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convert(1)		    General Commands Manual		    convert(1)


	      convert -	convert	an image or sequence of	images

       convert [ options ... ] input_file output_file

       Convert converts	an input file using one	image format to	an output file
       with a differing	image format. In addition, various types of image pro-
       cessing	can  be	performed on the converted image during	the conversion
       process.	Convert	recognizes the image formats listed in ImageMagick(1).

       To make a thumbnail of a	JPEG image, use:

	   convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
		   +profile '*'	thumbnail.jpg

       In this example,	"-size 120x120"	gives a	hint to	the JPEG decoder  that
       the  image  is  going  to  be downscaled	to 120x120, allowing it	to run
       faster by avoiding returning a  full-resolution	image.	 The  "-resize
       120x120"	specifies the desired dimensions of the	output image.  It will
       be scaled so its	largest	dimension is 120 pixels.  The  "+profile  '*'"
       removes any ICM,	EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in
       the input and aren't needed in the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to	a SUN raster image, use:

	   convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to  individual  FAX	pages,

	   convert -monochrome fax:page

       To  convert  a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image	in the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

	   convert -page A4+0+0	image.tiff

       To convert a raw	Gray image with	 a  128	 byte  header  to  a  portable
       graymap,	use:

	   convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw

       To convert a Photo CD image to a	TIFF image, use:

	   convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
	   convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff

       To create a visual image	directory of all your JPEG images, use:

	   convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff

       To  annotate  an	 image	with  blue  text  using	font 12x24 at position
       (100,100), use:

	   convert -font helvetica -fill blue
		   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
		   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with	bumps use:

	   convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg	tiled.png

       To surround an icon with	an ornamental border to	 use  with  Mosaic(1),

	   convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame	6x6 bird.jpg

       To create a MNG animation from a	DNA molecule sequence, use:

	   convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng

       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect for the set of images	that  follows,
       until  the  set is terminated by	the appearance of any option or	-noop.
       Some options only affect	the decoding of	images and others only the en-
       coding.	The latter can appear after the	final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see ImageMagick(1).

	      join images into a single	multi-image file

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

	      remove pixel aliasing

	      append a set of images

	      average a	set of images

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -blur _radius_x_sigma_
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -box _color_
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -cache _threshold_
	      megabytes	of memory available to the pixel cache

       -channel	_type_
	      the type of channel

       -charcoal _factor_
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the	clipping path, if one is present

	      merge a sequence of images

       -colorize _value_
	      colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle _amount_
	      displace image colormap by amount

       -debug enable debug printout

	      break down an image sequence into	constituent parts

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

	      emboss an	image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the font encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output	image

	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

	      perform histogram	equalization to	the image

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

	      flatten a	sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz _distance_{%}
	      colors within this distance are considered equal

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -gaussian _radius_x_sigma_
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@} {!}{_}{_}
	      preferred	size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode	_factor_
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -intent _type_
	      use this type of rendering intent	when managing the image	color

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -level _value_
	      adjust the level of image	contrast

       -list _type_
	      the type of list

       -loop _iterations_
	      add Netscape loop	extension to your GIF animation

       -map _filename_
	      choose a particular set of colors	from this image

       -mask _filename_
	      Specify a	clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -median _radius_
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate _value_
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

	      transform	the image to black and white

       -morph _frames_
	      morphs an	image sequence

	      create a mosaic from an image sequence

	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise _radius|type_
	      add or reduce noise in an	image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

	      transform	image to span the full range of	color values

       -opaque _color_
	      change this color	to the pen color within	the image

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -paint _radius_
	      simulate an oil painting

       -pen _color_
	      specify the pen color for	drawing	operations

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the Postscript, OPTION1, or TrueType	font

       -preview	_type_
	      image preview type

       -process	_command_
	      process a	sequence of images

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression	level

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

       -region _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      apply options to a portion of the	image

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      apply Paeth image	rotation to the	image

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image with pixel sampling

       -sampling_factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      sampling	factors	 used  by  JPEG	 or MPEG-2 encoder and YUV de-

       -scale _geometry_
	      scale the	image.

