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CS2CS(1)	General	Commands Manual	       CS2CS(1)

       cs2cs - cartographic coordinate system filter

       cs2cs [ -eEfIlrstvwW [ args ] ] [ +opts[=arg] ]
	     [ +to [+opts[=arg]] ] file[s]

       Cs2cs performs transformation between the source
       and destination cartographic  coordinate	 system
       on a set	of input points.  The coordinate system
       transformation can include  translation	between
       projected  and geographic coordinates as	well as
       the application of datum	shifts.

       The following control parameters	can  appear  in
       any order:

       -I     method  to  specify  inverse translation,
	      convert from +to coordinate system to the
	      primary coordinate system	defined.

       -ta    A	 specifies  a character	employed as the
	      first character to denote	a control  line
	      to  be passed through without processing.
	      This option  applicable  to  ascii  input
	      only.  (#	is the default value).

       -e string
	      String  is an arbitrary string to	be out-
	      put if an	error is detected  during  data
	      transformations.	 The  default value is:
	      *\t*.  Note that if the -b, -i or	-o  op-
	      tions  are employed, an error is returned
	      as HUGE_VAL value	for both return	values.

       -E     causes the input coordinates to be copied
	      to  the output line prior	to printing the
	      converted	values.

	      List projection identifiers with -l,  -lp
	      or  -lP  (expanded)  that	can be selected
	      with +proj.   -l=id  gives  expanded  de-
	      scription	 of projection id.  List ellip-
	      soid identifiers with -le,  that	can  be
	      selected	with +ellps, -lu list of carte-
	      sian to meter conversion factors that can
	      be  selected  with  +units or -ld	list of
	      datums that can be selected with +datum.

       -r     This options reverses the	 order	of  the
	      expected input from longitude-latitude or
	      x-y to latitude-longitude	or y-x.

       -s     This options reverses the	 order	of  the
	      output  from x-y or longitude-latitude to
	      y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -f format
	      Format is	a printf format	string to  con-
	      trol  the	form of	the output values.  For
	      inverse projections, the output  will  be
	      in  degrees when this option is employed.
	      If a format is specified for inverse pro-
	      jection  the output data will be in deci-
	      mal  degrees.   The  default  format   is
	      "%.2f" for forward projection and	DMS for

	      N	is the number of significant fractional
	      digits to	employ for seconds output (when
	      the option is not	specified, -w3	is  as-
	      sumed).	When  -W is employed the fields
	      will be constant width and  with	leading

       -v     causes  a	listing	of cartographic	control
	      parameters tested	for  and  used	by  the
	      program  to  be  printed	prior  to input

       The +args run-line arguments are	associated with
       cartographic  parameters	 and  usage varies with
       projection and for a  complete  description  see
       Cartographic  Projection	Procedures for the UNIX
       Environment--A User's Manual  and  supplementary
       documentation for Release 4.

       The cs2cs program requires two coordinate system
       definitions.  The first (or primary  is	defined
       based on	all projection parameters not appearing
       after the +to argument.	All projection	parame-
       ters  appearing	after the +to argument are con-
       sidered the definition of the second  coordinate
       system.	If there is no second coordinate system
       defined,	a geographic coordinate	system based on
       the datum and ellipsoid of the source coordinate
       system is assumed.  Note	 that  the  source  and
       destination  coordinate	system can both	be pro-
       jections, both be geographic, or	one of each and
       may have	the same or different datums.

       Additional  projection control parameters may be
       contained in two	auxiliary  control  files:  the
       first   is   optionally	 referenced   with  the
       +init=file:id and the second is always processed
       after the name of the projection	has been estab-
       lished from either the run-line or the  contents
       of   +init   file.   The	 environment  parameter
       PROJ_LIB	establishes the	default	directory for a
       file  reference	without	an absolute path.  This
       is also used for	 supporting  files  like  datum
       shift files.

       One  or	more  files (processed in left to right
       order) specify the source of data to  be	 trans-
       formed.	 A  - will specify the location	of pro-
       cessing standard	input.	If no files are	 speci-
       fied,  the  input  is  assumed to be from stdin.
       For input data the two data values  must	 be  in
       the  first  two white space separated fields and
       when both input and output are ASCII all	 trail-
       ing  portions  of the input line	are appended to
       the output line.

       Input geographic	data (longitude	 and  latitude)
       must be in DMS or decimal degrees format	and in-
       put cartesian data must be in  units  consistent
       with  the  ellipsoid major axis or sphere radius
       units.  Output geographic coordinates will  nor-
       mally be	in DMS format (use -f %.12f for	decimal
       degrees with 12 decimal places),	while projected
       (cartesian)  coordinates	 will be in linear (me-
       ter, feet) units.

       The following script
	     cs2cs +proj=latlong +datum=NAD83
		   +to +proj=utm +zone=10  +datum=NAD27
	    -r <<EOF
	     45d15'33.1"   111.5W
	     45d15.551666667N	-111d30
	     +45.25919444444	111d30'000w
       will  transform the input NAD83 geographic coor-
       dinates into NAD27 coordinates in the  UTM  pro-
       jection	with  zone 10 selected.	 The geographic
       values of this example are equivalent and  meant
       as  examples of various forms of	DMS input.  The
       x-y output data will appear as three lines of:
	     1402285.99	     5076292.42	0.000

       Cartographic Projection Procedures for the  UNIX
       Environment--A  User's  Manual,	(Evenden, 1990,
       Open-file report	90-284).
       Map Projections Used by	the  U.	 S.  Geological
       Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS Bulletin 1532).
       Map Projections--A Working Manual (Snyder, 1988,
       USGS Prof. Paper	1395).
       An Album	of Map Projections (Snyder  &  Voxland,
       1989, USGS Prof.	Paper 1453).

       A    list   of	known	bugs   can   found   at where new
       bug reports can be submitted too.


		  2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4	       CS2CS(1)


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