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CDRSKIN(1)		    General Commands Manual		    CDRSKIN(1)

       cdrskin - burns preformatted data to CD,	DVD, and BD via	libburn.

       cdrskin [options|track_source_addresses]

       cdrskin is a program that provides some of cdrecord's options in	a com-
       patible way for CD media. With DVD and BD it has	its own	ways.  You  do
       not need	to be superuser	for its	daily usage.

   Overview of features:
       Blanking	of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
       Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
       Burning of data tracks or audio tracks with CD-TEXT to CD,
       either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
       or in Session at	Once mode for seamless tracks.
       Multi session on	CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
       or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Single session Disk-at-once on DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL.
       Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
       on overwriteable	DVD+RW,	DVD-RW,	DVD-RAM, BD-RE
       or on data file or block	device.
       Extraction of audio tracks and CD-TEXT to hard disk files.
       Bus  scan,  burnfree,  speed  options,  retrieving media	info, padding,
       See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.

   General information paragraphs:
       Track recording model
       Write mode selection
       Recordable CD Media
       Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
       Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
       Drive preparation and addressing
       Emulated	drives

   Track recording model:
       The input-output	entities which get processed  are  called  tracks.   A
       track stores a stream of	bytes.
       More  than  one track can be burned by a	single run of cdrskin.	In the
       terms of	the MMC	standard all tracks written by the same	run constitute
       a session.
       Normally, each track is initiated by one	track source address argument,
       which may either	be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable
       file.  Alternatively, option cuefile= may be used to read a session de-
       scription from a	text file and to read the session content from a  sin-
       gle data	file.
       If  no  write  mode  is	given explicitly then one will be chosen which
       matches the peculiarities of track sources and the state	of the	output

       Some  media  types can be kept appendable so that further tracks	can be
       written to them in subsequent runs  of  cdrskin	(see  option  -multi).
       Info about the addresses	of burned tracks is kept in a table of content
       (TOC) on	media and can be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.  This  in-
       formation is also used by the operating systems'	CD-ROM read drivers.

       In  general  there are two types	of tracks: data	and audio. They	differ
       in sector size, throughput and  readability  via	 the  systems'	CD-ROM
       drivers	and  by	 music	CD players. With DVD and BD there is only type
       If not explicitly option	-audio is given, then any track	is  burned  as
       type  data,  unless  the	 track	source is a file with suffix ".wav" or
       ".au" and has a header part which identifies it as MS-WAVE or SUN Audio
       with  suitable parameters. Such files are burned	as audio tracks	by de-

       While audio tracks just contain a given time span  of  acoustic	vibra-
       tions,  data  tracks  may  have	an  arbitrary  meaning.	 Nevertheless,
       ISO-9660	filesystems are	established as a format	which can represent  a
       tree  of	 directories  and  files  on all major operating systems. Such
       filesystem images can be	produced by programs mkisofs or	genisoimage or
       xorriso.	  They	can  also  be extended by follow-up tracks if prepared
       properly.  See the man pages of said programs.  cdrskin is able to ful-
       fill the	needs about their option -C.
       Another type of data track content are archive formats which originally
       have been developed for magnetic	tapes. Only formats which mark	a  de-
       tectable	end-of-archive in their	data are suitable, though. Well	tested
       are the archivers afio and star.	Not suitable seems GNU tar.

   Write mode selection:
       In general there	are two	approaches for writing media:
       A permissive mode selected by option  -tao  which  needs	 no  predicted
       track  size  and	can use	multi-session capabilities if offered by drive
       and medium.
       A more restrictive mode -sao (alias -dao) which usually demands a  pre-
       dictable	track size and is not necessarily capable of multi-session. It
       can be used to write CD-TEXT and	it is the only one that	works with op-
       tion cuefile=.
       If  none	 of  the  options -dao,	-tao or	-sao is	given then the program
       will try	to choose a write mode which  matches  the  defined  recording
       job, the	capabilities of	the drive and the state	of the present media.
       So the mentioning of write modes	in the following paragraphs and	in the
       examples	is not so much a demand	that the user shall choose one explic-
       itly,  but rather an illustration of what to expect with	particular me-
       dia types.

   Recordable CD Media:
       CD-R can	be initially written only once and eventually  extended	 until
       they  get  closed  (or are spoiled because they are overly full). After
       that they are read-only.	Closing	is done	 automatically	unless	option
       -multi is given which keeps the media appendable.
       Write  mode  -tao  is able to use track sources of unpredictable	length
       (like stdin) and	to write further sessions to appendable	 media.	  -sao
       produces	 audio sessions	with seamless tracks but needs predicted track
       sizes and cannot	append sessions	to media.
       CD-RW media can be blanked to make them re-usable for another round  of
       overwriting.  Usually  blank=fast  is the appropriate option.  Blanking
       damages the previous content but	does not make  it  completely  unread-
       able. It	is no effective	privacy	precaution.  Multiple cycles of	blank-
       ing and overwriting with	random numbers might be	needed.

   Sequentially	Recordable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently DVD-RW, DVD-R[DL], DVD+R[DL], and BD-R	can be	used  for  the
       Sequential  recording  model.  It resembles the model of	CD media. Only
       DVD-RW can be blanked and re-used from scratch.
       DVD-RW are sequential media if they are in  state  "Sequential  Record-
       ing".   The  media must be either blank or appendable.  Newly purchased
       DVD-RW and DVD-R	media are in this state.  Used DVD-RW get  into	 blank
       sequential state	by option blank=deformat_sequential .
       With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
       Mode DAO	has many restrictions. It does not work	with appendable	media,
       cannot do -multi	and writes only	a single track.	 The size of the track
       needs  to  be  known  in	advance. So either its source has to be	a disk
       file of recognizable size or the	size has to be announced explicitly by
       options tsize= or tao_to_sao_tsize= .
       DAO is the only mode for	DVD-R media which do not offer feature 21h In-
       cremental Streaming (e.g. DVD-R DL). DAO	may also be  selected  explic-
       itly  by	 option	 -sao .	 Program growisofs uses	DAO on sequential DVD-
       R[W] media for maximum DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
       The other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode	if  it
       is available and	if the restrictions of DAO would prevent the job.  In-
       cremental Streaming may be selected explicitly by option	-tao as	it re-
       sembles	much  CD  TAO by accepting track sources of unpredicted	length
       and being able to keep media appendable by option -multi	. It does  not
       work  with DVD-R	DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.  The only restriction
       towards CD-R[W] is the lack of support  for  -audio  tracks.   Multiple
       tracks per session are permissible.
       The  write  modes for DVD+R[/DL]	and BD-R resemble those	with DVD-R ex-
       cept that each track gets wrapped in an own session. There is no	-dummy
       writing with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Quite  deliberately  write mode -sao insists in the tradition of	a pre-
       dicted track size and blank media, whereas -tao writes the tracks  open
       ended and can be	applied	to appendable media.
       BD-R  may be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management
       which might catch and repair some bad spots  at	the  expense  of  slow
       speed even with flawless	media.
       Note:  Option  -multi  might  make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM
       drives.	Best reader compatibility is achieved without it (i.e. by sin-
       gle session media).