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -seed _value_
	      pseudo-random number generator seed value

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

       -shade _azimuth_x_elevation_
	      shade the	image using a distant light source

       -sharpen	_radius_x_sigma_
	      sharpen the image

       -shave _width_x_height_
	      shave pixels from	the image edges

       -shear _x degrees_x_y degrees_
	      shear the	image along the	X or Y axis

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -solarize _factor_
	      negate all pixels	above the threshold level

       -spread _amount_
	      displace image pixels by a random	amount

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

       -swirl _degrees_
	      swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold _value_
	      threshold	the image

       -tile _filename_
	      tile image when filling a	graphic	primitive

	      transform	the image

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -units _type_
	      the type of image	resolution

       -unsharp	_radius_x_sigma_
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

	      use the pixmap

	      print detailed information about the image

       -view _string_
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -wave _amplitude_x_wavelength_
	      alter an image along a sine wave

       -write _filename_
	      write  an	image sequence [convert, composite]

	      For a more detailed  description	of  each  option,  see	Image-

       Use  -segment  to  segment  an image by analyzing the histograms	of the
       color components	and identifying	units that are	homogeneous  with  the
       fuzzy c-means technique.	The scale-space	filter analyzes	the histograms
       of the three color components of	the image  and	identifies  a  set  of
       classes.	 The extents of	each class is used to coarsely segment the im-
       age with	thresholding.  The color associated with each class is	deter-
       mined  by the mean color	of all pixels within the extents of a particu-
       lar class. Finally, any unclassified pixels are assigned	to the closest
       class with the fuzzy c-means technique.

       The fuzzy c-Means algorithm can be summarized as	follows:

       Build a histogram, one for each color component of the image.

       For each	histogram, successively	apply the scale-space filter and build
       an interval tree	of zero	crossings in the  second  derivative  at  each
       scale.  Analyze this scale-space	"fingerprint" to determine which peaks
       or valleys in the histogram are most predominant.

       The fingerprint defines intervals on the	axis of	 the  histogram.  Each
       interval	 contains  either a minima or a	maxima in the original signal.
       If each color component lies within the maxima interval,	that pixel  is
       considered "classified" and is assigned an unique class number.

       Any pixel that fails to be classified in	the above thresholding pass is
       classified using	the fuzzy c-Means technique. It	is assigned to one  of
       the classes discovered in the histogram analysis	phase.

       The  fuzzy c-Means technique attempts to	cluster	a pixel	by finding the
       local minima of the generalized within group sum	of squared  error  ob-
       jective function. A pixel is assigned to	the closest class of which the
       fuzzy membership	has a maximum value.

       For additional information see: <bq>Young Won Lim, Sang	Uk  Lee,  ``On
       The  Color  Image  Segmentation Algorithm Based on the Thresholding and
       the Fuzzy c-Means Techniques'', Pattern Recognition, Volume 23,	Number
       9, pages	935-952, 1990.</bq>

	      To get the default host, display number, and screen.

       display(1),  animate(1),	 identify(1),  ImageMagick(1), montage(1), mo-
       grify(1), composite(1)

       Copyright (C) 2002 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to	any person obtaining a
       copy  of	 this  software	 and  associated  documentation	files ("Image-
       Magick"), to deal in ImageMagick	without	restriction, including without
       limitation the rights to	use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to permit persons to
       whom  the  ImageMagick  is furnished to do so, subject to the following

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
       in all copies or	substantial portions of	ImageMagick.

       The software is provided	"as is", without warranty of any kind, express
       or implied, including  but  not	limited	 to  the  warranties  of  mer-
       chantability,  fitness  for a particular	purpose	and noninfringement.In
       no event	shall ImageMagick Studio be liable for any claim,  damages  or
       other  liability,  whether in an	action of contract, tort or otherwise,
       arising from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick or  the  use  or
       other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except  as contained in this notice, the	name of	the ImageMagick	Studio
       LLC shall not be	used in	advertising or otherwise to promote the	 sale,
       use  or	other dealings in ImageMagick without prior written authoriza-
       tion from the ImageMagick Studio.

	John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio	LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick		   Date: 2002/02/15 01:00:00		    convert(1)


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