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convert(1)		    General Commands Manual		    convert(1)

       CONVERT

NAME
       convert - convert an image or sequence of images

SYNOPSIS
       convert [ options ... ] input_file output_file

DESCRIPTION
       Convert converts	an input file using one	image format to	an output file
       with a differing	image format. In addition, various types of image pro-
       cessing	can  be	performed on the converted image during	the conversion
       process.	Convert	recognizes the image formats listed in ImageMagick(1).

EXAMPLES
       To make a thumbnail of a	JPEG image, use:

	   convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
		   +profile "*"	thumbnail.jpg

       In this example,	'-size 120x120'	gives a	hint to	the JPEG decoder  that
       the  image  is  going  to  be downscaled	to 120x120, allowing it	to run
       faster by avoiding returning full-resolution images to ImageMagick  for
       the subsequent resizing operation.  The '-resize	120x120' specifies the
       desired dimensions of the output	image.	 It  will  be  scaled  so  its
       largest	dimension  is 120 pixels.  The '+profile "*"' removes any ICM,
       EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might	be present in  the  input  and
       aren't needed in	the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to	a SUN raster image, use:

	   convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To  convert  a  multi-page PostScript document to individual FAX	pages,
       use:

	   convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page

       To convert a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the	image  in  the
       lower left-hand corner, use:

	   convert -page A4+0+0	image.tiff document.ps

       To  convert  a  raw  Gray  image	 with  a 128 byte header to a portable
       graymap,	use:

	   convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
		   image.pgm

       In this example,	"raw" is the input file.  Its format is	"gray" and  it
       has  the	 dimensions  and number	of header bytes	specified by the -size
       option and the sample depth specified by	the -depth option.  The	output
       file is "image.pgm".  The suffix	".pgm" specifies its format.

       To convert a Photo CD image to a	TIFF image, use:

	   convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
	   convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff

       To create a visual image	directory of all your JPEG images, use:

	   convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff

       To  annotate  an	 image	with  blue  text  using	font 12x24 at position
       (100,100), use:

	   convert -font helvetica -fill blue
		   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
		   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with	bumps use:

	   convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg	tiled.png

       To surround an icon with	an ornamental border to	 use  with  Mosaic(1),
       use:

	   convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame	6x6 bird.jpg
		   icon.png

       To create a MNG animation from a	DNA molecule sequence, use:

	   convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng

OPTIONS
       Options	are processed in command line order. Any option	you specify on
       the command line	remains	in effect for the set of images	that  follows,
       until  the  set is terminated by	the appearance of any option or	-noop.
       Some options only affect	the decoding of	images and others only the en-
       coding.	The latter can appear after the	final group of input images.

       For  a  more  detailed  description of each option, see Options,	above.
       ImageMagick(1).

       -adjoin
	      join images into a single	multi-image file

       -affine _matrix_
	      drawing transform	matrix

       -antialias
	      remove pixel aliasing

       -append
	      append a set of images

       -authenticate _string_
	      decrypt image with this password

       -average
	      average a	set of images

       -background _color_
	      the background color

       -blue-primary _x_,_y_
	      blue chromaticity	primary	point

       -blur _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border _width_x_height_
	      surround the image with a	border of color

       -bordercolor _color_
	      the border color

       -box _color_
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -cache _threshold_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -limit option)

       -channel	_type_
	      the type of channel

       -charcoal _factor_
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the	clipping path, if one is present

       -coalesce
	      merge a sequence of images

       -colorize _value_
	      colorize the image with the fill color

       -colors _value_
	      preferred	number of colors in the	image

       -colorspace _value_
	      the type of colorspace

       -combine
	      combine one or more images into a	single image

       -comment	_string_
	      annotate an image	with a comment

       -compose	_operator_
	      the type of image	composition

       -compress _type_
	      the type of image	compression

       -contrast
	      enhance or reduce	the image contrast

       -convolve _kernel_
	      convolve image with the specified	convolution kernel

       -crop _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}
	      preferred	size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle _amount_
	      displace image colormap by amount

       -debug _events_
	      enable debug printout

       -deconstruct
	      break down an image sequence into	constituent parts

       -define _key_{=_value_},...
	      add coder/decoder	specific options

       -delay _1/100ths	of a second_
	      display the next image after pausing

       -delete _index_
	      delete the image from the	image sequence

       -density	_width_x_height_
	      horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth _value_
	      depth of the image