   Overwriteable DVD or	BD Media:
       Currently  types	 DVD+RW,  DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can	be overwritten
       via cdrskin.
       Option -audio is	not allowed. Only one track is allowed.	 Option	-multi
       cannot  mark  a	recognizable  end  of  overwriteable media.  Therefore
       -multi is banned	unless ISO-9660	images shall be	expandable by help  of
       option  --grow_overwriteable_iso	 .   Without this option or without an
       ISO-9660	filesystem image present on media, -toc	does not return	infor-
       mation  about  the media	content	and media get treated as blank regard-
       less whether they hold data or not.
       Currently there is no difference	between	-sao and -tao. If  ever,  then
       -tao will be the	mode which preserves the current behavior.

       DVD+RW and DVD-RAM media	need no	special	initial	formatting. They offer
       a single	continuous data	area for blockwise random access.  BD-RE  need
       explicit	formatting before use. See blank=as_needed or blank=format_de-
       fectmgt .
       DVD-RW are sold in state	"Sequential Recording".	To become suitable for
       the  Overwriteable  DVD	recording  model they need to get formatted to
       state "Restricted Overwrite". Then they behave much like	 DVD+RW.  This
       formatting can be done by option	blank=format_overwrite .
       Several	programs  like	dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim,	or cdrskin can
       bring a DVD-RW out of overwriteable state so that it has	to be  format-
       ted again. If in	doubt, just give it a try.

   Drive preparation and addressing:
       The  drives,  CD,  DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via addresses which
       are specific to libburn and the operating system. Those	addresses  get
       listed by a run of cdrskin --devices or cdrskin --device_links.
       On Linux, they are device files which traditionally do not offer	w-per-
       missions	for normal users.  Because  libburn  needs  rw-permission,  it
       might  be  only the superuser who is able to get	this list without fur-
       ther precautions.
       It is consensus that chmod a+rw /dev/sr0	or chmod a+rw /dev/hdc is less
       security	 sensitive  than  chmod	u+s,a+x	/usr/bin/cdrskin. The risk for
       the drive is somewhat higher but	the overall system  is	much  less  at
       stake.	Consider to restrict rw-access to a single group which bundles
       the users  who  are  allowed  to	 use  the  burner  drive  (like	 group
       For  drive  permission  examples	 on  Linux,  FreeBSD, and Solaris, see

       If you only got one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin op-
       tion  dev=.  Else  you  should use this option to address the drive you
       cdrskin option dev= not only accepts the	listed addresses but also tra-
       ditional	 cdrecord  SCSI	 addresses  which  consist  of	three numbers:
       Bus,Target,Lun. On Linux	there is also a	related	address	 family	 "ATA"
       which  accesses	IDE  drives  not  under	control	of Linux SCSI drivers:
       See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style	addresses.
       Further are accepted: links to libburn-suitable	device	files,	device
       files  which  have  the	same major and minor device number, and	device
       files which have	the same SCSI address parameters (e.g. /dev/sg0).

   Emulated drives:
       Option  --allow_emulated_drives	enables	 addressing  of	 pseudo-drives
       which get emulated on top of filesystem objects.	Regular	data files and
       block devices result in pseudo-drives which behave much	like  DVD-RAM.
       If  the given address does not exist yet	but its	directory exists, then
       it gets created as regular file.	 Other file types like	character  de-
       vices  or  pipes	 result	 in pseudo-drives which	behave much like blank
       DVD-R.  The target file address is given	after prefix "stdio:".
       E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
       Addresses of the	form "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special. The
       number  is  read	 literally  and	 used  as  open	 file descriptor. With
       dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal	standard  output  of  the  program  is
       redirected  to  stderr and the stream data of a burn run	will appear on
       Not good	for terminals !	Redirect it.
       Pseudo-drives support -dummy. Their reply with  --tell_media_space  can
       be  utopic.  -dummy burn	runs touch the file but	do not modify its data
       Note:  --allow_emulated_drives  is  restricted  to  stdio:/dev/null  if
       cdrskin	is run by the superuser	or if it has changed user identity via
       the setuid bit of its access permissions. The ban for the superuser can
       be lifted by a skillfully created file. See section FILES below.

       --help Show non-cdrecord	compatible options.

       -help  Show cdrecord compatible options.
	      Note  that some of the help texts	are quite wrong	- for cdrecord
	      as well as for cdrskin (e.g. -format, blank=, -load). They  are,
	      nevertheless, traditional	indicators for the availability	of the
	      listed options. Some  frontend  programs	make  decisions	 after
	      reading them.

	      Print cdrskin id line, compatibility lure	line, libburn version,
	      cdrskin version, version timestamp, build	timestamp  (if	avail-
	      able), and then exit.

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are	intended to be compatible with
       original	cdrecord by Joerg Schilling:

       -atip  Retrieve some info about	media  state.  With  CD-RW  print  "Is
	      erasable".   With	 DVD media print "book type:" and a media type
	      text. With BD media print	"Mounted Media:" and media type	text.

       -audio Announces	that the subsequent tracks are to be burned as	audio.
	      The  source is supposed to be uncompressed headerless PCM, 44100
	      Hz, 16 bit, stereo. For little-endian byte order (which is usual
	      on  PCs)	use  option  -swab. Unless marked explicitly by	option
	      -data, input files with suffix ".wav" are	examined whether  they
	      have  a header in	MS-WAVE	format confirming those	parameters and
	      eventually raw audio data	get  extracted	and  burned  as	 audio
	      track. Same is done for suffix ".au" and SUN Audio.
	      Option -audio may	be used	only with CD media and not with	DVD or

	      Blank a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or	format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM,  BD.
	      This is combinable with burning in the same run of cdrskin.  The
	      type given with blank= selects the particular behavior:

		     Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch.  If
		     it	 needs formatting, then	format it. If it is not	blank,
		     then try to apply blank=fast.  It is a reason to abort if
		     the  media	cannot assume thoroughly writeable state, e.g.
		     if	it is non-blank	write-once.
		     This  leaves  unformatted	DVD-RW	in  unformatted	 blank
		     state.  To	 format	DVD-RW use blank=format_overwriteable.
		     Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
		     (Note: blank=as_needed is not an  original	 cdrecord  op-

	      The  following  blank  types  are	 specific  to particular media
	      familes. Use them	if special features are	desired.

	      all    Blank an entire CD-RW or  an  unformatted	DVD-RW.	  (See
		     also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

	      fast   Minimally	blank  an entire CD-RW or blank	an unformatted
		     DVD-RW.  (See also	--prodvd_cli_compatible,  --grow_over-

		     Like  blank=all  but with the additional ability to blank
		     overwriteable DVD-RW.  This will destroy their formatting
		     and make them sequentially	recordable.  Another peculiar-
		     ity is the	ability	to blank media	which  appear  already
		     blank.  This is similar to	option -force but does not try
		     to	blank media other than recognizable CD-RW and DVD-RW.
		     (Note: blank=deformat_* are  not  original	 cdrecord  op-

		     Like  blank=deformat_sequential  but blanking DVD-RW only
		     minimally.	 This is faster	than  full  blanking  but  may
		     yield media incapable of Incremental Streaming (-tao).

