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CSH(1)			    General Commands Manual			CSH(1)

       csh  -  a shell (command	interpreter) with a C-like syntax and advanced
       interactive features

       csh [ -bcefinstvVxX ] [ argument...  ]

       csh, the	C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax	reminiscent of
       C.   It	provides  a  number of convenient features for interactive use
       that are	not available with  the	 standard  (Bourne)  shell,  including
       filename	 completion,  command aliasing,	history	substitution, job con-
       trol, and a number of built-in commands.	 As with the  standard	shell,
       the C shell provides variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When  first  started,  the  C shell normally performs commands from the
       .cshrc file in your home	directory, provided that it  is	 readable  and
       you  either  own	it or your real	group ID matches its group ID.	If the
       shell is	invoked	with a name that starts	with `-', as when  started  by
       login(1), the shell runs	as a login shell.  In this case, after execut-
       ing commands from the .cshrc file, the shell executes commands from the
       .login file in your home	directory; the same permission checks as those
       for .cshrc are applied to this file.  Typically,	the .login  file  con-
       tains commands to specify the terminal type and environment.

       As a login shell	terminates, it performs	commands from the .logout file
       in your home directory; the same	permission checks as those for	.cshrc
       are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After  startup  processing  is  complete, an interactive	C shell	begins
       reading commands	from the terminal, prompting with hostname% (or	 host-
       name# for the super-user).  The shell then repeatedly performs the fol-
       lowing actions: a line of command input is read and broken into	words.
       This  sequence  of words	is placed on the history list and then parsed,
       as described under USAGE, below.	 Finally, the shell executes each com-
       mand in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell	does not prompt	for input from
       the terminal.  A	noninteractive C shell can execute a command  supplied
       as  an  argument	 on  its  command  line,  or interpret commands	from a

       -b     Force a "break" from option processing.  Subsequent command-line
	      arguments	 are  not interpreted as C shell options.  This	allows
	      the passing of options to	a script without confusion.  The shell
	      does not run a set-user-ID script	unless this option is present.

       -c     Read  commands  from  the	first filename argument	(which must be
	      present).	 Remaining arguments are placed	in argv, the argument-
	      list variable.

       -e     Exit if a	command	terminates abnormally or yields	a nonzero exit

       -f     Fast start.  Read	neither	the .cshrc file, nor the  .login  file
	      (if a login shell) upon startup.

       -i     Forced  interactive.  Prompt for command-line input, even	if the
	      standard input does not appear to	be a terminal  (character-spe-
	      cial device).

       -n     Parse (interpret), but do	not execute commands.  This option can
	      be used to check C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s     Take commands from the standard input.

       -t     Read and execute a single	command	line.  A `\'  (backslash)  can
	      be  used	to escape each NEWLINE for continuation	of the command
	      line onto	subsequent input lines.

       -v     Verbose.	Set the	verbose	predefined variable; command input  is
	      echoed  after  history  substitution (but	before other substitu-
	      tions) and before	execution.

       -V     Set verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x     Echo.  Set the echo variable; echo commands after	all  substitu-
	      tions and	just before execution.

       -X     Set echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except  with the	options	-c, -i,	-s or -t, the first nonoption argument
       is taken	to be the name of a command or script.	It is passed as	 argu-
       ment  zero, and subsequent arguments are	added to the argument list for
       that command or script.

       Refer to	for tutorial information on how	to use the various features of
       the C shell.

   Filename Completion
       When  enabled by	setting	the variable filec, an interactive C shell can
       complete	a partially typed filename or user name.  When an  unambiguous
       partial	filename is followed by	an ESC character on the	terminal input
       line, the shell fills in	the remaining characters of a  matching	 file-
       name from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character	(usually typed
       as CTRL-D), the shell lists all filenames that match.  It then  prompts
       once again, supplying the incomplete command line typed in so far.

       When  the  last	(partial)  word	begins with a tilde (~), the shell at-
       tempts completion with a	user name, rather than a file in  the  working

       The  terminal  bell signals errors or multiple matches; this can	be in-
       hibited by setting the variable nobeep.	You  can  exclude  files  with
       certain	suffixes  by  listing  those suffixes in the variable fignore.
       If, however, the	only possible completion  includes  a  suffix  in  the
       list,  it is not	ignored.  fignore does not affect the listing of file-
       names by	the EOF	character.

   Lexical Structure
       The shell splits	input lines into words at SPACE	 and  TAB  characters,
       except  as  noted  below.   The characters &, |,	;, <, >, (, and	) form
       separate	words; if paired, the pairs form single	 words.	  These	 shell
       metacharacters can be made part of other	words, and their special mean-
       ing can be suppressed by	preceding them with a `\' (backslash).	A NEW-
       LINE preceded by	a \ is equivalent to a SPACE character.

       In  addition,  a	string enclosed	in matched pairs of single-quotes ('),
       double-quotes ("), or backquotes	(`), forms a partial word; metacharac-
       ters  in	 such  a string, including any SPACE or	TAB characters,	do not
       form separate words.  Within pairs of backquote (`) or double-quote (")
       characters,  a  NEWLINE preceded	by a `\' (backslash) gives a true NEW-
       LINE character.	Additional functions of	each type  of  quote  are  de-
       scribed,	 below,	under Variable Substitution, Command Substitution, and
       Filename	Substitution.

       When the	shell's	input is not a terminal, the character # introduces  a
       comment that continues to the end of the	input line.  Its special mean-
       ing is suppressed when preceded by a \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line	Parsing
       A simple	command	is composed of a sequence of words.   The  first  word
       (that  is  not  part of an I/O redirection) specifies the command to be
       executed.  A simple command, or a set of	simple commands	separated by |
       or |& characters, forms a pipeline.  With |, the	standard output	of the
       preceding command is redirected to the standard input  of  the  command
       that  follows.	With |&, both the standard error and the standard out-
       put are redirected through the pipeline.

       Pipelines can be	separated by semicolons	(;), in	which  case  they  are
       executed	 sequentially.	 Pipelines that	are separated by && or || form
       conditional sequences in	which the execution of pipelines on the	 right
       depends	upon  the success or failure, respectively, of the pipeline on
       the left.

       A pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `( )' to form
       a simple	command	that can be a component	in a pipeline or sequence.

