@mx.gw.com
       with the	text `subscribe	tcsh' on a line	by itself in the body.

THE T IN TCSH
       In 1964,	DEC produced the PDP-6.	 The PDP-10 was	a later	re-implementa-
       tion.  It was re-christened the DECsystem-10 in 1970  or	 so  when  DEC
       brought out the second model, the KI10.

       TENEX was created at Bolt, Beranek & Newman (a Cambridge, Massachusetts
       think tank) in 1972 as an experiment  in	 demand-paged  virtual	memory
       operating  systems.  They built a new pager for the DEC PDP-10 and cre-
       ated the	OS to go with it.  It was extremely successful in academia.

       In 1975,	DEC brought out	a new model of	the  PDP-10,  the  KL10;  they
       intended	 to have only a	version	of TENEX, which	they had licensed from
       BBN, for	the new	box.  They called their	version	TOPS-20	 (their	 capi-
       talization  is  trademarked).   A  lot of TOPS-10 users (`The OPerating
       System for PDP-10') objected; thus DEC found themselves supporting  two
       incompatible systems on the same	hardware--but then there were 6	on the
       PDP-11!

       TENEX, and TOPS-20 to version 3,	had command  completion	 via  a	 user-
       code-level subroutine library called ULTCMD.  With version 3, DEC moved
       all that	capability and more into the monitor (`kernel'	for  you  Unix
       types),	accessed by the	COMND% JSYS (`Jump to SYStem' instruction, the
       supervisor call mechanism [are my IBM roots also	showing?]).

       The creator of tcsh was impressed by this feature and several others of
       TENEX and TOPS-20, and created a	version	of csh which mimicked them.

LIMITATIONS
       Words can be no longer than 1024	characters.

       The system limits argument lists	to 10240 characters.

       The  number of arguments	to a command which involves filename expansion
       is limited to 1/6th the number of characters  allowed  in  an  argument
       list.

       Command	substitutions  may  substitute	no  more  characters  than are
       allowed in an argument list.

       To detect looping, the shell restricts the number  of  alias  substitu-
       tions on	a single line to 20.

SEE ALSO
       csh(1),	emacs(1), ls(1), newgrp(1), sh(1), setpath(1), stty(1),	su(1),
       tset(1),	 vi(1),	 x(1),	access(2),  execve(2),	 fork(2),   killpg(2),
       pipe(2),	setrlimit(2), sigvec(2), stat(2), umask(2), vfork(2), wait(2),
       malloc(3),  setlocale(3),  tty(4),  a.out(5),  termcap(5),  environ(7),
       termio(7), Introduction to the C	Shell

VERSION
       This manual documents tcsh 6.15.00 (Astron) 2007-03-03.

