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CPIO(1L)                                                              CPIO(1L)

NAME
       cpio - copy files to and from archives

SYNOPSIS
       cpio {-o|--create} [-0acvABLV] [-C bytes] [-H format] [-M message] [-O
       [[user@]host:]archive] [-F [[user@]host:]archive]
       [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--format=format] [--message=message]
       [--null] [--reset-access-time] [--verbose] [--dot] [--append] [--block-
       size=blocks] [--dereference] [--io-size=bytes] [--quiet]
       [--force-local] [--help] [--version] < name-list [> archive]

       cpio {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file] [-H format]
       [-M message] [-R [user][:.][group]] [-I [[user@]host:]archive] [-F
       [[user@]host:]archive] [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--make-
       directories] [--nonmatching] [--preserve-modification-time] [--numeric-
       uid-gid] [--rename] [--list] [--swap-bytes] [--swap] [--dot]
       [--unconditional] [--verbose] [--block-size=blocks] [--swap-halfwords]
       [--io-size=bytes] [--pattern-file=file] [--format=format]
       [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-owner] [--message=message]
       [--force-local] [--absolute-filenames] [--sparse] [--only-verify-crc]
       [--quiet] [--help] [--version] [pattern...] [< archive]

       cpio {-p|--pass-through} [-0adlmuvLV] [-R [user][:.][group]] [--null]
       [--reset-access-time] [--make-directories] [--link] [--quiet]
       [--preserve-modification-time] [--unconditional] [--verbose] [--dot]
       [--dereference] [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-owner]
       [--sparse] [--help] [--version] destination-directory < name-list

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the GNU version of cpio.  cpio copies files
       into or out of a cpio or tar archive, which is a file that contains
       other files plus information about them, such as their file name,
       owner, timestamps, and access permissions.  The archive can be another
       file on the disk, a magnetic tape, or a pipe.  cpio has three operating
       modes.

       In copy-out mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It reads a list
       of filenames, one per line, on the standard input, and writes the
       archive onto the standard output.  A typical way to generate the list
       of filenames is with the find command; you should give find the -d
       option to minimize problems with permissions on directories that are
       unwritable or not searchable.

       In copy-in mode, cpio copies files out of an archive or lists the
       archive contents.  It reads the archive from the standard input.  Any
       non-option command line arguments are shell globbing patterns; only
       files in the archive whose names match one or more of those patterns
       are copied from the archive.  Unlike in the shell, an initial `.' in a
       filename does match a wildcard at the start of a pattern, and a `/' in
       a filename can match wildcards.  If no patterns are given, all files
       are extracted.

       In copy-pass mode, cpio copies files from one directory tree to
       another, combining the copy-out and copy-in steps without actually
       using an archive.  It reads the list of files to copy from the standard
       input; the directory into which it will copy them is given as a non-
       option argument.

       cpio supports the following archive formats: binary, old ASCII, new
       ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old tar, and POSIX.1 tar.  The
       binary format is obsolete because it encodes information about the
       files in a way that is not portable between different machine
       architectures.  The old ASCII format is portable between different
       machine architectures, but should not be used on file systems with more
       than 65536 i-nodes.  The new ASCII format is portable between different
       machine architectures and can be used on any size file system, but is
       not supported by all versions of cpio; currently, it is only supported
       by GNU and Unix System V R4.  The crc format is like the new ASCII
       format, but also contains a checksum for each file which cpio
       calculates when creating an archive and verifies when the file is
       extracted from the archive.  The HPUX formats are provided for
       compatibility with HPUX's cpio which stores device files differently.

       The tar format is provided for compatibility with the tar program.  It
       can not be used to archive files with names longer than 100 characters,
       and can not be used to archive "special" (block or character devices)
       files.  The POSIX.1 tar format can not be used to archive files with
       names longer than 255 characters (less unless they have a "/" in just
       the right place).

       By default, cpio creates binary format archives, for compatibility with
       older cpio programs.  When extracting from archives, cpio automatically
       recognizes which kind of archive it is reading and can read archives
       created on machines with a different byte-order.

       Some of the options to cpio apply only to certain operating modes; see
       the SYNOPSIS section for a list of which options are allowed in which
       modes.

   OPTIONS
       -0, --null
              In copy-out and copy-pass modes, read a list of filenames
              terminated by a null character instead of a newline, so that
              files whose names contain newlines can be archived.  GNU find is
              one way to produce a list of null-terminated filenames.

       -a, --reset-access-time
              Reset the access times of files after reading them, so that it
              does not look like they have just been read.

       -A, --append
              Append to an existing archive.  Only works in copy-out mode.
              The archive must be a disk file specified with the -O or -F
              (--file) option.

       -b, --swap
              In copy-in mode, swap both halfwords of words and bytes of
              halfwords in the data.  Equivalent to -sS.  Use this option to
              convert 32-bit integers between big-endian and little-endian
              machines.