       A  sequence  of	pipelines  can	be executed asynchronously, or "in the
       background" by appending	an `&';	rather than waiting for	 the  sequence
       to  finish  before  issuing a prompt, the shell displays	the job	number
       (see Job	Control, below)	and associated process IDs, and	prompts	 imme-

   History Substitution
       History	substitution  allows  you  to  use words from previous command
       lines in	the command line you are  typing.   This  simplifies  spelling
       corrections  and	 the  repetition of complicated	commands or arguments.
       Command lines are saved in the history list, the	size of	which is  con-
       trolled	by  the	history	variable.  The most recent command is retained
       in any case.  A history substitution begins with	a !  (although you can
       change  this with the histchars variable) and may occur anywhere	on the
       command line; history substitutions do not nest.	 The !	can be escaped
       with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input lines containing history substitutions are	echoed on the terminal
       after being expanded, but before	any other substitutions	take place  or
       the command gets	executed.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a	command-line entry in the his-
       tory list.
	      !	     Start a history substitution, except when followed	 by  a
		     SPACE character, TAB, NEWLINE, = or (.
	      !!     Refer to the previous command.  By	itself,	this substitu-
		     tion repeats the previous command.
	      !n     Refer to command-line n.
	      !-n    Refer to the current command-line minus n.
	      !str   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.
		     Refer to the most recent command containing str.
	      !{...} Insulate a	history	reference from adjacent	characters (if

   Word	Designators
       A  `:' (colon) separates	the event specification	from the word designa-
       tor.  It	can be omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -
       or  %.	If  the	 word is to be selected	from the previous command, the
       second !	 character can be omitted from the event  specification.   For
       instance,  !!:1	and  !:1  both refer to	the first word of the previous
       command,	while !!$ and !$ both refer to the last	word in	 the  previous
       command.	 Word designators include:

	      #	     The entire	command	line typed so far.
	      0	     The first input word (command).
	      n	     The n'th argument.
	      ^	     The first argument, that is, 1.
	      $	     The last argument.
	      %	     The word matched by (the most recent) ?s search.
	      x-y    A range of	words; -y abbreviates 0-y.
	      *	     All  the  arguments, or a null value if there is just one
		     word in the event.
	      x*     Abbreviates x-$.
	      x-     Like x* but omitting word $.

       After the optional word designator, you can add a sequence  of  one  or
       more of the following modifiers,	each preceded by a :.

	      h	     Remove a trailing pathname	component, leaving the head.
	      r	     Remove  a trailing	suffix of the form `.xxx', leaving the
	      e	     Remove all	but the	suffix.
		     Substitute	r for l.
	      t	     Remove all	leading	pathname components, leaving the tail.
	      &	     Repeat the	previous substitution.
	      g	     Apply the change to the first occurrence of  a  match  in
		     each word,	by prefixing the above (for example, g&).
	      p	     Print the new command but do not execute it.
	      q	     Quote  the	 substituted words, escaping further substitu-
	      x	     Like q, but break into words at each SPACE	character, TAB
		     or	NEWLINE.

       Unless  preceded	 by a g, the modification is applied only to the first
       string that matches l; an error results if no string matches.

       The left-hand side of substitutions are not  regular  expressions,  but
       character strings.  Any character can be	used as	the delimiter in place
       of /.  A	backslash quotes the delimiter character.  The character &, in
       the  right  hand	side, is replaced by the text from the left-hand-side.
       The & can be quoted with	a backslash.   A  null	l  uses	 the  previous
       string  either  from  a	l or from a contextual scan string s from !?s.
       You can omit the	rightmost delimiter if a NEWLINE  immediately  follows
       r; the rightmost	?  in a	context	scan can similarly be omitted.

       Without	an  event  specification, a history reference refers either to
       the previous command, or	to a previous history reference	on the command
       line (if	any).

   Quick Substitution
	      This is equivalent to the	history	substitution: !:s^l^r[^].

       The  C  shell maintains a list of aliases that you can create, display,
       and modify using	the alias and unalias commands.	 The shell checks  the
       first word in each command to see if it matches the name	of an existing
       alias.  If it does, the command is reprocessed with the	alias  defini-
       tion  replacing	its  name;  the	history	substitution mechanism is made
       available as though that	command	were the previous  input  line.	  This
       allows  history	substitutions, escaped with a backslash	in the defini-
       tion, to	be replaced with actual	command-line arguments when the	 alias
       is  used.   If no history substitution is called	for, the arguments re-
       main unchanged.

       Aliases can be nested.  That is,	an alias definition  can  contain  the
       name  of	another	alias.	Nested aliases are expanded before any history
       substitutions is	applied.  This is useful in pipelines such as

	      alias  lm	'ls  -l	 \!*  |	 more'

       which when called, pipes	the output of ls(1V) through more(1).

       Except for the first word, the name of the alias	may not	appear in  its
       definition, nor in any alias referred to	by its definition.  Such loops
       are detected, and cause an error	message.

   I/O Redirection
       The following metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word  is  the
       name  of	a file to which	the command's standard input, standard output,
       or standard error is redirected;	this word is  variable,	 command,  and
       filename	expanded separately from the rest of the command.

       <	      Redirect the standard input.

       <<word	      Read  the	standard input,	up to a	line that is identical
		      with word, and place the resulting lines in a  temporary
		      file.   Unless  word  is escaped or quoted, variable and
		      command substitutions  are  performed  on	 these	lines.
		      Then, invoke the pipeline	with the temporary file	as its
		      standard input.  word  is	 not  subjected	 to  variable,
		      filename	or command substitution, and each line is com-
		      pared to it before any substitutions  are	 performed  by
		      the shell.

       >   >!	>&   >&!
		      Redirect	the  standard  output  to a file.  If the file
		      does not exist, it is created.  If it does exist,	it  is
		      overwritten; its previous	contents are lost.

		      When set,	the variable noclobber prevents	destruction of
		      existing files.  It also prevents	redirection to	termi-
		      nals  and	/dev/null, unless one of the !	forms is used.
		      The & forms redirect both	standard output	and the	 stan-
		      dard error (diagnostic output) to	the file.