		     Format a media if it is not formatted yet,	and if cdrskin
		     supports formatting for the media type, and if formatting
		     will  not	happen	automatically during write.  This cur-
		     rently applies to unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE, and
		     blank  unformatted	 BD-R.	Eventually the appropriate de-
		     fault formatting is chosen.  If other media or states are
		     encountered then nothing happens.
		     The  following  formatting	 types are more	specialized to
		     particular	media families.

		     Format a  DVD-RW  to  "Restricted	Overwrite".  The  user
		     should bring some patience.
		     (Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)

		     Like  format_overwrite  without creating a	128 MiB	trail-
		     blazer session.  Leads to "intermediate" state which only
		     supports  sequential write	beginning from address 0.  The
		     "intermediate" state ends	after  the  first  session  of
		     writing data.

		     For  DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full
		     media size	rather than just 128  MiB.   Most  traditional
		     formatting	 is  attempted.	No data	get written.  Much pa-
		     tience is required.
		     This option treats	already	formatted media	 even  if  not
		     option -force is given.
		     For DVD+RW	this is	the only supported explicit formatting
		     type. It provides complete	"de-icing" so no reader	 slips
		     on	unwritten data areas.

		     Format  DVD-RAM  or  BD  to reserve the default amount of
		     spare blocks for defect management.
		     The following format_defectmgt_* enable the user to  sub-
		     mit  wishes  which	 nevertheless have to match one	of the
		     available formats.	These formats are offered by the drive
		     after examining the media.

		     Disable the usual media quality certification in order to
		     save time and format to default size.  The	 certification
		     setting  persists even if subsequent blank= options over-
		     ride the size of the format selection.
		     Whether formatting	without	certification  works  properly
		     depends  much  on the drive. One should check the "Format
		     status:" from --list_formats afterwards.

		     Re-enable the usual media quality certification and  for-
		     mat  to default size.  The	certification setting persists
		     like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
		     Whether there happens certification at all	 depends  much
		     on	 the  media state and the actually selected format de-

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare
		     blocks.  It might be necessary to	format	format_defect-
		     mgt_none  first  in  order	to get offered the most	minmal
		     spare blocks sizes	for format_defectmgt_min.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD-RE to	the largest available  payload
		     in	the hope to disable defect management at all. This may
		     or	may not	have a speed increasing	 effect.   Unformatted
		     blank BD-R	will be	left unformatted.

		     Format  DVD-RAM  or  BD.  The  text after "format_defect-
		     mgt_payload_" gives a number of  bytes,  eventually  with
		     suffixes  "s",  "k",  "m".	 The  largest  number of spare
		     blocks will be chosen which enables at  least  the	 given
		     payload size.

		     Format  DVD-RW,  DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD.  The number after
		     "format_by_index_"	is used	as index to the	list of	avail-
		     able format descriptors. This list	can be obtained	by op-
		     tion --list_formats.  The numbers after text "Format idx"
		     are the ones to be	used with format_by_index_. Format de-
		     scriptor lists are	volatile. Do neither eject  nor	 write
		     the  media	 between the run of --list_formats and the run
		     of	blank=format_by_index_ or else you may get a different
		     format than desired.

	      help   Print this	list of	blanking types.

	      Retrieve some info about the addressed drive and then exit.  Ex-
	      its with non-zero	value if the drive cannot be found and opened.

       -copy  Create the subsequent tracks with	permission  for	 an  unlimited
	      number of	copies.

	      Read  a session description from a cue sheet file	in CDRWIN for-
	      mat.  Base the tracks on a single	file which  is	given  in  the
	      sheet  by	 command  FILE.	  To enable CD-TEXT from the cue sheet
	      file, cdrskin option -text has to	be present.
	      cdrskin currently	supports TRACK datatypes AUDIO and  MODE1/2048
	      which may	not be mixed.  Data source may be of FILE type BINARY,
	      MOTOROLA,	or WAVE.
	      Non-CDRWIN commands ARRANGER, COMPOSER, MESSAGE are supported.
	      Cue sheet	file commands CATALOG and ISRC may  be	overridden  by
	      option  mcn=  and	by input_sheet_v07t= purpose specifiers	"UPC /
	      EAN" and "ISRC".	This does not affect their appearance  in  CD-
	      TEXT, but	only on	Q sub-channel.
	      The track	numbers	may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

       -dao   Alias  for option	-sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode or DVD-
	      R[W] in Disc-at-once mode.

       -data  Subsequent tracks	are data tracks. This option  is  default  and
	      only  needed  to mark the	end of the range of an eventual	option
	      -audio or	-xa1.
	      Options -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get	mapped to -data, not using the
	      desired CD sector	formats	and thus not taking advantage of even-
	      tual higher payload.  -xa1 Subsequent  tracks  are  data	tracks
	      with  input  suitable  for CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1. This differs
	      from -data  input	 by  8	additional  header  bytes  per	block.
	      cdrskin  will  not  write	 CD-ROM	XA but rather strip the	header
	      bytes and	write as -data tracks.

	      Set the address of the drive to use. Valid are at	least the  ad-
	      dresses  listed  with options --devices or --device_links, X,Y,Z
	      addresses	 listed	 with  option  -scanbus,  ATA:X,Y,Z  addresses
	      listed with options dev=ATA -scanbus, and	volatile libburn drive
	      numbers (numbering starts	at "0").  Other	device file  addresses
	      which lead to the	same drive might work too.
	      If  no  dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is assumed. That
	      is the first drive found being available.	Better avoid this  am-
	      biguity on systems with more than	one drive.
	      The special target "help"	lists hints about available addressing
	      formats.	Be aware that deprecated option	 --old_pseudo_scsi_adr
	      may change the meaning of	Bus,Target,Lun addresses.

	      Set "driveropts=noburnfree" to disable the drive's eventual pro-
	      tection mechanism	against	temporary lack of  source  data	 (i.e.
	      buffer  underrun).   A drive that	announces no such capabilities
	      will not get them	enabled	anyway,	even if	 attempted  explicitly
	      via "driveropts=burnfree".

       -dummy Try  to  perform the drive operations without actually affecting
	      the inserted media. There	is no warranty	that  this  will  work
	      with  a  particular combination of drive,	media, and write mode.
	      Blanking is prevented reliably,  though.	 To  avoid  inadverted
	      real  burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but CD-R[W],
	      DVD-R[W],	or emulated stdio-drives.

       -eject Eject the	disc after work	is done.

       -force Assume that the user knows better	in situations when cdrskin  or
	      libburn  are  insecure about drive or media state. This includes
	      the attempt to blank media which are classified  as  unknown  or
	      unsuitable, and the attempt to use write modes which libburn be-
	      lieves they are not supported by the drive.
	      Another application is to	enforce	blanking or  re-formatting  of
	      media  which  appear  to be in the desired blank or format state
	      This option enables a burn run with option -dummy	even  if  lib-
	      burn  believes  that drive and media will	not simulate the write
	      mode but will write for real.
	      It enables a burn	run where cdrskin expects to exceed the	avail-
	      able media capacity.
	      Caution: Use this	only when in urgent need.

