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CORE(5)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       CORE(5)

NAME
       core - core dump	file

DESCRIPTION
       The  default  action of certain signals is to cause a process to	termi-
       nate and	produce	a core dump file, a disk file containing an  image  of
       the  process's  memory  at  the time of termination.  This image	can be
       used in a debugger (e.g., gdb(1)) to inspect the	state of  the  program
       at  the	time  that it terminated.  A list of the signals which cause a
       process to dump core can	be found in signal(7).

       A process can set its soft RLIMIT_CORE resource limit to	place an upper
       limit on	the size of the	core dump file that will be produced if	it re-
       ceives a	"core dump" signal; see	getrlimit(2) for details.

       There are various circumstances in which	a core dump file is  not  pro-
       duced:

       *  The  process	does  not have permission to write the core file.  (By
	  default, the core file is called core	or core.pid, where pid is  the
	  ID  of  the  process that dumped core, and is	created	in the current
	  working directory.  See below	for details on naming.)	  Writing  the
	  core file will fail if the directory in which	it is to be created is
	  nonwritable, or if a file with the  same  name  exists  and  is  not
	  writable or is not a regular file (e.g., it is a directory or	a sym-
	  bolic	link).

       *  A (writable, regular)	file with the same name	as would be  used  for
	  the  core  dump already exists, but there is more than one hard link
	  to that file.

       *  The filesystem where the core	dump file would	be created is full; or
	  has  run  out	 of  inodes;  or is mounted read-only; or the user has
	  reached their	quota for the filesystem.

       *  The directory	in which the core dump file is to be created does  not
	  exist.

       *  The  RLIMIT_CORE  (core  file	 size) or RLIMIT_FSIZE (file size) re-
	  source limits	for the	process	are set	to zero; see getrlimit(2)  and
	  the documentation of the shell's ulimit command (limit in csh(1)).

       *  The  binary being executed by	the process does not have read permis-
	  sion enabled.

       *  The process is executing a set-user-ID (set-group-ID)	 program  that
	  is  owned  by	 a user	(group)	other than the real user (group) ID of
	  the  process.	  (However,  see  the  description  of	the   prctl(2)
	  PR_SET_DUMPABLE    operation,	   and	  the	description   of   the
	  /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable file in proc(5).)

       *  (Since Linux 3.7) The	kernel was configured without the CONFIG_CORE-
	  DUMP option.

       In  addition,  a	core dump may exclude part of the address space	of the
       process if the madvise(2) MADV_DONTDUMP flag was	employed.

   Naming of core dump files
       By default, a core dump file is	named  core,  but  the	/proc/sys/ker-
       nel/core_pattern	file (since Linux 2.6 and 2.4.21) can be set to	define
       a template that is used to name core dump files.	 The template can con-
       tain  % specifiers which	are substituted	by the following values	when a
       core file is created:

	   %%  a single	% character
	   %c  core file size soft resource limit of crashing  process	(since
	       Linux 2.6.24)
	   %d  dump  mode--same	 as value returned by prctl(2) PR_GET_DUMPABLE
	       (since Linux 3.7)
	   %e  executable filename (without path prefix)
	   %E  pathname	of executable, with slashes ('/') replaced by exclama-
	       tion marks ('!')	(since Linux 3.0).
	   %g  (numeric) real GID of dumped process
	   %h  hostname	(same as nodename returned by uname(2))
	   %p  PID  of	dumped	process, as seen in the	PID namespace in which
	       the process resides
	   %P  PID of dumped process, as seen in  the  initial	PID  namespace
	       (since Linux 3.12)
	   %s  number of signal	causing	dump
	   %t  time  of	dump, expressed	as seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01
	       00:00:00	+0000 (UTC)
	   %u  (numeric) real UID of dumped process

       A single	% at the end of	the template is	dropped	from  the  core	 file-
       name, as	is the combination of a	% followed by any character other than
       those listed above.  All	other characters in the	template become	a lit-
       eral  part  of the core filename.  The template may include '/' charac-
       ters, which are interpreted as delimiters  for  directory  names.   The
       maximum	size  of the resulting core filename is	128 bytes (64 bytes in
       kernels before 2.6.19).	The default value in this file is "core".  For
       backward	 compatibility,	 if /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern does not in-
       clude "%p" and /proc/sys/kernel/core_uses_pid (see below)  is  nonzero,
       then .PID will be appended to the core filename.

       Since  version  2.4, Linux has also provided a more primitive method of
       controlling the name of the core	 dump  file.   If  the	/proc/sys/ker-
       nel/core_uses_pid  file	contains the value 0, then a core dump file is
       simply named core.  If this file	contains a  nonzero  value,  then  the
       core dump file includes the process ID in a name	of the form core.PID.

       Since  Linux  3.6,  if  /proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable  is set to 2 ("suid-
       safe"), the pattern must	be either an absolute pathname (starting  with
       a leading '/' character)	or a pipe, as defined below.

   Piping core dumps to	a program
       Since  kernel  2.6.19,  Linux  supports	an  alternate  syntax  for the
       /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern file.  If the  first  character  of  this
       file  is	 a  pipe  symbol (|), then the remainder of the	line is	inter-
       preted as a program to be executed.  Instead of being written to	a disk
       file,  the  core	 dump is given as standard input to the	program.  Note
       the following points:

       *  The program must be specified	using an absolute pathname (or a path-
	  name relative	to the root directory, /), and must immediately	follow
	  the '|' character.