       >>   >>&	  >>!	>>&!
		      Append  the  standard output.  Like >, but places	output
		      at the end of the	file rather than overwriting  it.   If
		      noclobber	is set,	it is an error for the file not	to ex-
		      ist, unless one of the !	forms is used.	 The  &	 forms
		      append  both  the	 standard error	and standard output to
		      the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed  of
       a  name	and a value.  A	variable name consists of up to	20 letters and
       digits, and starts with a letter	(the underscore	is considered  a  let-
       ter).   A  variable's  value  is	a space-separated list of zero or more

       To refer	to a variable's	value, precede its name	with a	`$'.   Certain
       references  (described below) can be used to select specific words from
       the value, or to	display	other information about	the variable.	Braces
       can  be	used to	insulate the reference from other characters in	an in-
       put-line	word.

       Variable	substitution takes place after the  input  line	 is  analyzed,
       aliases	are resolved, and I/O redirections are applied.	 Exceptions to
       this are	variable references in I/O redirections	 (substituted  at  the
       time the	redirection is made), and backquoted strings (see Command Sub-

       Variable	substitution can be suppressed by preceding the	$  with	 a  \,
       except within double-quotes where it always occurs.  Variable substitu-
       tion is suppressed inside of single-quotes.  A $	is escaped if followed
       by a SPACE character, TAB or NEWLINE.

       Variables can be	created, displayed, or destroyed using the set and un-
       set commands.  Some variables are maintained or used by the shell.  For
       instance,  the  argv variable contains an image of the shell's argument
       list.  Of the variables used by the shell, a number  are	 toggles;  the
       shell  does  not	care what their	value is, only whether they are	set or

       Numerical values	can be operated	on as numbers (as with	the  @	built-
       in).  With numeric operations, an empty value is	considered to be zero;
       the second and subsequent words of multiword values are	ignored.   For
       instance,  when	the verbose variable is	set to any value (including an
       empty value), command input is echoed on	the terminal.

       Command and filename substitution is subsequently applied to the	 words
       that  result  from the variable substitution, except when suppressed by
       double-quotes, when noglob is set (suppressing filename	substitution),
       or  when	 the reference is quoted with the :q modifier.	Within double-
       quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a	quoted string;
       multiword  values  are expanded to a string with	embedded SPACE charac-
       ters.  When the :q modifier is applied to the reference,	it is expanded
       to  a list of space-separated words, each of which is quoted to prevent
       subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except as noted below, it is an error to	refer to a  variable  that  is
       not set.

       ${var}	      These  are replaced by words from	the value of var, each
		      separated	by a SPACE character.  If var is  an  environ-
		      ment  variable, its value	is returned (but `:' modifiers
		      and the other forms given	below are not available).

       ${var[index]}  These select only	the indicated words from the value  of
		      var.   Variable  substitution is applied to index, which
		      may consist of (or result	in) a  either  single  number,
		      two  numbers  separated by a `-',	or an asterisk.	 Words
		      are indexed starting from	1; a `*'  selects  all	words.
		      If  the  first  number  of  a  range is omitted (as with
		      $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1.  If	the last number	 of  a
		      range  is	 omitted  (as  with $argv[1-]),	it defaults to
		      $#var (the word count).  It is not an error for a	 range
		      to be empty if the second	argument is omitted (or	within

       ${#name}	      These give the number of words in	the variable.

       $0	      This substitutes the name	of the file from which command
		      input is being read.  An error occurs if the name	is not

       ${n}	      Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*	      Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t	and :x can  be	applied	 (see  History
       Substitution),  as can :gh, :gt and :gr.	 If {} (braces)	are used, then
       the modifiers must appear within	the braces.  The  current  implementa-
       tion allows only	one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references	may not	be modified with : modifiers.

	      Substitutes the string 1 if var is set or	0 if it	is not set.

       $?0    Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known, or 0 if it
	      is not.

       $$     Substitute the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<     Substitutes a line from the standard input, with no further  in-
	      terpretation  thereafter.	  It can be used to read from the key-
	      board in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename	Substitutions
       Command and filename substitutions are applied selectively to the argu-
       ments of	built-in commands.  Portions of	expressions that are not eval-
       uated are not expanded.	For non-built-in commands, filename  expansion
       of  the command name is done separately from that of the	argument list;
       expansion occurs	in a subshell, after I/O redirection is	performed.

   Command Substitution
       A command enclosed by backquotes	(`...`)	is performed  by  a  subshell.
       Its standard output is broken into separate words at each SPACE charac-
       ter, TAB	and NEWLINE; null words	are discarded.	This text replaces the
       backquoted  string  on the current command line.	 Within	double-quotes,
       only NEWLINE characters force new words;	SPACE and TAB  characters  are
       preserved.   However, a final NEWLINE is	ignored.  It is	therefore pos-
       sible for a command substitution	to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted	words containing any of	the characters *, ?, [ or {,  or  that
       begin  with  ~,	are expanded (also known as globbing) to an alphabeti-
       cally sorted list of filenames, as follows:

       *	      Match any	(zero or more) characters.

       ?	      Match any	single character.

       [ ... ]	      Match any	single character in the	 enclosed  list(s)  or
		      range(s).	 A list	is a string of characters.  A range is
		      two characters separated by a minus-sign	(-),  and  in-
		      cludes  all  the characters in between in	the ASCII col-
		      lating sequence (see ascii(7)).

       { str, str, ...	}
		      Expand to	each string (or	filename-matching pattern)  in
		      the  comma-separated  list.  Unlike the pattern-matching
		      expressions above, the expansion of  this	 construct  is
		      not  sorted.   For  instance,  {b,a} expands to `b' `a',
		      (not `a' `b').  As special cases,	the characters	{  and
		      }, along with the	string {}, are passed undisturbed.

       ~[	      user ] Your home directory, as indicated by the value of
		      the variable home, or that of user, as indicated by  the
		      password entry for user.