       -despeckle
	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display	_host:display[.screen]_
	      specifies	the X server to	contact

       -dispose	_method_
	      GIF disposal method

       -dither
	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw _string_
	      annotate an image	with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge _radius_
	      detect edges within an image

       -emboss _radius_
	      emboss an	image

       -encoding _type_
	      specify the text encoding

       -endian _type_
	      specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of the image

       -enhance
	      apply a digital filter to	enhance	a noisy	image

       -equalize
	      perform histogram	equalization to	the image

       -evaluate _operator_ _constant_
	      evaluate an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression

       -fill _color_
	      color to use when	filling	a graphic primitive

       -filter _type_
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flatten
	      flatten a	sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font _name_
	      use this font when annotating the	image with text

       -frame _width_x_height_+_outer bevel width_+_inner bevel	width_
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz _distance_{%}
	      colors within this distance are considered equal

       -fx _expression_
	      apply a mathematical expression an image or image	channels

       -gamma _value_
	      level of gamma correction

       -Gaussian _radius_{x_sigma_}
	      blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{@} {!}{_}{_}
	      preferred	size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity	_type_
	      direction	primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -green-primary _x_,_y_
	      green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode	_factor_
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -insert _index_
	      insert last image	into the image sequence

       -intent _type_
	      use this type of rendering intent	when managing the image	color

       -interlace _type_
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label _name_
	      assign a label to	an image

       -lat _width_x_height_{+-}_offset_{%}
	      perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level _black_point_{%}{,_white_point_}{%}{,_gamma_}
	      adjust the level of image	contrast

       -limit _type_ _value_
	      Area, Disk, File,	Map, or	Memory resource	limit

       -list _type_
	      the type of list

       -log _string_
	      Specify format for debug log

       -loop _iterations_
	      add Netscape loop	extension to your GIF animation

       -map _filename_
	      choose a particular set of colors	from this image

       -mask _filename_
	      Specify a	clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor _color_
	      specify the color	to be used with	the -frame option

       -median _radius_
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate _value_
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

       -monochrome
	      transform	the image to black and white

       -morph _frames_
	      morphs an	image sequence

       -mosaic
	      create a mosaic from an image or an image	sequence

       -negate
	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise _radius|type_
	      add or reduce noise in an	image

       -normalize
	      transform	image to span the full range of	color values

       -opaque _color_
	      change this color	to the fill color within the image

       -page _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas

       -paint _radius_
	      simulate an oil painting

       -pen _color_
	      (This option has been replaced by	the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize _value_
	      pointsize	of the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType	font

       -posterize _levels_
	      reduce the image to a limited number of color levels

       -preview	_type_
	      image preview type

       -process	_command_
	      process a	sequence of images using a process module

       -profile	_filename_
	      add ICM, IPTC, or	generic	profile	 to image

       -quality	_value_
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression	level

       -radial-blur angle
	      radial blur the image

       -raise _width_x_height_
	      lighten or darken	image edges

       -red-primary _x_,_y_
	      red chromaticity primary point

       -region _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      apply options to a portion of the	image

       -render
	      render vector operations

       -repage _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}{!}{_}{_}
	      size and location	of an image canvas.  This option is like -page
	      but act as an image operator rather than a setting.

       -resample _horizontal_x_vertical_
	      Resample image to	specified horizontal and vertical resolution

       -resize _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      resize an	image

       -roll {+-}_x_{+-}_y_
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate _degrees_{_}{_}
	      apply Paeth image	rotation to the	image

       -sample _geometry_
	      scale image using	pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor	_horizontal_factor_x_vertical_factor_
	      sampling	factors	 used  by  JPEG	 or MPEG-2 encoder and YUV de-
	      coder/encoder.

       -scale _geometry_
	      scale the	image.