	      Same  as	blank=format_overwrite_full  -force  but restricted to

	      Set the fifo size	to the given value. The	 value	may  have  ap-
	      pended letters which multiply the	preceding number:
	      "k"  or  "K"  = 1024 , "m" or "M"	= 1024k	, "g" or "G" = 1024m ,
	      "s" or "S" = 2048
	      Set size to 0 in order to	disable	the fifo (default is "4m").
	      The fifo buffers an eventual temporary surplus of	 track	source
	      data  in	order to provide the drive with	a steady stream	during
	      times of temporary lack of track source supply.  The larger  the
	      fifo,  the  longer  periods of poor source supply	can be compen-
	      sated.  But a large fifo needs substantial time to  fill	up  if
	      not curbed via option fifo_start_at=size.

	      Set the grace time before	starting to write. (Default is 0)

       -immed Equivalent to:
	      The  name	 of  this  cdrecord  option stems from the "Immed" bit
	      which can	make some long running drive commands asynchronous and
	      thus eases the load on some wiring hardware types. Regardless of
	      option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous commands	where possible
	      and  appropriate.	 To really disable asynchronous	command	execu-
	      tion, use	option use_immed_bit=off .

	      Set a comma separated list of index start	 address  numbers  for
	      the next track.  This applies to CD SAO sessions only.
	      The  addresses  count  sectors from the start of the next	track.
	      The first	number is for index 1 and must	be  0.	The  following
	      numbers have to be larger	than their respective predecessors. Up
	      to 99 numbers are	allowed.
	      Sector numbers are computed from Min:Sec:Frame addresses by
	       Sector =	((Min*60)+Sec)*75+Frame
	      E.g.: "0,7512,20408" sets	index 2	to 01:40:12  and  index	 3  to

       -inq   Print the	identification of the drive and	then exit.

	      The  next	 track	following  this	 option	will try to obtain its
	      source size from the header information out  of  the  first  few
	      blocks of	the source data.  If these blocks indicate an ISO-9660
	      filesystem then its declared size	will be	used under the assump-
	      tion that	it is a	single session filesystem.
	      If not, then the burn run	will be	aborted.
	      The  range  of -isosize is exactly one track. Further tracks may
	      be preceded by further -isosize options,	though.	 At  least  15
	      blocks  of  padding will be added	to each	-isosize track.	But be
	      advised to rather	use padsize=300k.
	      This option can be performed on track sources which are  regular
	      files  or	 block	devices. For the first track of	the session it
	      can be performed on any type of source if	there is a fifo	of  at
	      least 64 kiB. See	option fs= .

	      Set  the ISRC for	the next track source to the given text, which
	      must be exactly 13 characters long. It must comply to the	format
	      CC  is the country code. OOO is the owner	code. Both may consist
	      of capital letters A to Z	and of decimal digits 0	to 9.  YY  de-
	      picts the	year (00 to 99).  SSSSS	is the serial number (00000 to
	      This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

       -load  Load the media and exit. Exit value is 0 if any  kind  of	 media
	      was  found,  non	zero else. Note: Option	-eject will unload the
	      media even if -load is given.

       -lock  Like option -load	but leave the drive's eject button disabled if
	      there is any media found and not option -eject is	given.
	      Use program "eject" or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out	of the
	      drive.   Runs  of	 programs  like	 cdrecord,  growisofs,	wodim,
	      cdrskin  will  not  be  hampered and normally enable the drive's
	      eject button when	they are done.

	      Set the CD Media Catalog Number to text, which must  be  exactly
	      13 characters long and should consist of decimal digits.
	      This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

	      Equivalent to:
	      Percentage is permissible	between	25 and 95.

       -minfo Print  information  about	 the loaded media. This	includes media
	      type, writability	state, and a quite readable table of content.

	      Run option -msinfo and copy the result line into the file	 given
	      by  path.	 Unlike	-msinfo	this option does not redirect all nor-
	      mal output away from standard output. But	 it  may  be  combined
	      with -msinfo to achieve this.
	      Note:  msifile=path  is  actually	 an option of wodim and	not of

	      Retrieve multi-session info for preparing	a follow-up session by
	      option  -C  of programs mkisofs, genisoimage, or xorriso -as mk-
	      isofs.  Print result to standard output.	This option  redirects
	      to stderr	all message output except the one of option --tell_me-
	      dia_space	and its	own result string, which consists of two  num-
	      bers.   The result string	shall be used as argument of option -C
	      with said	programs.  It gives the	start address of the most  re-
	      cent session and the predicted start address of the next session
	      to be appended. The string is empty if the most  recent  session
	      was not written with option -multi.
	      To have a	chance for working on overwriteable media, this	option
	      has to be	accompanied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.

       -multi This option keeps	CD, unformatted	DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or  BD-R  ap-
	      pendable after the current session has been written.  Without it
	      the disc gets closed and may not be written any more   -	unless
	      it is a -RW and gets blanked which causes	loss of	its content.
	      The  following sessions can only be written in -tao mode.	-multi
	      is prohibited with DVD-R[W] DAO write mode and on	DVD-R  DL  me-
	      dia.   Option  --prodvd_cli_compatible  eventually  makes	-multi
	      tolerable	but cannot make	it work.
	      In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual
	      ISO-9660	filesystem of a	follow-up session needs	to be prepared
	      in a special way by the filesystem  formatter  program.  mkisofs
	      and genisoimage expect particular	info about the situation which
	      can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
	      To retrieve an archive file which	was written as follow-up  ses-
	      sion,  you  may  use option -toc to learn	about the "lba"	of the
	      desired track number.  This lba is the address of	the 2048  byte
	      block where the archive begins.
	      With  overwriteable  DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end
	      of the session.  So when adding a	new session this end has to be
	      determined  from	the payload.  Currently	only ISO-9660 filesys-
	      tems can be used that way. See  option  --grow_overwriteable_iso
	      for lifting the ban on -multi.
	      Note:  -multi  might  make  DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM

	      Create subsequent	tracks with permission for a single  level  of
	      copies.	I.e. those copies would	then be	marked by -scms	as of-
	      fering no	permission for further copies.

       -nopad Do not add trailing zeros	 to  the  data	stream.	 Nevertheless,
	      since  there seems to be no use for audio	tracks with incomplete
	      last sector, this	option applies only to data tracks.  There  it
	      is default.

	      Indicate	for  subsequent	tracks that they were mastered without

       -pad   Add 30 kiB of trailing zeros to each data	track.	(This  is  not
	      sufficient to avoid problems with	various	CD-ROM read drivers.)

	      Add  the	given amount of	trailing zeros to the next data	track.
	      This option gets reset to	padsize=0 after	 that  next  track  is
	      written.	It  may	 be  set again before the next track argument.
	      About size specifiers, see option	fs=.

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with pre-

       -sao   Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-
	      at-once (DAO) mode.
	      With CD this mode	is able	to put several audio tracks  on	 media
	      without producing	audible	gaps between them.
	      With  DVD-R[W]  this  mode  can  only  write a single track.  No
	      -multi is	allowed	with DVD-R[W] -sao.
	      -sao is permissible with overwriteable DVD, or DVD+R[/DL], or BD
	      but  actually  only imposes restrictions without providing known
	      -sao can only be used for	tracks of fixely predicted size.  This
	      implies  that  track arguments which depict stdin	or named pipes
	      need  to	be  preceded   by   option   tsize=   or   by	option
	      -sao cannot be used on appendable	media.