       Only the	patterns *, ?  and [...]  imply	pattern	matching; an error re-
       sults if	no filename matches a pattern that  contains  them.   The  `.'
       (dot  character), when it is the	first character	in a filename or path-
       name component, must be matched explicitly.  The	/ (slash) must also be
       matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A  number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which the
       operators are similar to	those of  C  and  have	the  same  precedence.
       These  expressions  typically  appear in	the @, exit, if, set and while
       commands, and are often used to regulate	the flow of control  for  exe-
       cuting  commands.   Components  of an expression	are separated by white

       Null or missing values are considered 0.	 The result of all expressions
       are strings, which may represent	decimal	numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

	      (...)		  grouping
	      ~			  one's	complement
	      !			  logical negation
	      *	  /   %		  multiplication,  division,  remainder	(These
				  are right associative, which can lead	to un-
				  expected  results.   Group  combinations ex-
				  plicitly with	parentheses.)
	      +	  -		  addition, subtraction	(also  right  associa-
	      <<   >>		  bitwise shift	left, bitwise shift right
	      <	  >   <=   >=	  less	than, greater than, less than or equal
				  to, greater than or equal to
	      ==   !=	=~   !~	  equal	to, not	equal  to,  filename-substitu-
				  tion	pattern	match (described below), file-
				  name-substitution pattern mismatch
	      &			  bitwise AND
	      ^			  bitwise XOR (exclusive or)
	      |			  bitwise inclusive OR
	      &&		  logical AND
	      ||		  logical OR

       The operators: ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments  as  strings;
       other  operators	 use  numbers.	 The  operators	 =~  and !~ each check
       whether or not a	string to the left  matches  a	filename  substitution
       pattern on the right.  This reduces the need for	switch statements when
       pattern-matching	between	strings	is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:
	      -r filename
			Return true, or	1 if the user has read access.	Other-
			wise it	returns	false, or 0.
	      -w filename
			True if	the user has write access.
	      -x filename
			True  if  the  user  has execute permission (or	search
			permission on a	directory).
	      -e filename
			True if	file exists.
	      -o filename
			True if	the user owns file.
	      -z filename
			True if	file is	of zero	length (empty).
	      -f filename
			True if	file is	a plain	file.
	      -d filename
			True if	file is	a directory.

       If file does not	exist or is inaccessible, then	all  inquiries	return

       An inquiry as to	the success of a command is also available:

	      {	command	}
			If command runs	successfully, the expression evaluates
			to true, 1.  Otherwise it evaluates to false 0.	 (Note
			that,  conversely,  command itself typically returns 0
			when it	runs successfully, or some other value	if  it
			encounters  a problem.	If you want to get at the sta-
			tus directly, use the value  of	 the  status  variable
			rather than this expression).

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of control
       in scripts, and within limits, from the terminal.  These	commands oper-
       ate  by	forcing	the shell either to reread input (to loop), or to skip
       input under certain conditions (to branch).

       Each occurrence of a foreach, switch, while, if...then and else	built-
       in must appear as the first word	on its own input line.

       If the shell's input is not seekable and	a loop is being	read, that in-
       put is buffered.	 The shell performs seeks within the  internal	buffer
       to  accomplish  the rereading implied by	the loop.  (To the extent that
       this allows, backward goto commands will	 succeed  on  nonseekable  in-

   Command Execution
       If  the	command	is a C shell built-in, the shell executes it directly.
       Otherwise, the shell searches for a file	by that	name with execute  ac-
       cess.   If the command-name contains a /, the shell takes it as a path-
       name, and searches for it.  If the command-name does not	contain	 a  /,
       the  shell  attempts to resolve it to a pathname, searching each	direc-
       tory in the path	variable for the command.  To speed  the  search,  the
       shell uses its hash table (see the rehash built-in) to eliminate	direc-
       tories that have	no applicable files.  This  hashing  can  be  disabled
       with the	-c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there
       is an alias for the word	shell, the expansion of	 the  shell  alias  is
       prepended  (without modification), to the command line.	The system at-
       tempts to execute the  first  word  of  this  special  (late-occurring)
       alias, which should be a	full pathname.	Remaining words	of the alias's
       definition, along with the text of the input line, are treated as argu-

       When a pathname is found	that has proper	execute	permissions, the shell
       forks a new process and passes it, along	with its arguments to the ker-
       nel  (using  the	 execve(2V) system call).  The kernel then attempts to
       overlay the new process with the	desired	program.  If the  file	is  an
       executable  binary (in a.out(5) format) the kernel succeeds, and	begins
       executing the new process.  If the file is a text file, and  the	 first
       line  begins  with  #!,	the next word is taken to be the pathname of a
       shell (or command) to interpret that script.  Subsequent	words  on  the
       first  line  are	 taken	as options for that shell.  The	kernel invokes
       (overlays) the indicated	shell, using the name of the script as an  ar-

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel cannot overlay the
       file (the execve(2V) call fails); the C shell then attempts to  execute
       the file	by spawning a new shell, as follows:

       o  If the first character of the	file is	a #, a C shell is invoked.

       o  Otherwise, a standard	(Bourne) shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The shell normally ignores QUIT signals.	 Background jobs are immune to
       signals generated from the keyboard, including  hangups	(HUP).	 Other
       signals	have  the  values that the C shell inherited from its environ-
       ment.  The shell's handling of interrupt	and terminate  signals	within
       scripts	can  be	controlled by the onintr built-in.  Login shells catch
       the TERM	signal;	otherwise this signal is passed	on to child processes.
       In  no  case  are  interrupts allowed when a login shell	is reading the
       .logout file.

   Job Control
       The shell associates a numbered job with	each command sequence, to keep
       track of	those commands that are	running	in the background or have been
       stopped with TSTP signals (typically CTRL-Z).  When a command, or  com-
       mand  sequence (semicolon separated list), is started in	the background
       using the & metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job  num-
       ber in brackets,	and a list of associated process numbers:

	      [1] 1234

       To  see	the  current list of jobs, use the jobs	built-in command.  The
       job most	recently stopped (or put  into	the  background	 if  none  are
       stopped)	 is  referred  to  as the current job, and is indicated	with a
       `+'.  The previous job is indicated with	a `-'; when the	current	job is
       terminated  or  moved  to the foreground, this job takes	its place (be-
       comes the new current job).

       To manipulate jobs, refer to the	bg, fg,	kill, stop and % built-ins.

       A reference to a	job begins with	a `%'.	By  itself,  the  percent-sign
       refers to the current job.

       %   %+	%%    The current job.
       %-	      The previous job.
       %j	      Refer to job j as	in: `kill -9 %j'.  j can be a job num-
		      ber, or a	string that uniquely  specifies	 the  command-
		      line  by	which  it  was started;	`fg %vi' might bring a
		      stopped vi job to	the foreground,	for instance.
       %?string	      Specify the job for which	the command-line uniquely con-
		      tains string.

