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CHMOD(1)                FreeBSD General Commands Manual               CHMOD(1)

NAME
     chmod - change file modes

SYNOPSIS
     chmod [-fv -R [-H | -L | -P]] mode file ...

DESCRIPTION
     The chmod utility modifies the file mode bits of the listed files as
     specified by the mode operand.

     The options are as follows:

     -H      If the -R option is specified, symbolic links on the command line
             are followed.  (Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal
             are not followed by default.)

     -L      If the -R option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.

     -P      If the -R option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
             This is the default.

     -R      Change the modes of the file hierarchies rooted in the files
             instead of just the files themselves.

     -f      Do not display a diagnostic message if chmod could not modify the
             mode for file.

     -v      Cause chmod to be verbose, showing files as the mode is modified.

     Symbolic links do not have modes, so unless the -H or -L option is set,
     chmod on a symbolic link always succeeds and has no effect.  The -H, -L
     and -P options are ignored unless the -R option is specified.  In
     addition, these options override each other and the command's actions are
     determined by the last one specified.

     Only the owner of a file or the super-user is permitted to change the
     mode of a file.

DIAGNOSTICS
     The chmod utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

MODES
     Modes may be absolute or symbolic.  An absolute mode is an octal number
     constructed from the sum of one or more of the following values:

           4000    (the set-user-ID-on-execution bit) Executable files with
                   this bit set will run with effective uid set to the uid of
                   the file owner.  Directories with the set-user-id bit set
                   will force all files and sub-directories created in them to
                   be owned by the directory owner and not by the uid of the
                   creating process, if the underlying file system supports
                   this feature: see chmod(2) and the suiddir option to
                   mount(8).
           2000    (the set-group-ID-on-execution bit)  Executable files with
                   this bit set will run with effective gid set to the gid of
                   the file owner.
           1000    (the sticky bit) When set on a directory, unprivileged
                   users can delete and rename only those files in the
                   directory that are owned by them, regardless of the
                   permissions on the directory.  Under FreeBSD, the sticky
                   bit is ignored for executable files and may only be set for
                   directories (see sticky(8)).
           0400    Allow read by owner.
           0200    Allow write by owner.
           0100    For files, allow execution by owner.  For directories,
                   allow the owner to search in the directory.
           0040    Allow read by group members.
           0020    Allow write by group members.
           0010    For files, allow execution by group members.  For
                   directories, allow group members to search in the
                   directory.
           0004    Allow read by others.
           0002    Allow write by others.
           0001    For files, allow execution by others.  For directories
                   allow others to search in the directory.

     For example, the absolute mode that permits read, write and execute by
     the owner, read and execute by group members, read and execute by others,
     and no set-uid or set-gid behaviour is 755 (400+200+100+040+010+004+001).

     The symbolic mode is described by the following grammar:

           mode         ::= clause [, clause ...]
           clause       ::= [who ...] [action ...] action
           action       ::= op [perm ...]
           who          ::= a | u | g | o
           op           ::= + | - | =
           perm         ::= r | s | t | w | x | X | u | g | o

     The who symbols ``u'', ``g'', and ``o'' specify the user, group, and
     other parts of the mode bits, respectively.  The who symbol ``a'' is
     equivalent to ``ugo''.

     The perm symbols represent the portions of the mode bits as follows:

           r       The read bits.
           s       The set-user-ID-on-execution and set-group-ID-on-execution
                   bits.
           t       The sticky bit.
           w       The write bits.
           x       The execute/search bits.
           X       The execute/search bits if the file is a directory or any
                   of the execute/search bits are set in the original
                   (unmodified) mode.  Operations with the perm symbol ``X''
                   are only meaningful in conjunction with the op symbol
                   ``+'', and are ignored in all other cases.
           u       The user permission bits in the original mode of the file.
           g       The group permission bits in the original mode of the file.
           o       The other permission bits in the original mode of the file.

     The op symbols represent the operation performed, as follows:

     +     If no value is supplied for perm, the ``+'' operation has no
           effect.  If no value is supplied for who, each permission bit
           specified in perm, for which the corresponding bit in the file mode
           creation mask is clear, is set.  Otherwise, the mode bits
           represented by the specified who and perm values are set.

     -     If no value is supplied for perm, the ``-'' operation has no
           effect.  If no value is supplied for who, each permission bit
           specified in perm, for which the corresponding bit in the file mode
           creation mask is clear, is cleared.  Otherwise, the mode bits
           represented by the specified who and perm values are cleared.

     =     The mode bits specified by the who value are cleared, or, if no who
           value is specified, the owner, group and other mode bits are
           cleared.  Then, if no value is supplied for who, each permission
           bit specified in perm, for which the corresponding bit in the file
           mode creation mask is clear, is set.  Otherwise, the mode bits
           represented by the specified who and perm values are set.

     Each clause specifies one or more operations to be performed on the mode
     bits, and each operation is applied to the mode bits in the order
     specified.

     Operations upon the other permissions only (specified by the symbol ``o''
     by itself), in combination with the perm symbols ``s'' or ``t'', are
     ignored.

EXAMPLES
     644           make a file readable by anyone and writable by the owner
                   only.

     go-w          deny write permission to group and others.

     =rw,+X        set the read and write permissions to the usual defaults,
                   but retain any execute permissions that are currently set.

     +X            make a directory or file searchable/executable by everyone
                   if it is already searchable/executable by anyone.

     755
     u=rwx,go=rx
     u=rwx,go=u-w  make a file readable/executable by everyone and writable by
                   the owner only.

     go=           clear all mode bits for group and others.

     g=u-w         set the group bits equal to the user bits, but clear the
                   group write bit.

BUGS
     There's no perm option for the naughty bits.

COMPATIBILITY
     The -v option is non-standard and its use in scripts is not recommended.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), install(1), chmod(2), stat(2), umask(2), fts(3), setmode(3),
     symlink(7), chown(8), mount(8), sticky(8)

STANDARDS
     The chmod utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'')
     compatible with the exception of the perm symbol ``t'' which is not
     included in that standard.

HISTORY
     A chmod command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE         March 31, 1994         FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | DIAGNOSTICS | MODES | EXAMPLES | BUGS | COMPATIBILITY | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY

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