	      Scan  the	 system	for drives. On Linux the drives	at /dev/s* and
	      at /dev/hd* are to be scanned by two separate runs. One  without
	      dev= for /dev/s* and one with dev=ATA for	/dev/hd* devices. (Op-
	      tion --drives lists all available	drives in a single run.)
	      Drives which are busy or which offer  no	rw-permission  to  the
	      user of cdrskin are not listed. Busy drives get reported in form
	      of warning messages.
	      The useful fields	in a result line are:
	      Bus,Target,Lun Number) 'Vendor' 'Mode' 'Revision'

       -scms  Create subsequent	tracks without permission  for	being  copied.
	      This  is usually done for	tracks which are copies	of tracks that
	      were marked with -nocopy (but not	yet with -scms). So copies  of
	      copies are prohibited.
	      This  option  gets  reset	 by option -copy. Thus the combination
	      -copy -nocopy means -nocopy surely without -scms.

	      Set speed	of drive. With data CD,	 1x  speed  corresponds	 to  a
	      throughput  of  150,000  bytes/second.  With DVD,	1x = 1,385,000
	      bytes/second.  With BD 1x	= 4,495,625 bytes/second.  It  is  not
	      an  error	 to  set a speed higher	than is	suitable for drive and
	      media. One should	stay within a realistic	speed  range,  though.
	      Special speed settings are:
	      0	 =  minimal speed , -1 = maximal speed (default), text "any" =
	      like -1.

       -swab  Announce that the	raw audio data source of subsequent tracks  is
	      byte swapped versus the expectations of cdrecord.	This option is
	      suitable for audio where the least significant byte of a 16  bit
	      word is first (little-endian, Intel).  Most raw audio data on PC
	      systems are available in this byte  order.   Less	 guesswork  is
	      needed  if  track	 sources  are in format	MS-WAVE	in a file with
	      suffix ".wav".

       -tao   Write CD in Track	At Once	(TAO) mode, sequential DVD-R[W]	in In-
	      cremental	Streaming mode,	or DVD+R[/DL] without traditional -sao
	      restrictions.  This mode also applies pro-forma to overwriteable
	      Mode  -tao can be	used with track	sources	of unpredictable size,
	      like standard input or named pipes. It is	 also  the  only  mode
	      that  can	 be used for writing to	appendable media which already
	      hold data. With unformatted DVD-R[W] it is the only  mode	 which
	      can keep media appendable	by option -multi.
	      Mode  -tao  is  not  usable for minimally	blanked	DVD-RW and for
	      DVD-R DL.

       -text  Enable writing of	CD-TEXT	attributes read	 by  option  cuefile=.
	      Without  option -text, cue sheet file command CDTEXTFILE will be
	      ignored and no CD-TEXT attributes	will be	read  from  the	 file.
	      Nevertheless,  CATALOG and ISRC will have	the same effect	as op-
	      tions mcn= and isrc=.

	      Read CD-TEXT packs from the file depicted	by path	and  put  them
	      into the Lead-in of the emerging session.	This session has to be
	      done by Session At Once (SAO) mode and may  only	contain	 audio
	      path  must lead to a regular file, which consists	of an optional
	      header of	four bytes and one or more  text  packs	 of  18	 bytes
	      each.  Suitable  would  be  the file 'cdtext.dat'	which gets ex-
	      tracted from CD media by options -vv -toc	 and  shown  in	 human
	      readable form by -vvv -toc.
	      The header, if present, must tell	the file size minus 2, encoded
	      as big-endian 16 bit word. The other two bytes must be 0.
	      If there is no 4-byte header, then a trailing 0-byte, as of Sony
	      specification, is	tolerated and ignored.
	      A	text pack consists of a	pack type byte,	a track	number byte, a
	      counter byte, a Block Number and Character  Indicator  byte,  12
	      text  characters	or data	bytes, two optional CRC	bytes. For de-
	      tails see	libburn	documentation file doc/cdtext.txt.
	      By default, the input file is checked for	correct	CRC bytes.  If
	      all  CRC	bytes  are 0, then the correct values get silently in-
	      serted. If there are non-zero CRC	bytes, then a mismatch	causes
	      the abort	of the burn run.  This check can be disabled by	option
	      Note that	this option overrides option input_sheet_v07t= .

       -toc   Print the	table of content  (TOC)	 which	describes  the	tracks
	      recorded	on  disc.   The	 output	 contains all info from	option
	      -atip plus lines which begin with	"track:",  the	track  number,
	      the  word	 "lba:"	 and a number which gives the start address of
	      the track. Addresses are counted in CD sectors which with	SAO or
	      TAO data tracks hold 2048	bytes each.
	      If  verbosity  is	 set to	level 2	(-v -v)	then the CD-TEXT packs
	      from the lead-in of an audio CD get extracted and	 written  into
	      file 'cdtext.dat', if that file does not yet exist. Prepended is
	      a	4 byte header, followed	by one or more packs of	18 bytes each.
	      Verbosity	level 3	causes the CD-TEXT packs to be printed as  hex
	      numbers  to standard output. Bytes 4 to 15 of certain pack types
	      are printed as ASCII characters if they have values in the range
	      of 32 to 126.
	      See  option  textfile=  for more information about the text pack

	      Example. Retrieve	an afio	archive	from track number 2:
		     lba=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/cdrom -toc 2>&1 | \
		     grep '^track:[ ]*[	0-9][0-9]' | \
		     tail +"$tracknumber" | head -1 | \
		     awk '{ print $4}' )
		     dd	if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 skip="$lba" | \
		     afio -t - | less

	      Announces	the exact size of the next track source. This is  nec-
	      essary  with  any	write mode other than -tao if the track	source
	      is not a regular disk file, but e.g. "-" (standard input)	 or  a
	      named pipe.  About size specifiers, see option fs=.
	      If  the  track  source  does not deliver the predicted amount of
	      bytes, the remainder of the track	is padded with zeros. This  is
	      not  considered an error.	 If on the other hand the track	source
	      delivers more than the announced bytes then the track  on	 media
	      gets truncated to	the predicted size and cdrskin exits with non-
	      zero value.

       -v     Increment	verbosity level	by one.	Startlevel is 0	with only  few
	      messages.	  Level	1 prints progress report with long running op-
	      erations and also	causes some extra lines	to  be	put  out  with
	      info  retrieval options.	Level 2	additionally reports about op-
	      tion settings derived from arguments or startup files.  Level  3
	      is  for debugging	and useful mainly in conjunction with somebody
	      who had a	look into the program sourcecode.

       -V     Enable logging of	SCSI commands to stderr. This is  helpful  for
	      expert  examination  of  the interaction between libburn and the
	      drive.  The commands are specified in SCSI-3 standards SPC, SBC,

       -waiti Wait  until  input  data	is available at	stdin or EOF occurs at
	      stdin.  Only then	begin to access	any drives.
	      One should use this if cdrskin is	working	at the end of  a  pipe
	      where  the  feeder process reads from the	drive before it	starts
	      writing its output into cdrskin. Example:
	      mkisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M	/dev/sr0 | \
	      cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
	      This option works	even if	stdin is not among the track  sources.
	      If  no process is	piping in, then	the Enter key of your terminal
	      will act as trigger for cdrskin. Note that this input line  will
	      not  be  consumed	 by  cdrskin  if  stdin	is not among the track
	      sources. It will end up as shell command,	usually.