       -scene _value_
	      set scene	number

       -segment	_cluster threshold_x_smoothing threshold_
	      segment an image

       -shade _azimuth_x_elevation_
	      shade the	image using a distant light source

       -sharpen	_radius_{x_sigma_}
	      sharpen the image

       -shave _width_x_height_{%}
	      shave pixels from	the image edges

       -shear _x degrees_x_y degrees_
	      shear the	image along the	X or Y axis

       -size _width_x_height_{+offset}
	      width and	height of the image

       -solarize _factor_
	      negate all pixels	above the threshold level

       -splice _width_x_height_{+-}_x_{+-}_y_{%}_
	      splice the background color into the image

       -spread _amount_
	      displace image pixels by a random	amount

       -strip strip the	image of any profiles or comments

       -stroke _color_
	      color to use when	stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth _value_
	      set the stroke width

       -swap _index,index_
	      swap two images in the image sequence

       -swirl _degrees_
	      swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture	_filename_
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold _value_{_green_,_blue_,_opacity_}{%}
	      threshold	the image

       -thumbnail _width_x_height_{%}{@}{!}{_}{_}
	      create a thumbnail of the	image

       -tile _filename_
	      tile image when filling a	graphic	primitive

       -tint _value_
	      tint the image with the fill color

       -transform
	      transform	the image

       -transparent _color_
	      make this	color transparent within the image

       -treedepth _value_
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type _type_
	      the image	type

       -units _type_
	      the units	of image resolution

       -unsharp	_radius_{x_sigma_}{+_amount_}{+_threshold_}
	      sharpen the image	with an	unsharp	mask operator

       -use-pixmap
	      use the pixmap

       -verbose
	      print detailed information about the image

       -version
	      print ImageMagick	version	string

       -view _string_
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel _method_
	      specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave _amplitude_x_wavelength_
	      alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point _x_,_y_
	      chromaticity white point

       -write _filename_
	      write  an	image sequence [convert, composite]

	      For a more detailed description of  each	option,	 see  Options,
	      above.  ImageMagick(1).

SEGMENTATION
       Use  -segment  to  segment  an image by analyzing the histograms	of the
       color components	and identifying	units that are	homogeneous  with  the
       fuzzy c-means technique.	The scale-space	filter analyzes	the histograms
       of the three color components of	the image  and	identifies  a  set  of
       classes.	 The extents of	each class is used to coarsely segment the im-
       age with	thresholding.  The color associated with each class is	deter-
       mined  by the mean color	of all pixels within the extents of a particu-
       lar class. Finally, any unclassified pixels are assigned	to the closest
       class with the fuzzy c-means technique.

       The fuzzy c-Means algorithm can be summarized as	follows:

       Build a histogram, one for each color component of the image.

       For each	histogram, successively	apply the scale-space filter and build
       an interval tree	of zero	crossings in the  second  derivative  at  each
       scale.  Analyze this scale-space	"fingerprint" to determine which peaks
       or valleys in the histogram are most predominant.

       The fingerprint defines intervals on the	axis of	 the  histogram.  Each
       interval	 contains  either a minima or a	maxima in the original signal.
       If each color component lies within the maxima interval,	that pixel  is
       considered "classified" and is assigned an unique class number.

       Any pixel that fails to be classified in	the above thresholding pass is
       classified using	the fuzzy c-Means technique. It	is assigned to one  of
       the classes discovered in the histogram analysis	phase.

       The  fuzzy c-Means technique attempts to	cluster	a pixel	by finding the
       local minima of the generalized within group sum	of squared  error  ob-
       jective function. A pixel is assigned to	the closest class of which the
       fuzzy membership	has a maximum value.

       For additional information see: <bq>Young Won Lim, Sang	Uk  Lee,  ``On
       The  Color  Image  Segmentation Algorithm Based on the Thresholding and
       the Fuzzy c-Means Techniques'', Pattern Recognition, Volume 23,	Number
       9, pages	935-952, 1990.</bq>

ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS
	      Output  screen  width. Used when formatting text for the screen.
	      Many Unix	systems	keep this shell	variable up to	date,  but  it
	      may  need	 to be explicitly exported in order for	ImageMagick to
	      see it.

       DISPLAY
	      X11 display ID (host, display number, and	 screen	 in  the  form
	      hostname:display.screen).

       HOME   Location of user's home directory. ImageMagick searches for con-
	      figuration files in $HOME/.magick	if the directory  exists.  See
	      MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH,	MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH, and MAGICK_FIL-
	      TER_MODULE_PATH if more flexibility is needed.

       MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH
	      Search path to use when searching	for image  format  coder  mod-
	      ules.  This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image
	      formats supported	by ImageMagick by adding loadable  modules  to
	      an  arbitrary  location rather than copying them into the	Image-
	      Magick installation directory. The formatting of the search path
	      is  similar  to operating	system search paths (i.e. colon	delim-
	      ited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft  Windows).
	      This  user  specified  search path is used before	trying the de-
	      fault search path.

       MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH
	      Search path to  use  when	 searching  for	 configuration	(.xml)
	      files.   The formatting of the search path is similar to operat-
	      ing system search	paths (i.e.  colon  delimited  for  Unix,  and
	      semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This	user specified
	      search path is used before trying	the default search path.

       MAGICK_DEBUG
	      Debug options (see -debug	for details)

       MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH
	      Search path to use when searching	 for  filter  process  modules
	      (invoked via -process). This path	allows the user	to arbitrarily
	      extend ImageMagick's image processing  functionality  by	adding
	      loadable	modules	 to  an	arbitrary location rather than copying
	      them into	the ImageMagick	installation directory.	The formatting
	      of  the  search path is similar to operating system search paths
	      (i.e. colon delimited for	Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Mi-
	      crosoft Windows).	This user specified search path	is used	before
	      trying the default search	path.

       MAGICK_FONT_PATH
	      Directory	where ImageMagick should look for TrueType  and	 Post-
	      script  Type1  font  files  if the font file is not found	in the
	      current directory. It is preferred to define the available fonts
	      via type.xml rather than use MAGICK_FONT_PATH.

       MAGICK_HOME
	      Path to top of ImageMagick installation directory. Only observed
	      by "uninstalled" builds of ImageMagick which do not  have	 their
	      location hard-coded or set by an installer.

       MAGICK_DISK_LIMIT
	      Maximum amount of	disk space allowed for use by the pixel	cache.

       MAGICK_FILES_LIMIT
	      Maximum number of	open files.

       MAGICK_MAP_LIMIT
	      Maximum size of a	memory map.

       MAGICK_MEMORY_LIMIT
	      Maximum amount of	memory to allocate from	the heap.

       MAGICK_TMPDIR
	      Path  to	directory  where  ImageMagick  should  write temporary
	      files. The default is to use the system default, or the location
	      set by TMPDIR.

       TMPDIR For  POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path	to the
	      directory	where all applications should write  temporary	files.
	      Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it	is set.

       TMP or TEMP
	      For  Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory	where applica-
	      tions should write temporary files. Overridden by	 MAGICK_TMPDIR
	      if it is set.

CONFIGURATION FILES
       ImageMagick uses	a number of XML	format configuration files:

       colors.xml
	      colors configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<colormap>
		  <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248"	blue="255"
			 compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
		</colormap>

       delegates.xml
	      delegates	configuration file

       log.xml
	      logging configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<magicklog>
		  <log events="None" />
		  <log output="stdout" />
		  <log filename="Magick-%d.log"	/>
		  <log generations="3" />
		  <log limit="2000" />
		  <log format="%t %r %u	%p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n  %e"	/>
		</magicklog>

       magic.xml
	      file header magic	test configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<magicmap>
		  <magic name="AVI" offset="0" target="RIFF" />
		</magicmap>

       modules.xml
	      loadable modules configuration file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<modulemap>
		  <module magick="8BIM"	name="META" />
		</modulemap>

       type.xml
	      master type (fonts) configuration	file

		<?xml version="1.0"?>
		<typemap>
		  <include file="type-windows.xml" />
		  <type
		    name="AvantGarde-Book"
		    fullname="AvantGarde Book"
		    family="AvantGarde"
		    foundry="URW"
		    weight="400"
		    style="normal"
		    stretch="normal"
		    format="type1"
		    metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
		    glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
		  />
		</typemap>

SEE ALSO
       display(1),  animate(1),	 identify(1),  ImageMagick(1), montage(1), mo-
       grify(1), composite(1)

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1999-2005 ImageMagick Studio LLC.	Additional  copyrights
       and   licenses	apply	to   this   software,	see  http://www.image-
       magick.org/www/Copyright.html

ImageMagick		   Date: 2004/01/01 01:00:00		    convert(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS | SEGMENTATION | ENVIRONMENT | CONFIGURATION FILES | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

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