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COPYTAPE(1)		    General Commands Manual		   COPYTAPE(1)

       copytape	- duplicate magtapes

       copytape	f] t] snnn] lnnn] v] ]

       copytape	 duplicates  magtapes.	 It  is	 intended  for	duplication of
       bootable	or other non-file-structured (non-tar-structured) magtapes  on
       systems	with  only one tape drive.  copytape is	blissfully ignorant of
       tape formats.  It merely	makes a	bit-for-bit copy of its	input.

       In normal use, copytape would be	run twice.   First,  a	boot  tape  is
       copied  to  an intermediate disk	file.  The file	is in a	special	format
       that preserves the record boundaries and	tape  marks.   On  the	second
       run,  copytape  reads  this  file and generates a new tape.  The	second
       step may	be repeated if multiple	 copies	 are  required.	  The  typical
       process would look like this:

	    tutorial% copytape /dev/rmt8 tape.tmp
	    tutorial% copytape tape.tmp	/dev/rmt8
	    tutorial% rm tape.tmp

       copytape	 copies	from the standard input	to the standard	output,	unless
       input and output	arguments are provided.	 It will automatically	deter-
       mine  whether  its  input and output are	physical tapes,	or data	files.
       Data files are encoded in a special (human-readable) format.

       Since copytape will automatically determine what	sort of	thing its  in-
       put  and	 output	 are,  a twin-drive system can duplicate a tape	in one
       pass.  The command would	be
	    tutorial% copytape /dev/rmt8 /dev/rmt9

	  Skip tape marks.  The	specified number of tape marks are skipped  on
	  the  input  tape,  before  the  copy begins.	By default, nothing is
	  skipped, resulting in	a copy of the complete input  tape.   Multiple
	  tar(1)  and dump(1) archives on a single tape	are normally separated
	  by a single tape mark.  On ANSI or IBM labelled tapes, each file has
	  three	associated tape	marks.	Count carefully.

	  Limit.   Only	nnn files (data	followed by a tape mark), at most, are
	  copied.  This	can be used to terminate a copy	early.	 If  the  skip
	  option is also specified, the	files skipped do not count against the

       -f From tape.  The input	is treated as though it	were a physical	 tape,
	  even	if  it is a data file.	This option can	be used	to copy	block-
	  structured device files other	than magtapes.

       -t To tape.  The	output is treated as though it were a  physical	 tape,
	  even	if it is a data	file.  Normally, data files mark physical tape
	  blocks with a	(human-readable) header	describing the block.  If  the
	  -t  option  is  used	when the output	is actually a disk file, these
	  headers will not be written.	This will extract all the  information
	  from the tape, but copytape will not be able to duplicate the	origi-
	  nal tape based on the	resulting data file.

       -v Verbose.  copytape does not normally produce any output on the  con-
	  trol	terminal.  The verbose option will identify the	input and out-
	  put files, tell whether they are physical tapes or data  files,  and
	  announce  the	 size of each block copied.  This can produce a	lot of
	  output on even relatively short tapes.  It is	 intended  mostly  for
	  diagnostic work.


       ansitape(1), dd(1), tar(1), mtio(4), copytape(5)

       David  S.  Hayes, Site Manager, US Army Artificial Intelligence Center.
       Originally developed September 1984 at  Rensselaer  Polytechnic	Insti-
       tute, Troy, New York.  Revised July 1986.  This software	is in the pub-
       lic domain.

       copytape	treats two successive file marks as logical end-of-tape.

       The intermediate	data file can consume huge amounts of disk  space.   A
       2400-foot  reel	at  6250-bpi  can  burn	 140  megabytes.   This	is not
       strictly	speaking a bug,	but users should be aware of the  possibility.
       Check disk space	with df(1) before starting copytape.  Caveat Emptor!

       A  256K	buffer is used internally.  This limits	the maximum block size
       of the input tape.

				 25 June 1986			   COPYTAPE(1)


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