       Alphabetical list of options which are genuine to cdrskin and  intended
       for normal use:

	      Curb  explicitly given speed= values to the maximum which	is an-
	      nounced by the drive for the loaded media. By default,  such  an
	      adjustment  is  only  made  with	pseudo-speeds 0	and -1 whereas
	      speed settings > 0 are sent unchanged to the  drive  which  will
	      then choose an appropriate speed on its own.

	      Enable  drive addresses of the form dev=stdio:<path>. See	above,
	      paragraph	"Drive preparation and addressing".

	      Disable the loud warning about insecure discrepance between  lo-
	      gin user and effective user which	indicates application of chmod
	      u+s to the program binary.  One should not do this chmod	u+s  ,
	      but it is	an old cdrecord	tradition.

	      Allow  source_addresses  to begin	with "-" (plus further charac-
	      ters) or to contain a "="	character.  By default such  arguments
	      are  seen	as misspelled options. It is nevertheless not possible
	      to use one of the	options	listed with --list_ignored_options.

	      Abort if the write address given with this  option  is  not  the
	      same  as	predicted immediately before the write session starts.
	      This option can ensure that a start address which	 was  presumed
	      by  a  formatter like mkisofs -C is really used by the drive for
	      writing.	assert_write_lba=0 effectively demands blank media and
	      excludes appendables.
	      Block numbering is peculiar: If the last character of the	option
	      string is	a letter [a-zA-Z] then the usual unit scaling by  "s",
	      "k",  "m",  etc. applies and the result is divided by 2048. Else
	      the number value of the string is	taken as  plain	 block	number
	      with  block  size	 2048  byte.  (E.g ...=1000 or ...=1000s means
	      block 1000, ...=1m means block 512, ...=4096b means block	number

	      Set  the	number	which shall be written as CD track number with
	      the first	track of the session. The following tracks  will  then
	      get  written  with  consecutive  CD track	numbers. The resulting
	      number of	the last track must not	exceed 99. The lowest possible
	      start number is 1, which is also the default.
	      This  setting  applies  only to CD SAO writing. It overrides the
	      track  number  settings  caused  by  options  cuefile=  or   in-

	      Extract  the  CD-TEXT  packs from	the lead-in of an audio	CD and
	      write them to the	file with the given path. If  CD-TEXT  can  be
	      retrieved, then this file	will be	suitable for option textfile=.
	      Not  all	drives can read	CD-TEXT	and not	all audio CDs bear CD-
	      TEXT.  It	is not considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.

	      Extract the CD-TEXT packs	from the lead-in of an	audio  CD  and
	      write  them  as  human readable Sony Input Sheet Version 0.7T to
	      the file with the	given path. If CD-TEXT can be retrieved,  then
	      this file	will be	suitable for option input_sheet_v07t=.
	      If the given path	is "-",	then the result	is printed to standard
	      Not all drives can read CD-TEXT and not all audio	CDs  bear  CD-
	      TEXT.  It	is not considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.

	      Exit  with a nonzero value if no drive can be found during a bus

	      List the device file addresses of	all accessible CD  drives.  In
	      order  to	get listed, a drive has	to offer rw-permission for the
	      cdrskin user and it may not be busy.  The	 superuser  should  be
	      able  to	see all	idle drives listed and busy drives reported as
	      "SORRY" messages.
	      Each available drive gets	listed by a line containing  the  fol-
	      lowing fields:
	      Number dev='Devicefile' rw-Permissions : 'Vendor'	'Model'
	      Number  and  Devicefile  can  both be used with option dev=, but
	      number is	volatile (numbering changes if drives become busy).

	      Like --devices, but presenting the drives	with addresses of sym-
	      bolic links which	point to the actual device files.
	      Modern  GNU/Linux	 systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot
	      to boot.	The udev daemon	is supposed to create links which  al-
	      ways  point to the same drive, regardless	of its system address.
	      Option --device_links shows the addresses	of such	links if  they
	      begin  by	 "/dev/dvd"  or	 "/dev/cd".   Precedence  is: "dvdrw",
	      "cdrw", "dvd", "cdrom", "cd".

	      Do not write a session with tracks but rather make an  appropri-
	      ate  number  of  direct  write  operations with no preparations.
	      Flushing the drive buffer	will be	the only finalization.	It  is
	      advised  to  eject the media afterwards because the write	opera-
	      tions circumvent the usual system	i/o with its caches  and  buf-
	      fers.  By	 ejecting, those invalid memory	copies get surely dis-
	      Only few media can be written this way: DVD-RAM,	BD-RE,	RVD+RW
	      and  overwriteable  DVD-RW. Writing is restricted	to the already
	      formatted	area of	the media.
	      Writing starts at	byte 0 of the media or at the address given by
	      option  write_start_address=  .	Only the first track source is
	      used as input for	the write operations.  The fifo	(fs=) is  dis-
	      Parameter	size controls the amount of data to be written.	Size 0
	      means that the track source shall	be used	up until EOF. In  this
	      case, the	last write transaction gets padded up to the necessary
	      size by zeros. Size -1 revokes direct writing and	switches  back
	      to normal	session	oriented writing.
	      Both,  write_start_address  and direct_write_amount size must be
	      aligned to a media dependend transaction size. With DVD-RAM, BD-
	      RE, DVD+RW this is 2k, with overwriteable	DVD-RW it is 32k.

	      Set the number of	bytes to be transmitted	with each write	opera-
	      tion to DVD or BD	media.	With  most  write  types,  tracks  get
	      padded  up  to  the next multiple	of this	write size (see	option
	      --obs_pad).  A number of 64 KB may improve throughput with  sys-
	      tems  which  show	latency	problems. The default depends on media
	      type, option stream_recording=, and on compile time options.

	      Extract tracks from an audio CD as  separate  WAVE  audio	 files
	      into  the	given directory.  This directory has to	already	exist,
	      but none of the track files may exist.  This option will	rather
	      fail than	overwrite an existing file.
	      By  default  all	tracks	of  the	CD are extracted to files with
	      names trackNN.wav, where NN is the track number from  01	to  at
	      most 99.

	      Set  a filename which shall be used by extract_audio_to= instead
	      of the default name "track".

	      Enable Digital Audio Play	flaw obscuring mechanisms  like	 audio
	      data mute	and interpolate.

	      Set  a list of track numbers to define which tracks shall	be ex-
	      tracted by extract_audio_to=.  If	no extract_tracks=  is	given,
	      then  all	audio tracks get extracted.  It	is permissible to have
	      more than	one extract_tracks= option in order to	split  a  long
	      list into	shorter	pieces.
	      The lowest permissible track number is 1,	the highest is 99.