AUTHORS
       William Joy
	 Original author of csh(1)
       J.E. Kulp, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria
	 Job control and directory stack features
       Ken Greer, HP Labs, 1981
	 File name completion
       Mike Ellis, Fairchild, 1983
	 Command name recognition/completion
       Paul Placeway, Ohio State CIS Dept., 1983-1993
	 Command  line	editor,	 prompt	routines, new glob syntax and numerous
	 fixes and speedups
       Karl Kleinpaste,	CCI 1983-4
	 Special  aliases,  directory  stack  extraction  stuff,  login/logout
	 watch,	scheduled events, and the idea of the new prompt format
       Rayan Zachariassen, University of Toronto, 1984
	 ls-F  and  which  builtins  and numerous bug fixes, modifications and
	 speedups
       Chris Kingsley, Caltech
	 Fast storage allocator	routines
       Chris Grevstad, TRW, 1987
	 Incorporated 4.3BSD csh into tcsh
       Christos	S. Zoulas, Cornell U. EE Dept.,	1987-94
	 Ports	to  HPUX,  SVR2	 and  SVR3,  a	SysV   version	 of   getwd.c,
	 SHORT_STRINGS support and a new version of sh.glob.c
       James J Dempsey,	BBN, and Paul Placeway,	OSU, 1988
	 A/UX port
       Daniel Long, NNSC, 1988
	 wordchars
       Patrick Wolfe, Kuck and Associates, Inc., 1988
	 vi mode cleanup
       David C Lawrence, Rensselaer Polytechnic	Institute, 1989
	 autolist and ambiguous	completion listing
       Alec Wolman, DEC, 1989
	 Newlines in the prompt
       Matt Landau, BBN, 1989
	 ~/.tcshrc
       Ray Moody, Purdue Physics, 1989
	 Magic space bar history expansion
       Mordechai ????, Intel, 1989
	 printprompt() fixes and additions
       Kazuhiro	Honda, Dept. of	Computer Science, Keio University, 1989
	 Automatic spelling correction and prompt3
       Per Hedeland, Ellemtel, Sweden, 1990-
	 Various bugfixes, improvements	and manual updates
       Hans J. Albertsson (Sun Sweden)
	 ampm, settc and telltc
       Michael Bloom
	 Interrupt handling fixes
       Michael Fine, Digital Equipment Corp
	 Extended key support
       Eric Schnoebelen, Convex, 1990
	 Convex	 support, lots of csh bug fixes, save and restore of directory
	 stack
       Ron Flax, Apple,	1990
	 A/UX 2.0 (re)port
       Dan Oscarsson, LTH Sweden, 1990
	 NLS support and simulated NLS support for non NLS sites, fixes
       Johan Widen, SICS Sweden, 1990
	 shlvl,	Mach support, correct-line, 8-bit printing
       Matt Day, Sanyo Icon, 1990
	 POSIX termio support, SysV limit fixes
       Jaap Vermeulen, Sequent,	1990-91
	 Vi mode fixes,	expand-line, window change fixes, Symmetry port
       Martin Boyer, Institut de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, 1991
	 autolist beeping options, modified the	history	search to  search  for
	 the whole string from the beginning of	the line to the	cursor.
       Scott Krotz, Motorola, 1991
	 Minix port
       David Dawes, Sydney U. Australia, Physics Dept.,	1991
	 SVR4 job control fixes
       Jose Sousa, Interactive Systems Corp., 1991
	 Extended vi fixes and vi delete command
       Marc Horowitz, MIT, 1991
	 ANSIfication fixes, new exec hashing code, imake fixes, where
       Bruce Sterling Woodcock,	sterling@netcom.com, 1991-1995
	 ETA  and Pyramid port,	Makefile and lint fixes, ignoreeof=n addition,
	 and various other portability changes and bug fixes
       Jeff Fink, 1992
	 complete-word-fwd and complete-word-back
       Harry C.	Pulley,	1992
	 Coherent port
       Andy Phillips, Mullard Space Science Lab	U.K., 1992
	 VMS-POSIX port
       Beto Appleton, IBM Corp., 1992
	 Walking process group fixes, csh bug fixes, POSIX file	 tests,	 POSIX
	 SIGHUP
       Scott Bolte, Cray Computer Corp., 1992
	 CSOS port
       Kaveh R.	Ghazi, Rutgers University, 1992
	 Tek,  m88k,  Titan and	Masscomp ports and fixes.  Added autoconf sup-
	 port.
       Mark Linderman, Cornell University, 1992
	 OS/2 port
       Mika Liljeberg, liljeber@kruuna.Helsinki.FI, 1992
	 Linux port
       Tim P. Starrin, NASA Langley Research Center Operations,	1993
	 Read-only variables
       Dave Schweisguth, Yale University, 1993-4
	 New man page and tcsh.man2html
       Larry Schwimmer,	Stanford University, 1993
	 AFS and HESIOD	patches
       Luke Mewburn, RMIT University, 1994-6
	 Enhanced directory printing in	prompt,	added ellipsis and rprompt.
       Edward Hutchins,	Silicon	Graphics Inc., 1996
	 Added implicit	cd.
       Martin Kraemer, 1997
	 Ported	to Siemens Nixdorf EBCDIC machine
       Amol Deshpande, Microsoft, 1997
	 Ported	to WIN32 (Windows/95 and Windows/NT); wrote  all  the  missing
	 library and message catalog code to interface to Windows.
       Taga Nayuta, 1998
	 Color ls additions.

THANKS TO
       Bryan Dunlap, Clayton Elwell, Karl Kleinpaste, Bob Manson, Steve	Romig,
       Diana Smetters, Bob Sutterfield,	Mark Verber, Elizabeth Zwicky and  all
       the other people	at Ohio	State for suggestions and encouragement

       All  the	people on the net, for putting up with,	reporting bugs in, and
       suggesting new additions	to each	and every version

       Richard M. Alderson III,	for writing the	`T in tcsh' section

Astron 6.15.00			 3 March 2007			       TCSH(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | REFERENCE | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | NEW FEATURES (+) | BUGS | THE T IN TCSH | LIMITATIONS | SEE ALSO | VERSION | AUTHORS | THANKS TO

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