       A job running in	the background stops when it attempts to read from the
       terminal.  Background jobs can normally produce output, but this	can be
       suppressed using	the `stty tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While  running  interactively,  the shell tracks	the status of each job
       and reports whenever a finishes or becomes blocked.  It	normally  dis-
       plays  a	 message  to this effect as it issues a	prompt,	so as to avoid
       disturbing the appearance of your input.	 When set, the notify variable
       indicates  that	the shell is to	report status changes immediately.  By
       default,	the notify command marks the current process; after starting a
       background job, type notify to mark it.

   Built-In Commands
       Built-in	 commands are executed within the C shell.  If a built-in com-
       mand occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last, it is  exe-
       cuted in	a subshell.

       :	 Null  command.	  This command is interpreted, but performs no

       alias [ name [ def ] ]
		 Assign	def to the alias name.	def is a list  of  words  that
		 may contain escaped history-substitution metasyntax.  name is
		 not allowed to	be alias or unalias.  If def is	 omitted,  the
		 alias	name  is  displayed along with its current definition.
		 If both name and def are omitted, all aliases are displayed.

       bg [%job] ...
		 Run the current or specified jobs in the background.

       break	 Resume	execution after	the end	of the nearest enclosing fore-
		 ach  or  while	 loop.	 The remaining commands	on the current
		 line are executed.  This allows multilevel breaks to be writ-
		 ten as	a list of break	commands, all on one line.

       breaksw	 Break from a switch, resuming after the endsw.

       case label:
		 A label in a switch statement.

       cd [ dir	]
       chdir [ dir ]
		 Change	the shell's working directory to directory dir.	 If no
		 argument is given, change to the home directory of the	 user.
		 If dir	is a relative pathname not found in the	current	direc-
		 tory, check for it in those directories listed	in the	cdpath
		 variable.  If dir is the name of a shell variable whose value
		 starts	with a /, change to the	directory named	by that	value.

       continue	 Continue execution of the nearest enclosing while or foreach.

       default:	 Labels	the default case in a switch statement.	  The  default
		 should	come after all case labels.  Any remaining commands on
		 the command line are first executed.

       dirs [ -l ]
		 Print the directory stack, most recent	to the left; the first
		 directory  shown is the current directory.  With the -l argu-
		 ment, produce an unabbreviated	printout; use of the  ~	 nota-
		 tion is suppressed.

       echo [ -n ] list
		 The words in list are written to the shell's standard output,
		 separated by SPACE characters.	 The output is terminated with
		 a NEWLINE unless the -n option	is used.

       eval  argument ...
		 Reads	the  arguments as input	to the shell, and executes the
		 resulting command(s).	This is	usually	used to	 execute  com-
		 mands	generated as the result	of command or variable substi-
		 tution, since parsing occurs before these substitutions.  See
		 tset(1) for an	example	of how to use eval.

       exec command
		 Execute  command  in place of the current shell, which	termi-

       exit [ (expr) ]
		 The shell exits, either with the value	of  the	 status	 vari-
		 able,	or  with  the value of the specified by	the expression

       fg % [ job ]
		 Bring the current or specified	job into the foreground.

       foreach var (wordlist)
       end	 The variable var  is  successively  set  to  each  member  of
		 wordlist.   The sequence of commands between this command and
		 the matching end is executed  for  each  new  value  of  var.
		 (Both foreach and end must appear alone on separate lines.)

		 The  built-in	command	 continue  may be used to continue the
		 loop prematurely and the built-in command break to  terminate
		 it prematurely.  When this command is read from the terminal,
		 the loop is read up once prompting with ?  before any	state-
		 ments in the loop are executed.

       glob wordlist
		 Perform  filename expansion on	wordlist.  Like	echo, but no \
		 escapes are recognized. Words are delimited by	 null  charac-
		 ters in the output.

       goto label
		 The specified label is	filename and command expanded to yield
		 a label.  The shell rewinds its input as much as possible and
		 searches  for	a line of the form label: possibly preceded by
		 SPACE or TAB characters.  Execution continues after the indi-
		 cated	line.	It  is an error	to jump	to a label that	occurs
		 between a while or for	built-in, and its corresponding	end.

       hashstat	 Print a statistics line indicating how	effective the internal
		 hash  table  has  been	at locating commands (and avoiding ex-
		 ecs).	An exec	is attempted for each component	 of  the  path
		 where the hash	function indicates a possible hit, and in each
		 component that	does not begin with a `/'.

       history [ -hr ] [ n ]
		 Display the history list; if n	is given, display only	the  n
		 most recent events.

		 -r	Reverse	 the order of printout to be most recent first
			rather than oldest first.
		 -h	Display	the  history  list  without  leading  numbers.
			This  is  used	to produce files suitable for sourcing
			using the -h option to source.

       if (expr) command
		 If the	specified expression evaluates	to  true,  the	single
		 command with arguments	is executed.  Variable substitution on
		 command happens early,	at the same time it does for the  rest
		 of  the  if command.  command must be a simple	command, not a
		 pipeline, a command list, or a	 parenthesized	command	 list.
		 Note: I/O redirection occurs even if expr is false, when com-
		 mand is not executed (this is a bug).

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then
       endif	 If expr is true, commands up to the first else	are  executed.
		 Otherwise, if expr2 is	true, the commands between the else if
		 and the second	else are executed.   Otherwise,	 commands  be-
		 tween	the  else  and	the endif are executed.	 Any number of
		 else if pairs are allowed, but	only one else.	Only one endif
		 is needed, but	it is required.	 The words else	and endif must
		 be the	first nonwhite characters on a line.  The if must  ap-
		 pear alone on its input line or after an else.)

       jobs[ -l	]
		 List the active jobs under job	control.

		 -l	List  process  IDs, in addition	to the normal informa-

       kill [ -sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l	 Send the TERM (terminate) signal, by default, or  the	signal
		 specified, to the specified process ID, the job indicated, or
		 the current job.  Signals are either given by	number	or  by
		 name.	There is no default.  Typing kill does not send	a sig-
		 nal to	the current job.  If the signal	 being	sent  is  TERM
		 (terminate)  or HUP (hangup), then the	job or process is sent
		 a CONT	(continue) signal as well.

		 -l	List the signal	names that can be sent.

       limit [ -h ] [ resource [ max-use ] ]
		 Limit the consumption by the current process or  any  process
		 it  spawns,  each  not	to exceed max-use on the specified re-
		 source.  If max-use is	omitted, print the current  limit;  if
		 resource is omitted, display all limits.

