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CRASH(8)                OpenBSD System Manager's Manual               CRASH(8)

     crash - system failure and diagnosis

     This section explains what happens when the system crashes and (very
     briefly) how to analyze crash dumps.

     When the system crashes voluntarily it prints a message of the form

             panic: why i gave up the ghost

     on the console and enters the kernel debugger, ddb(4).  If the debugger
     command boot dump is entered, or if the debugger was not compiled into
     the kernel, or the debugger was disabled with sysctl(8), then the system
     dumps the contents of physical memory onto a mass storage peripheral de-
     vice.  The particular device used is determined by the `dumps on' direc-
     tive in the config(8) file used to build the kernel.

     After the dump has been written, the system then invokes the automatic
     reboot procedure as described in reboot(8).  If auto-reboot is disabled
     (in a machine dependent way) the system will simply halt at this point.

     Upon rebooting, and unless some unexpected inconsistency is encountered
     in the state of the file systems due to hardware or software failure, the
     system will copy the previously written dump into /var/crash using
     savecore(8), before resuming multi-user operations.

   Causes of system failure
     The system has a large number of internal consistency checks; if one of
     these fails, then it will panic with a very short message indicating
     which one failed.  In many instances, this will be the name of the rou-
     tine which detected the error, or a two-word description of the inconsis-
     tency.  A full understanding of most panic messages requires perusal of
     the source code for the system.

     The most common cause of system failures is hardware failure (e.g., bad
     memory) which can reflect itself in different ways.  Here are the mes-
     sages which are most likely, with some hints as to causes.  Left unstated
     in all cases is the possibility that a hardware or software error pro-
     duced the message in some unexpected way.

     no init
             This panic message indicates filesystem problems, and reboots are
             likely to be futile.  Late in the bootstrap procedure, the system
             was unable to locate and execute the initialization process,
             init(8).  The root filesystem is incorrect or has been corrupted,
             or the mode or type of /sbin/init forbids execution.

     trap type %d, code=%x, pc=%x
             A unexpected trap has occurred within the system; the trap types
             are machine dependent and can be found listed in

             The code is the referenced address, and the pc is the program
             counter at the time of the fault is printed.  Hardware flakiness
             will sometimes generate this panic, but if the cause is a kernel
             bug, the kernel debugger ddb(4) can be used to locate the in-
             struction and subroutine inside the kernel corresponding to the
             PC value.  If that is insufficient to suggest the nature of the
             problem, more detailed examination of the system status at the
             time of the trap usually can produce an explanation.

     init died
             The system initialization process has exited.  This is bad news,
             as no new users will then be able to log in.  Rebooting is the
             only fix, so the system just does it right away.

     out of mbufs: map full
             The network has exhausted its private page map for network
             buffers.  This usually indicates that buffers are being lost, and
             rather than allow the system to slowly degrade, it reboots imme-
             diately.  The map may be made larger if necessary.

     That completes the list of panic types you are likely to see.

   Analyzing a dump
     When the system crashes it writes (or at least attempts to write) an im-
     age of memory, including the kernel image, onto the dump device.  On re-
     boot, the kernel image and memory image are separated and preserved in
     the directory /var/crash.

     To analyze the kernel and memory images preserved as bsd.0 and
     bsd.0.core, you should run gdb(1), loading in the images with the follow-
     ing commands:

           # gdb
           GNU gdb 4.16.1
           Copyright 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
           GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
           welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
           Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
           There is absolutely no warranty for GDB.
           Type "show warranty" for details.
           This GDB was configured as "i386-unknown-openbsd2.8".
           (gdb) file /var/crash/bsd.0
           Reading symbols from /var/crash/bsd.0...(no debugging symbols found)...done.
           (gdb) target kcore /var/crash/bsd.0.core

     After this, you can use the where command to show trace of procedure
     calls that led to the crash.

     For custom-built kernels, it is helpful if you had previously configured
     your kernel to include debugging symbols with `makeoptions DEBUG=-ggdb'
     (see options(4)) (though you will not be able to boot an unstripped ker-
     nel since it uses too much memory).  In this case, you should use bsd.gdb
     instead of bsd.0, thus allowing gdb(1) to show symbolic names for ad-
     dresses and line numbers from the source.

     Analyzing saved system images is sometimes called post-mortem debugging.
     There are a class of analysis tools designed to work on both live systems
     and saved images, most of them are linked with the kvm(3) library and
     share option flags to specify the kernel and memory image.  These tools
     typically take the following flags:

     -N system
             Takes a kernel system image as an argument.  This is where the
             symbolic information is gotten from, which means the image cannot
             be stripped.  In some cases, using a bsd.gdb version of the ker-
             nel can assist even more.

     -M core
             Normally this core is an image produced by savecore(8) but it can
             be /dev/mem too, if you are looking at the live system.

     The following commands understand these options: fstat(1), netstat(1),
     nfsstat(1), ps(1), systat(1), w(1), dmesg(8), iostat(8), kgmon(8),
     pstat(8), slstats(8), trpt(8), vmstat(8) and many others.  There are ex-
     ceptions, however.  For instance, ipcs(1) has renamed the -M argument to
     be -C instead.

     Examples of use:

         # ps -N /var/crash/bsd.0 -M /var/crash/bsd.0.core -O paddr

     The -O paddr option prints each process' struct proc address, but with
     the value of KERNBASE masked off.  This is very useful information if you
     are analyzing process contexts in gdb(1).  You need to add back KERNBASE
     though, that value can be found in /usr/include/$ARCH/param.h.

         # vmstat -N /var/crash/bsd.0 -M /var/crash/bsd.0.core -m

     This analyzes memory allocations at the time of the crash.  Perhaps some
     resource was starving the system?

     The following example should make it easier for a novice kernel developer
     to find out where the kernel crashed.

     First, in ddb(4) find the function that caused the crash.  It is either
     the function at the top of the traceback or the function under the call
     to panic() or uvm_fault().

     The point of the crash usually looks something like this "func-

     Find the function in the sources, let's say that the function is in

     Go to the kernel build directory, i.e., /sys/arch/ARCH/compile/GENERIC.

     Do the following:

         # rm foo.o
         # make -n foo.o | sed 's,-c,-g -c,' | sh
         # objdump -S foo.o | less

     Find the function in the output.  The function will look something like

          0: 17 47 11 42         foo %x, bar, %y
          4: foo bar             allan %kaka
          8: XXXX                boink %bloyt

     The first number is the offset.  Find the offset that you got in the ddb
     trace (in this case it's 4711).

     When reporting data collected in this way, include ~20 lines before and
     ~10 lines after the offset from the objdump output in the crash report,
     as well as the output of ddb(4)'s "show registers" command.  It's impor-
     tant that the output from objdump includes at least two or three lines of
     C code.

     If you are sure you have found a reproducible software bug in the kernel,
     and need help in further diagnosis, or already have a fix, use sendbug(1)
     to send the developers a detailed description including the entire ses-
     sion from gdb(1).

     gdb(1), sendbug(1), ddb(4), reboot(8), savecore(8)

OpenBSD 3.4                    February 23, 2000                             3


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