       *  The process created to run the program runs as user and group	root.

       *  Command-line arguments can be	supplied to the	program	 (since	 Linux
	  2.6.24),  delimited by white space (up to a total line length	of 128
	  bytes).

       *  The command-line arguments can  include  any	of  the	 %  specifiers
	  listed  above.   For example,	to pass	the PID	of the process that is
	  being	dumped,	specify	%p in an argument.

   Controlling which mappings are written to the core dump
       Since kernel 2.6.23, the	Linux-specific /proc/PID/coredump_filter  file
       can  be	used  to control which memory segments are written to the core
       dump file in the	event that a core dump is performed  for  the  process
       with the	corresponding process ID.

       The  value  in  the  file  is  a	 bit mask of memory mapping types (see
       mmap(2)).  If a bit is set in the mask, then  memory  mappings  of  the
       corresponding type are dumped; otherwise	they are not dumped.  The bits
       in this file have the following meanings:

	   bit 0  Dump anonymous private mappings.
	   bit 1  Dump anonymous shared	mappings.
	   bit 2  Dump file-backed private mappings.
	   bit 3  Dump file-backed shared mappings.
	   bit 4 (since	Linux 2.6.24)
		  Dump ELF headers.
	   bit 5 (since	Linux 2.6.28)
		  Dump private huge pages.
	   bit 6 (since	Linux 2.6.28)
		  Dump shared huge pages.

       By default,  the	 following  bits  are  set:  0,	 1,  4	(if  the  CON-
       FIG_CORE_DUMP_DEFAULT_ELF_HEADERS  kernel  configuration	 option	is en-
       abled), and 5.  The value of this file  is  displayed  in  hexadecimal.
       (The default value is thus displayed as 33.)

       Memory-mapped I/O pages such as frame buffer are	never dumped, and vir-
       tual DSO	pages are always dumped,  regardless  of  the  coredump_filter
       value.

       A child process created via fork(2) inherits its	parent's coredump_fil-
       ter value; the coredump_filter value is preserved across	an execve(2).

       It can be useful	to set coredump_filter in the parent shell before run-
       ning a program, for example:

	   $ echo 0x7 >	/proc/self/coredump_filter
	   $ ./some_program

       This  file  is  provided	 only  if  the	kernel was built with the CON-
       FIG_ELF_CORE configuration option.

NOTES
       The gdb(1) gcore	command	can be used to obtain a	core dump of a running
       process.

       In  Linux  versions  up	to  and	 including  2.6.27, if a multithreaded
       process (or, more precisely, a process that shares its memory with  an-
       other  process  by  being  created  with	the CLONE_VM flag of clone(2))
       dumps core, then	the process ID is always appended to  the  core	 file-
       name, unless the	process	ID was already included	elsewhere in the file-
       name via	a %p specification in /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern.  (This is
       primarily  useful  when employing the obsolete LinuxThreads implementa-
       tion, where each	thread of a process has	a different PID.)

EXAMPLE
       The program below can be	used to	demonstrate the	use of the pipe	syntax
       in the /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern file.  The following shell session
       demonstrates the	use of this program (compiled to create	an  executable
       named core_pattern_pipe_test):

	   $ cc	-o core_pattern_pipe_test core_pattern_pipe_test.c
	   $ su
	   Password:
	   # echo "|$PWD/core_pattern_pipe_test	%p UID=%u GID=%g sig=%s" > \
	       /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern
	   # exit
	   $ sleep 100
	   ^\			  # type control-backslash
	   Quit	(core dumped)
	   $ cat core.info
	   argc=5
	   argc[0]=</home/mtk/core_pattern_pipe_test>
	   argc[1]=<20575>
	   argc[2]=<UID=1000>
	   argc[3]=<GID=100>
	   argc[4]=<sig=3>
	   Total bytes in core dump: 282624

   Program source

       /* core_pattern_pipe_test.c */

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include	<sys/stat.h>
       #include	<fcntl.h>
       #include	<limits.h>
       #include	<stdio.h>
       #include	<stdlib.h>
       #include	<unistd.h>

       #define BUF_SIZE	1024

       int
       main(int	argc, char *argv[])
       {
	   int tot, j;
	   ssize_t nread;
	   char	buf[BUF_SIZE];
	   FILE	*fp;
	   char	cwd[PATH_MAX];

	   /* Change our current working directory to that of the
	      crashing process */

	   snprintf(cwd, PATH_MAX, "/proc/%s/cwd", argv[1]);
	   chdir(cwd);

	   /* Write output to file "core.info" in that directory */

	   fp =	fopen("core.info", "w+");
	   if (fp == NULL)
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

	   /* Display command-line arguments given to core_pattern
	      pipe program */

	   fprintf(fp, "argc=%d\n", argc);
	   for (j = 0; j < argc; j++)
	       fprintf(fp, "argc[%d]=<%s>\n", j, argv[j]);

	   /* Count bytes in standard input (the core dump) */

	   tot = 0;
	   while ((nread = read(STDIN_FILENO, buf, BUF_SIZE)) >	0)
	       tot += nread;
	   fprintf(fp, "Total bytes in core dump: %d\n", tot);

	   fclose(fp);
	   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       bash(1),	gdb(1),	getrlimit(2), mmap(2), prctl(2), sigaction(2), elf(5),
       proc(5),	pthreads(7), signal(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.74 of the	Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest	 version    of	  this	  page,	   can	   be	  found	    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2014-08-19			       CORE(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

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