		 -h	Use  hard  limits instead of the current limits.  Hard
			limits impose a	ceiling	on the values of  the  current
			limits.	  Only	the super-user may raise the hard lim-

		 resource is one of:

			cputime	       Maximum CPU seconds per process.
			filesize       Largest single file allowed.
			datasize       Maximum data size (including stack) for
				       the process.
			stacksize      Maximum stack size for the process.
			coredumpsize   Maximum size of a core dump (file).
			descriptors    Maximum value for a file	descriptor.

		 max-use is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as fol-

			nh	       Hours (for cputime).
			nk	       n kilobytes.  This is the  default  for
				       all but cputime.
			nm	       n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).
			mm:ss	       Minutes and seconds (for	cputime).

       login [ username|-p ]
		 Terminate  a  login  shell  and invoke	login(1).  The .logout
		 file is not processed.	 If username is	omitted, login prompts
		 for the name of a user.

		 -p	Preserve the current environment (variables).

       logout	 Terminate a login shell.

       nice [ +n|-n ] [	command	]
		 Increment  the	 process  priority  value for the shell	or for
		 command by n.	The higher the priority	value, the  lower  the
		 priority  of  a process, and the slower it runs.  When	given,
		 command is always run in a  subshell,	and  the  restrictions
		 placed	 on  commands in simple	if commands apply.  If command
		 is omitted, nice increments the value for the current	shell.
		 If  no	increment is specified,	nice sets the nice value to 4.
		 The range of nice values is from -20 through 19.  Values of n
		 outside  this	range  set  the	 value to the lower, or	to the
		 higher	boundary, respectively.

		 +n	   Increment the process priority value	by n.
		 -n	   Decrement by	n.  This argument can be used only  by
			   the super-user.

       nohup [ command ]
		 Run  command  with  HUPs  ignored.  With no arguments,	ignore
		 HUPs throughout the remainder of a script.  When given,  com-
		 mand is always	run in a subshell, and the restrictions	placed
		 on commands in	simple if commands apply.  All	processes  de-
		 tached	with & are effectively nohup'd.

       notify [	%job ] ...
		 Notify	 the  user  asynchronously when	the status of the cur-
		 rent, or of specified jobs, changes.

       onintr [	- | label]
		 Control the action of the shell on interrupts.	 With no argu-
		 ments,	onintr restores	the default action of the shell	on in-
		 terrupts.  (The shell terminates shell	scripts	and returns to
		 the  terminal command input level).  With the - argument, the
		 shell ignores all interrupts.	With  a	 label	argument,  the
		 shell	executes a goto	label when an interrupt	is received or
		 a child process terminates because it was interrupted.

       popd [+n]
		 Pop the directory stack, and cds to the  new  top  directory.
		 The  elements	of  the	 directory  stack  are numbered	from 0
		 starting at the top.

		 +n	 Discard the n'th entry	in the stack.

       pushd [+n | dir]
		 Push a	directory onto the directory  stack.   With  no	 argu-
		 ments,	exchange the top two elements.

		 +n	Rotate	the  n'th entry	to the top of the stack	and cd
			to it.
		 dir	Push the current working directory onto	the stack  and
			change to dir.

       rehash	 Recompute the internal	hash table of the contents of directo-
		 ries listed in	the path variable to account for new  commands

       repeat count command
		 Repeat	command	count times command is subject to the same re-
		 strictions as with the	one-line if statement.

       set [var	[ = value ] ]
       set var[n] = word
		 With no arguments, set	displays the values of all shell vari-
		 ables.	  Multiword  values  are  displayed as a parenthesized
		 list.	With the var argument  alone,  set  assigns  an	 empty
		 (null)	value to the variable var.  With arguments of the form
		 var = value set assigns value to var, where value is one of:

			word	    A single word (or quoted string).
			(wordlist)  A space-separated list of  words  enclosed
				    in parentheses.

		 Values	 are  command  and  filename expanded before being as-
		 signed.  The form set var[n] =	word replaces the n'th word in
		 a multiword value with	word.

       setenv [	VAR [ word ] ]
		 With no arguments, setenv displays all	environment variables.
		 With the VAR argument sets the	environment  variable  VAR  to
		 have  an  empty  (null)  value.   (By convention, environment
		 variables are normally	given upper-case  names.)   With  both
		 VAR  and  word	arguments setenv sets the environment variable
		 NAME to the value word, which must be either a	single word or
		 a  quoted  string.   The most commonly	used environment vari-
		 ables,	USER, TERM, and	PATH, are  automatically  imported  to
		 and  exported	from  the  csh variables user, term, and path;
		 there is no need to use setenv	for these.  In	addition,  the
		 shell sets the	PWD environment	variable from the csh variable
		 cwd whenever the latter changes.

       shift [ variable	]
		 The components	of argv, or variable, if supplied, are shifted
		 to  the left, discarding the first component.	It is an error
		 for the variable not to be set, or to have a null value.

       source [	-h ] name
		 Reads commands	from name.  source commands may	be nested, but
		 if  they  are nested too deeply the shell may run out of file
		 descriptors.  An error	in a sourced file at any level	termi-
		 nates all nested source commands.

		 -h	 Place commands	from the file name on the history list
			 without executing them.

       stop [%job] ...
		 Stop the current or specified background job.

       suspend	 Stop the shell	in its tracks, much as if it had been  sent  a
		 stop  signal with ^Z.	This is	most often used	to stop	shells
		 started by su.

       switch (string)
       case label:
       endsw	 Each label is successively  matched,  against	the  specified
		 string,  which	 is  first command and filename	expanded.  The
		 file metacharacters *,	?  and [...]  may be used in the  case
		 labels,  which	 are variable expanded.	 If none of the	labels
		 match before a	"default" label	is found, execution begins af-
		 ter  the  default label.  Each	case statement and the default
		 statement must	appear at the beginning	of a line.   The  com-
		 mand  breaksw continues execution after the endsw.  Otherwise
		 control falls through subsequent case and default  statements
		 as with C.  If	no label matches and there is no default, exe-
		 cution	continues after	the endsw.

       time [ command ]
		 With no argument, print a summary of  time  used  by  this  C
		 shell	and  its  children.  With an optional command, execute
		 command and print a summary of	the time it uses.

