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chmod(1)		    General Commands Manual		      chmod(1)

NAME
       chmod - change file mode	access permissions

SYNOPSIS
       symbolic_mode_list file ...

   Obsolescent form:
       numeric_mode file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The  command  changes the permissions of	one or more files according to
       the value of symbolic_mode_list or numeric_mode.	 You can  display  the
       current permissions for a file with the command (see ls(1)).

   Symbolic Mode List
       A  symbolic_mode_list  is  a  comma-separated list of operations	in the
       following form.	Whitespace is not permitted.

	      [who]op[permission

       The variable fields can have the	following values:

	      who	  One or more of the following letters:

			       Modify permissions for user (owner).
			       Modify permissions for group.
			       Modify permissions for others.
			       Modify permissions for all users
				      is equivalent to

	      op	  Required; one	of the following symbols:

			       Add    permission to  the  existing  file  mode
				      bits of who.
			       Delete permission  from	the existing file mode
				      bits of who.
			       Replace the existing mode bits of
				      who with permission.

	      permission  One or more of the following letters:

			       Add or delete the read permission for
				      who.
			       Add or delete the write permission for
				      who.
			       Add or delete the execute file  (search	direc-
			       tory) permission	for
				      who.
			       Add  or	delete the set-owner-ID-on-file-execu-
			       tion
				      or  set-group-ID-on-file-execution  per-
				      mission  for  who.  Useful only if or is
				      expressed	or implied in who.
			       Add or delete the  save-text-image-on-file-exe-
			       cution (sticky bit) permission.
				      Useful  only  if is expressed or implied
				      in who.  See chmod(2).
			       Conditionally add or delete the	execute/search
			       permission as follows:
				      o	 If file is a directory, add or	delete
					 the search permission to the existing
					 file mode for who.  (Same as
				      o	 If  file  is not a directory, and the
					 current file permissions include  the
					 execute  permission displays an or an
					 for at	least one of user,  group,  or
					 other,	then add or delete the execute
					 file permission for who.
				      o	 If file is not	a  directory,  and  no
					 execute  permissions  are  set	in the
					 current file mode, then do not	change
					 any execute permission.

			  Or one only of the following letters:

			       Copy the	current	user permissions to
				      who.
			       Copy the	current	group permissions to
				      who.
			       Copy the	current	other permissions to
				      who.

       The  operations	are performed in the order specified, and can override
       preceding operations specified in the same command line.

       If who is omitted, the and permissions are changed for all users	if the
       changes	are  permitted	by  the	 current  file mode creation mask (see
       umask(1)).  The and permissions are changed as if was specified in who.

       Omitting	permission is useful only when used with to delete all permis-
       sions.

   Numeric Mode	(Obsolescent)
       Absolute	 permissions can be set	by specifying a	numeric_mode, an octal
       number constructed from the logical OR  (sum)  of  the  following  mode
       bits:

       Miscellaneous mode bits:

       Permission mode bits:

   Options
	      Preserve any optional access control list	(ACL) entries
		     associated	with the file (HFS file	systems	only).	By de-
		     fault,  in	 conformance  with  the	 IEEE  Standard	 POSIX
		     1003.1-1988,  optional  HFS ACL entries are deleted.  For
		     JFS ACLs, this option has no effect, because optional JFS
		     ACL  entries are always preserved.	 For information about
		     access control lists, see acl(5) and aclv(5).

	      Recursively change the file mode bits.
		     For each file operand that	names a	directory, alters  the
		     file  mode	 bits of the named directory and all files and
		     subdirectories in the file	hierarchy below	it.

       Only the	owner of a file, or a user with	 appropriate  privileges,  can
       change its mode.

       Only a user having appropriate privileges can set (or retain, if	previ-
       ously set) the sticky bit of a regular file.

       If the sticky bit is set	on a directory,	files inside the directory may
       be  renamed  or removed only by the owner of the	file, the owner	of the
       directory, or the superuser (even if the	modes of the  directory	 would
       otherwise allow such an operation).

       In order	to set the set-group-ID	bit, the group of the file must	corre-
       spond to	your current group ID.

       If is used on a symbolic	link, the mode of the file referred to by  the
       link is changed.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   Environment Variables
       determines the language in which	messages are displayed.

       If  is  not specified or	is null, it defaults to	the value of If	is not
       specified or is null, it	defaults to (see lang(5)).

       If any internationalization variable contains an	invalid	 setting,  all
       internationalization variables default to See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon completion,	returns	one of the following values:

	      Successful completion.
	      An error condition occurred.

EXAMPLES
       Deny write permission to	others:

       Make a file executable by everybody:

       Assign  read and	execute	permission to everybody, and set the set-user-
       ID bit:

       Assign read and write permission	to the file owner, and read permission
       to everybody else:

       or the obsolescent form:

       Traverse	 a directory subtree making all	regular	files readable by user
       and group only, and all executables and directories executable (search-
       able) by	everyone:

       If  the current value of	is displays do not change write	permission for
       group) and the current permissions for file are displayed  by  as  then
       the command

       sets the	permissions to displayed by as

       If  the current value of	is displays do not change write	permission for
       group) and the current permissions for file are displayed  by  as  then
       the command

       sets the	permissions to displayed by as

DEPENDENCIES
       The option causes to fail on file systems that do not support ACLs.

AUTHOR
       was developed by	AT&T and HP.

SEE ALSO
       chacl(1), ls(1),	umask(1), chmod(2), acl(5), aclv(5).

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
								      chmod(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | RETURN VALUE | EXAMPLES | DEPENDENCIES | AUTHOR | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

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