       -B     Set the I/O block size to 5120 bytes.  Initially the block size
              is 512 bytes.

       --block-size=BLOCK-SIZE
              Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512 bytes.

       -c     Use the old portable (ASCII) archive format.

       -C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE
              Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

       -d, --make-directories
              Create leading directories where needed.

       -E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE
              In copy-in mode, read additional patterns specifying filenames
              to extract or list from FILE.  The lines of FILE are treated as
              if they had been non-option arguments to cpio.

       -f, --nonmatching
              Only copy files that do not match any of the given patterns.

       -F, --file=archive
              Archive filename to use instead of standard input or output.  To
              use a tape drive on another machine as the archive, use a
              filename that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be
              preceded by a username and an `@' to access the remote tape
              drive as that user, if you have permission to do so (typically
              an entry in that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       --force-local
              With -F, -I, or -O, take the archive file name to be a local
              file even if it contains a colon, which would ordinarily
              indicate a remote host name.

       -H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
              Use archive format FORMAT.  The valid formats are listed below;
              the same names are also recognized in all-caps.  The default in
              copy-in mode is to automatically detect the archive format, and
              in copy-out mode is "bin".

              bin    The obsolete binary format.

              odc    The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

              newc   The new (SVR4) portable format, which supports file
                     systems having more than 65536 i-nodes.

              crc    The new (SVR4) portable format with a checksum added.

              tar    The old tar format.

              ustar  The POSIX.1 tar format.  Also recognizes GNU tar
                     archives, which are similar but not identical.

              hpbin  The obsolete binary format used by HPUX's cpio (which
                     stores device files differently).

              hpodc  The portable format used by HPUX's cpio (which stores
                     device files differently).

       -i, --extract
              Run in copy-in mode.

       -I archive
              Archive filename to use instead of standard input.  To use a
              tape drive on another machine as the archive, use a filename
              that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
              username and an `@' to access the remote tape drive as that
              user, if you have permission to do so (typically an entry in
              that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       -k     Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of cpio.

       -l, --link
              Link files instead of copying them, when possible (usable only
              with the -p option).

       -L, --dereference
              Dereference symbolic links (copy the files that they point to
              instead of copying the links).

       -m, --preserve-modification-time
              Retain previous file modification times when creating files.

       -M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE
              Print MESSAGE when the end of a volume of the backup media (such
              as a tape or a floppy disk) is reached, to prompt the user to
              insert a new volume.  If MESSAGE contains the string "%d", it is
              replaced by the current volume number (starting at 1).

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              In the verbose table of contents listing, show numeric UID and
              GID instead of translating them into names.

        --absolute-filenames
              Do not strip leading file name components that contain ".." and
              leading slashes from file names in copy-in mode

        --no-preserve-owner
              In copy-in mode and copy-pass mode, do not change the ownership
              of the files; leave them owned by the user extracting them.
              This is the default for non-root users, so that users on System
              V don't inadvertently give away files.

       -o, --create
              Run in copy-out mode.

       -O archive
              Archive filename to use instead of standard output.  To use a
              tape drive on another machine as the archive, use a filename
              that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
              username and an `@' to access the remote tape drive as that
              user, if you have permission to do so (typically an entry in
              that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

        --only-verify-crc
              When reading a CRC format archive in copy-in mode, only verify
              the CRC's of each file in the archive, don't actually extract
              the files.

       -p, --pass-through
              Run in copy-pass mode.

       --quiet
              Do not print the number of blocks copied.

       -r, --rename
              Interactively rename files.

       -R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]
              In copy-out and copy-pass modes, set the ownership of all files
              created to the specified user and/or group.  Either the user or
              the group, or both, must be present.  If the group is omitted
              but the ":" or "." separator is given, use the given user's
              login group.  Only the super-user can change files' ownership.

       --sparse
              In copy-out and copy-pass modes, write files with large blocks
              of zeros as sparse files.

       -s, --swap-bytes
              In copy-in mode, swap the bytes of each halfword (pair of bytes)
              in the files.

       -S, --swap-halfwords
              In copy-in mode, swap the halfwords of each word (4 bytes) in
              the files.

       -t, --list
              Print a table of contents of the input.

       -u, --unconditional
              Replace all files, without asking whether to replace existing
              newer files with older files.

       -v, --verbose
              List the files processed, or with -t, give an `ls -l' style
              table of contents listing.  In a verbose table of contents of a
              ustar archive, user and group names in the archive that do not
              exist on the local system are replaced by the names that
              correspond locally to the numeric UID and GID stored in the
              archive.

       -V --dot
              Print a "." for each file processed.

       --version
              Print the cpio program version number and exit.

                                                                      CPIO(1L)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION

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