	      Set  a command name to be	executed if cdrskin encounters a known
	      cdrecord option which it does not	yet support.  If  a  non-empty
	      command is given with fallback_program=, and if no essential op-
	      tions are	given which are	specific to cdrskin, then cdrskin will
	      delegate the job to said command.
	      The  natural  commands to	be given are cdrecord or wodim but one
	      may well submit the address of an	own program.
	      The fallback program will	get all	arguments of cdrskin which  do
	      not  match  the  shell  patterns --?* or *_*=* . This eventually
	      suppresses path names of track sources  which  happen  to	 match
	      those  patterns.	The  options  from  the	 startup files are not
	      handed to	the fallback program.
	      Fallback program execution is disabled if	cdrskin	is run	setuid
	      and  not option --allow_setuid is	given. In general, the drive's
	      device files and the involved programs should be set up so  that
	      each program runs	under its advised conditions. (E.g. cdrskin as
	      member of	group floppy, cdrecord setuid root.)
	      Two alias	names for cdrskin are predefined with default fallback
	      unicord implies fallback_program=cdrecord
	      codim implies fallback_program=wodim

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with four

	      Do not wait for full fifo	but start burning as soon as the given
	      number of	bytes is read. This option may be helpful to bring the
	      average throughput near to the maximum throughput	of a drive.  A
	      large  fs= and a small fifo_start_at= combine a quick burn start
	      and a large savings buffer to compensate for temporary  lack  of
	      source  data.  At	the beginning of burning, the software protec-
	      tion  against  buffer  underrun  is  as  weak  as	 the  size  of
	      fifo_start_at= . So it is	best if	the drive offers hardware pro-
	      tection which is enabled automatically if	not driveropts=noburn-
	      free is given.

	      Enable emulation of multi-session	writing	on overwriteable media
	      which contain an ISO-9660	filesystem. This emulation is  learned
	      from growisofs -M	but adapted to the usage model of
	      cdrskin -msinfo
	      mkisofs -C -M | cdrskin -waiti [-multi] -
	      --grow_overwriteable_iso	does not hamper	the use	of true	multi-
	      session media.  I.e. it is possible to use the same cdrskin  op-
	      tions with both kinds of media and to achieve similar results if
	      ISO-9660 filesystem images are to	be written.  This  option  im-
	      plies  option  -isosize  and  therefore  demands	that the track
	      source is	a ISO-9660 filesystem image.
	      With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it
	      expands  an eventual ISO-9660 filesystem on media. It is assumed
	      that this	image's	inner size description points to  the  end  of
	      the  valuable  data.   Overwriteable  media  with	a recognizable
	      ISO-9660 size will be regarded  as  appendable  rather  than  as
	      blank.  I.e.  options -msinfo and	-toc will work.	 -toc will al-
	      ways show	a single session with its size increasing  with	 every
	      added mkisofs image.
	      If not overridden	by option write_start_address=,	the track with
	      the new image will be placed behind the end of the old one.  One
	      may  use	option assert_write_lba= to make sure that media state
	      and mkisofs job do match.
	      --grow_overwriteable_iso causes option blank=fast|all to invali-
	      date  an eventual	ISO-9660 image by altering the first few bytes
	      of block 16 on overwriteable media.  Option -multi is  tolerated
	      in order not to hamper true multi-session	media.
	      An equivalent of growisofs -Z for	overwriteable media is:
	      mkisofs |	cdrskin	--grow_overwriteable_iso blank=fast [-multi] -
	      With  multi-session  DVD,	blank=fast will	act like dvd+rw-format
	      -blank=full .
	      growisofs	-dvd-compat is roughly equivalent to  cdrskin  without
	      option -multi.

	      Read  CD-TEXT  definitions from a	Sony Input Sheet version 0.7T.
	      Up to eight or seven such	sheets can be  read  by	 multiple  in-
	      put_sheet_v07t=  options.	 Each will define one CD-TEXT language
	      The first	line of	a sheet	file decides  whether  more  than  one
	      sheet may	be defined by the file.	If it is
		Input Sheet Version = 0.7T
	      then each	further	line with that text switches to	the next sheet
	      for the next block.  If it is not, then all definitions apply to
	      a	single block.
	      The  information	in  such a sheet is given by text lines	of the
	      following	form:
		purpose	specifier [whitespace] = [whitespace] content text
	      [whitespace] is zero or more ASCII 32 (space) or ASCII  9	 (tab)
	      characters.  The purpose specifier tells the meaning of the con-
	      tent text.  Empty	content	text does not cause a  CD-TEXT	attri-
	      bute to be attached.
	      The  following  purpose  specifiers  apply  to  the session as a
		Purpose	specifier   | Content example
		Text Code	    = 8859
		Language Code	    = English
		Album Title	    = Joyful Nights
		Artist Name	    = United Cat Orchestra
		Songwriter	    = Various Songwriters
		Composer	    = Various Composers
		Arranger	    = Tom Cat
		Album Message	    = For all our fans
		Catalog	Number	    = 1234567890
		Genre Code	    = Classical
		Genre Information   = Feline classic music
		Closed Information  = This is not to be	shown by CD players
		UPC / EAN	    = 1234567890123
		Text Data Copy Protection = OFF
		First Track Number  = 1
		Last Track Number   = 3
	      The following purpose specifiers apply to	particular tracks:
		Purpose	specifier   | Content example
		Track 01 Title	    = Song of Joy
		Track 01 Artist	    = Felix and	The Purrs
		Track 01 Songwriter = Friedrich	Schiller
		Track 01 Composer   = Ludwig van Beethoven
		Track 01 Arranger   = Tom Cat
		Track 01 Message    = Fritz and	Louie once were	punks
		ISRC 01		    = XYCRR1101234
	      Track numbers are	decimal	despite	the leading 0. There should be
	      as many track definitions	as there are track source files	given.
	      See  libburn's  doc/cdtext.txt for a detailed definition of 0.7T
	      and the possible values for  Text	 Code,	Language  Code,	 Genre
	      Code, Text Data Copy Protection.
	      The  Q  sub-channel  settings  by	 "UPC /	EAN" and "ISRC"	may be
	      overridden by options mcn= and  isrc=.   This  will  not	affect
	      their  appearance	 as  CD-TEXT.  They may	override cuefile= com-
	      mands CATALOG and	ISRC in	the same way.
	      If options -text cuefile=	are given and if the  cue  sheet  file
	      defines  CD-TEXT,	 then only seven input_sheet_v07t= options may
	      be given.	They will then be used as CD-TEXT language blocks 1 to
	      This  option will	get into effect	only if	no option textfile= is
	      given.  The write	mode must be SAO on CD.	 All  tracks  must  be
	      -audio tracks.
	      The track	numbers	may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

	      List  the	 available format descriptors as reported by the drive
	      for the loaded media. Each descriptor line begins	 with  "Format
	      idx"  and	 the  descriptor's  list index,	followed by a ":", the
	      format type, the number of payload blocks	and that  same	number
	      converted	to MiB.
	      The  meaning  of the format types	is defined by the MMC standard
	      with command FORMAT UNIT.	A user will more be interested in  the
	      sizes than in the	types.

	      List  all	 ignored  cdrecord  options. The "-" options cannot be
	      used as addresses	of track sources. No track source address  may
	      begin with a text	equal to an option which ends by "=". The list
	      is ended by an empty line.