       umask [ value ]
		 Display the file creation mask.  With value set the file cre-
		 ation	mask.	value is given in octal, and is	XORed with the
		 permissions of	666 for	files and 777 for directories  to  ar-
		 rive at the permissions for new files.	 Common	values include
		 002, giving complete access to	the group, and read  (and  di-
		 rectory  search)  access  to others, or 022, giving read (and
		 directory search) but not write permission to the  group  and

       unalias pattern
		 Discard  aliases  that	match (filename	substitution) pattern.
		 All aliases are removed by unalias *.

       unhash	 Disable the internal hash table.

       unlimit [ -h ] [	resource ]
		 Remove	a limitation on	resource.  If no  resource  is	speci-
		 fied, then all	resource limitations are removed.  See the de-
		 scription of the limit	 command  for  the  list  of  resource

		 -h	 Remove	 corresponding	hard  limits.  Only the	super-
			 user may do this.

       unset pattern
		 Remove	variables whose	names  match  (filename	 substitution)
		 pattern.   All	 variables  are	removed	by `unset *'; this has
		 noticeably distasteful	side-effects.

       unsetenv	variable
		 Remove	variable from the environment.	Pattern	 matching,  as
		 with unset is not performed.

       wait	 Wait  for background jobs to finish (or for an	interrupt) be-
		 fore prompting.

       while (expr)
       end	 While expr is true (evaluates to non-zero),  repeat  commands
		 between  the while and	the matching end statement.  break and
		 continue may be used to terminate or continue the loop	prema-
		 turely.   The	while and end must appear alone	on their input
		 lines.	 If the	shell's	input is a terminal,  it  prompts  for
		 commands  with	 a  question-mark until	the end	command	is en-
		 tered and then	performs the commands in the loop.

       %[ job ]	[ & ]
		 Bring the current or indicated	job to the  foreground.	  With
		 the ampersand,	continue running job in	the background.

       @ [ var =expr ]
       @ [ var[n] =expr	]
		 With  no  arguments,  display	the values for all shell vari-
		 ables.	 With arguments, the variable var, or the n'th word in
		 the  value  of	var, to	the value that expr evaluates to.  (If
		 [n] is	supplied, both var and its n'th	component must already

		 If  the expression contains the characters >, <, & or |, then
		 at least this part of expr must be placed within parentheses.

		 The operators *=, +=, etc., are available as in C.  The space
		 separating the	name from the assignment operator is optional.
		 Spaces	are, however, mandatory	in  separating	components  of
		 expr that would otherwise be single words.

		 Special  postfix  operators, ++ and --	increment or decrement
		 name, respectively.

   Environment Variables and Predefined	Shell Variables
       Unlike the standard shell, the C	shell maintains	a distinction  between
       environment variables, which are	automatically exported to processes it
       invokes,	and shell variables, which are not.  Both types	 of  variables
       are  treated similarly under variable substitution.  The	shell sets the
       variables argv, cwd, home, path,	prompt,	shell, and  status  upon  ini-
       tialization.   The  shell copies	the environment	variable USER into the
       shell variable user, TERM into term, and	HOME  into  home,  and	copies
       each  back  into	the respective environment variable whenever the shell
       variables are reset.  PATH and path are similarly  handled.   You  need
       only set	path once in the .cshrc	or .login file.	 The environment vari-
       able PWD	is set from cwd	whenever the latter  changes.	The  following
       shell variables have predefined meanings:

       argv		 Argument list.	 Contains the list of command line ar-
			 guments supplied to the  current  invocation  of  the
			 shell.	 This variable determines the value of the po-
			 sitional parameters $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath		 Contains a list of directories	to be searched by  the
			 cd,  chdir, and popd commands,	if the directory argu-
			 ment each accepts is not a subdirectory of  the  cur-
			 rent directory.

       cwd		 The full pathname of the current directory.

       echo		 Echo commands (after substitutions), just before exe-

       fignore		 A list	of filename suffixes to	ignore when attempting
			 filename completion.  Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec		 Enable	 filename completion, in which case the	CTRL-D
			 character CTRL-D) and the ESC character have  special
			 significance  when  typed in at the end of a terminal
			 input line:

			 EOT	Print a	list of	all filenames that start  with
				the preceding string.
			 ESC	Replace	 the preceding string with the longest
				unambiguous extension.

       hardpaths	 If set, pathnames in the directory stack are resolved
			 to contain no symbolic-link components.

       histchars	 A two-character string.  The first character replaces
			 !  as the history-substitution	character.  The	second
			 replaces the carat (^)	for quick substitutions.

       history		 The  number  of  lines	 saved in the history list.  A
			 very large number may use up all  of  the  C  shell's
			 memory.   If not set, the C shell saves only the most
			 recent	command.

       home		 The user's home directory.  The filename expansion of
			 ~ refers to the value of this variable.

       ignoreeof	 If  set,  the shell ignores EOF from terminals.  This
			 protects against accidentally killing a  C  shell  by
			 typing	a CTRL-D.

       mail		 A  list  of  files where the C	shell checks for mail.
			 If the	first word of the value	is a number, it	speci-
			 fies  a  mail checking	interval in seconds (default 5

       nobeep		 Suppress the bell during command completion when ask-
			 ing the C shell to extend an ambiguous	filename.

       noclobber	 Restrict  output  redirection	so that	existing files
			 are not destroyed by accident.	  >  redirections  can
			 only  be made to new files.  >> redirections can only
			 be made to existing files.

       noglob		 Inhibit filename substitution.	 This is  most	useful
			 in shell scripts once filenames (if any) are obtained
			 and no	further	expansion is desired.

       nonomatch	 Returns the  filename	substitution  pattern,	rather
			 than  an  error, if the pattern is not	matched.  Mal-
			 formed	patterns still result in errors.

       notify		 If set, the shell notifies you	 immediately  as  jobs
			 are  completed, rather	than waiting until just	before
			 issuing a prompt.

       path		 The list of directories in which to search  for  com-
			 mands.	  path	is  initialized	 from  the environment
			 variable PATH,	which the  C  shell  updates  whenever
			 path  changes.	 A null	word specifies the current di-
			 rectory.   The	 default  is  typically:  (.  /usr/ucb
			 /usr/bin).  If	path becomes unset only	full pathnames
			 will execute.	An interactive C shell	will  normally
			 hash  the  contents  of  the directories listed after
			 reading .cshrc, and whenever path is reset.   If  new
			 commands  are added, use the rehash command to	update
			 the table.

       prompt		 The string an interactive C shell prompts with.  Non-
			 interactive  shells  leave the	prompt variable	unset.
			 Aliases and other commands in the  .cshrc  file  that
			 are  only  useful  interactively, can be placed after
			 the following test: `if ($?prompt == 0) exit',	to re-
			 duce startup time for noninteractive shells.  A !  in
			 the prompt string is replaced by  the	current	 event
			 number.   The	default	 prompt	 is hostname% for mere
			 mortals, or hostname# for the super-user.

       savehist		 The number of lines from the history  list  that  are
			 saved	in  ~/.history	when the user logs out.	 Large
			 values	for savehist slow  down	 the  C	 shell	during

       shell		 The  file in which the	C shell	resides.  This is used
			 in forking shells to interpret	files that  have  exe-
			 cute  bits  set,  but	that are not executable	by the

       status		 The status returned by	the most recent	 command.   If
			 that  command terminated abnormally, 0200 is added to
			 the status.  Built-in commands	that fail return  exit
			 status	 1,  all other built-in	commands set status to

       time		 Control automatic timing of commands.	 Can  be  sup-
			 plied	with  one or two values.  The first is the re-
			 porting threshold in CPU seconds.  The	 second	 is  a
			 string	of tags	and text indicating which resources to
			 report	on.  A tag is a	percent	sign (%) followed by a
			 single	 upper-case letter (unrecognized tags print as

				%D     Average amount of unshared  data	 space
				       used in Kilobytes.
				%E     Elapsed	(wallclock)  time for the com-
				%F     Page faults.
				%I     Number of block input operations.
				%K     Average amount of unshared stack	 space
				       used in Kilobytes.
				%M     Maximum	real memory used during	execu-
				       tion of the process.
				%O     Number of block output operations.
				%P     Total CPU time -- U (user) plus S (sys-
				       tem)  --	as a percentage	of E (elapsed)
				%S     Number of seconds of CPU	time  consumed
				       by  the	kernel on behalf of the	user's
				%U     Number of seconds of CPU	 time  devoted
				       to the user's process.
				%W     Number of swaps.
				%X     Average amount of shared	memory used in

			 The default summary display outputs from the %U,  %S,
			 %E,  %P,  %X, %D, %I, %O, %F and %W tags, in that or-

       verbose		 Display each command after history substitution takes

       The  environment	 variables  LC_CTYPE, LANG, and	LC_default control the
       character classification	throughout all command	line  parsing.	 These
       variables  are  checked	in  the	 following  order: LC_CTYPE, LANG, and
       LC_default.  When a valid value is found, remaining  environment	 vari-
       ables  for  character  classification  are ignored.  For	example, a new
       setting for LANG	does not override the current valid character  classi-
       fication	 rules	of  LC_CTYPE.	When  none of the values is valid, the
       shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.

       ~/.cshrc		   Read	at beginning of	execution by each shell.
       ~/.login		   Read	by login shells	after .cshrc at	login.
       ~/.logout	   Read	by login shells	at logout.
       ~/.history	   Saved history for use at next login.
       /tmp/sh*		   Temporary file for `<<'.
       /etc/passwd	   Source of home directories for `~name'.

       login(1),  printenv(1),	 sh(1),	  tset(1),   access(2V),   execve(2V),
       fork(2V),   pipe(2V),   termio(4),  a.out(5),  environ(5V),  locale(5),
       ascii(7), iso_8859_1(7)

       You have	stopped	jobs.
	      You attempted to exit the	C shell	with stopped  jobs  under  job
	      control.	An immediate second attempt to exit will succeed, ter-
	      minating the stopped jobs.

       Words can be no longer than 1024	characters.  The system	 limits	 argu-
       ment lists to 1,048,576 characters.  However, the maximum number	of ar-
       guments to a command for	which  filename	 expansion  applies  is	 1706.
       Command substitutions may expand	to no more characters than are allowed
       in the argument list.  To detect	looping, the shell restricts the  num-
       ber of alias substitutions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from	a stop,	the shell prints the directory
       it started in if	this is	different from the current directory; this can
       be  misleading (that is,	wrong) as the job may have changed directories

       Shell built-in functions	are not	 stoppable/restartable.	  Command  se-
       quences	of  the	 form  a  ; b ;	c are also not handled gracefully when
       stopping	is attempted.  If you suspend b, the shell never  executes  c.
       This  is	 especially noticeable if the expansion	results	from an	alias.
       It can be avoided by placing the	sequence in parentheses	 to  force  it
       into a subshell.

       Control	over terminal output after processes are started is primitive;
       use the Sun Window system if you	need better output control.

       Multiline shell procedures should be provided, as  they	are  with  the
       standard	(Bourne) shell.

       Commands	within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed	in the history

       Control structures should be parsed rather  than	 being	recognized  as
       built-in	commands.  This	would allow control commands to	be placed any-
       where, to be combined with |, and to be used with & and ; metasyntax.

       It should be possible to	use the	: modifiers on the output  of  command
       substitutions.	There  are two problems	with : modifier	usage on vari-
       able substitutions: not all of the modifiers are	 available,  and  only
       one modifier per	substitution is	allowed.

       The  g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the first
       match in	each word, rather than all matches in all words.  The standard
       text editors consistently do the	latter when given the g	flag in	a sub-
       stitution command.

       Quoting conventions are confusing.  Overriding the escape character  to
       force  variable	substitutions within double quotes is counterintuitive
       and inconsistent	with the Bourne	shell.

       Symbolic	links can fool the shell.  Setting the hardpaths variable  al-
       leviates	this.

       `set  path'  should  remove duplicate pathnames from the	pathname list.
       These often occur because a shell script	or a .cshrc  file  does	 some-
       thing  like  `set  path=(/usr/local  /usr/hosts	$path)'	to ensure that
       the named directories are in the	pathname list.

       The only	way to direct the standard output  and	standard  error	 sepa-
       rately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

	      example% (command	> outfile) >& errorfile

       Although	 robust	 enough	 for general use, adventures into the esoteric
       periphery of the	C shell	may reveal unexpected quirks.

				2 October 1989				CSH(1)


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