	      Put out a	list of	speed values as	reported by the	 output	 drive
	      with  the	loaded medium. This does not necessarily mean that the
	      medium is	writable or that these speeds are actually achievable.
	      Especially the lists reported with empty drive or	with ROM media
	      obviously	advertise speeds for other media.
	      It is not	mandatory to use speed values out of the listed	range.
	      The  drive is supposed to	choose a safe speed that is as near to
	      the desired speed	as possible.
	      At the end of the	list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H"  are
	      the  best	guesses	for lower and upper speed limit.  "Write speed
	      l" and "Write speed h" may appear	only with  CD  and  eventually
	      override the list	of other speed offers.
	      Only  if the drive reports contradicting speed information there
	      will appear "Write speed 0" or "Write speed-1", which  tell  the
	      outcome of speed selection by options speed=0 or speed=-1, if it
	      deviates from "Write speed L" or "Write speed H",	respectively.

	      Like option -toc but  marking  each  session  start  by  a  line
	      "first: X	last: Y" and each session end by "track:lout ...".

	      When  aquiring  the  optical drive, do not try to	load its tray.
	      This yields the same  behavior  for  desktop  drives  with  tray
	      loader  as is shown by laptop drives which usually lack a	motor-
	      ized tray	loader.

	      Only if used as first command line argument this option prevents
	      reading  and  interpretation of eventual startup files. See sec-
	      tion FILES below.

	      Adds a newline character to each pacifier	line that would	 else-
	      wise  be	overwritten  by	the next pacifier line.	Such lines are
	      emitted during a run of writing, formatting, or blanking if  op-
	      tion -v is given.

	      Activates	 behavior modifications	with some DVD situations which
	      bring cdrskin nearer to the behavior of cdrecord-ProDVD:
	      Option -multi with unsuitable media is not an error  but	simply
	      has no effect.
	      Options  blank=fast  and blank=all deformat overwriteable	DVD-RW
	      Option blank=fast	does indeed minmal blanking with DVD-RW.  This
	      may  yield  media	 which	can  only  do  DAO but not Incremental

	      Accept only the last argument  of	 the  command  line  as	 track
	      source address.

	      Set  the	number	of bytes after which to	force output to	drives
	      with prefix "stdio:". This forcing keeps the memory  from	 being
	      clogged with lots	of pending data	for slow devices. Default "on"
	      is the same as "16m".  Forced output can be disabled by "off".

	      By setting "on" request that compliance  to  the	desired	 speed
	      setting  is preferred over management of write errors. With DVD-
	      RAM and BD this can bring	effective write	speed near to the nom-
	      inal write speed of the media.  But it will also disable the au-
	      tomatic use of replacement blocks	 if  write  errors  occur.  It
	      might as well be disliked	or ignored by the drive.
	      If  a  number  is	given, then error management stays enabled for
	      all byte addresses below that number. Any	number	below  16s  is
	      the same as "off".

	      Set  an exact fixed size for the next track to be	in effect only
	      if the track source cannot deliver  a  size  prediction  and  no
	      tsize=  was  specified and an exact track	size prediction	is de-
	      manded by	the write mode.
	      This was the fallback from bad old times when cdrskin was	unable
	      to  burn in mode -tao . It came back with	minimally blanked DVD-
	      RW, which	cannot do Incremental Streaming	(-tao),	and  with  ex-
	      plicitly	selected  write	mode -sao for best DVD-ROM compatibil-
	      If the track source delivers less	bytes than announced then  the
	      missing ones will	be filled with zeros.

	      Prepare  a  recording  session, do not perform it	but rather in-
	      quire the	maximum	number of 2048 byte data blocks	which  may  be
	      written  in  the current state of	media with the prepared	setup.
	      So this option disables recording	of data. It does  not  disable
	      blanking,	though,	and will measure space afterwards.
	      It  is  not mandatory to give track sources but their nature may
	      influence	the available capacity.	So for most realistic  results
	      one may set up the full burn session and add --tell_media_space.
	      But if one has to	expect a cdrskin version  prior	 to  0.3.3  no
	      track  source  should be given in	order not to start an involun-
	      tary burn	session.  In this case set at least -sao or  -tao  ex-
	      The  result gets printed to standard output. It is 0 or empty if
	      no writing is possible with  the	given  options.	  This	option
	      redirects	 to  stderr  all  message output except	its own	result
	      string and eventual output of -msinfo.

	      Read a CD-TEXT pack file (e.g. cdtext.dat	from a run with	-v  -v
	      -toc) and	print its content in the human readable	format that is
	      described	with option input_sheet_v07t=.
	      The program run ends immediately thereafter.  No drive scan will
	      happen and no drive will be acquired.
	      To avoid the cdrskin start message in the	output,	run:
		cdrskin	textfile_to_v07t=cdtext.dat | grep -v '^cdrskin'

	      Indicate	for subsequent tracks that they	were mastered with two

	      Set the address on media where to	start writing the track.  With
	      DVD+RW,  DVD-RAM	or  BD-RE byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB
	      blocks, but better is 32 kiB.  With DVD-RW 32 kiB	 alignment  is
	      Other media are not suitable for this option yet.

	      Mode  1  keeps  the  program  from trying	to write to the	burner
	      drive while its buffer is	in danger to be	filled	by  more  than
	      parameter	 "max_percent".	  If this filling is exceeded then the
	      program will wait	until the filling is at	most the value of  pa-
	      rameter "min_percent".
	      Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to	100.
	      This  can	ease the load on operating system and drive controller
	      and thus help with achieving better input	bandwidth if disk  and
	      burner  are  not	on independent controllers (like hda and hdb).
	      Unsufficient input  bandwidth  is	 indicated  by	output	"(fifo
	      xy%)"  of	 option	-v if xy is lower than 90 for some time.  mod-
	      esty_on_drive= might hamper output bandwidth  and	 cause	buffer
	      A	 new  use case is to work around the poor simultaneous perfor-
	      mance of multiple	burn runs on Linux kernel 3.16 and alike. Here
	      it  is  not  about  giving the hard disk enough time to fill the
	      fifo, but	about keeping ioctl(SG_IO) from	blocking for a	longer
	      time and thus blocking all other burn runs.
	      To  have max_percent larger than the burner's best actual	buffer
	      fill has the same	effect as min_percent==max_percent. Some burn-
	      ers  do  not  use	 their full buffer with	all media types. Watch
	      output "[buf xy%]" of option -v to get an	impression of the  ac-
	      tual  buffer  usage.  Some burners are not suitable because they
	      report buffer fill with granularity too large in size  or	 time,
	      or because they go to full speed only when their buffer is full.
	      If  a write attempt is delayed, the program will wait for	a num-
	      ber of microseconds which	is given by parameter  "min_usec"  be-
	      fore  inquiring  the  buffer again. iIf more retries occur, this
	      waiting time between inquiries increases up to the value of  pa-
	      rameter "max_usec".
	      If  the  delay  lasts longer than	the number of seconds given by
	      parameter	"timeout_sec", then mode 1 is set 0 and	normal burning
	      goes on.
	      Mode  0  disables	 this feature. Mode -1 keeps it	unchanged. De-
	      fault is:
	      The defaults of cdrskin are good for IDE problems. With  concur-
	      rent Linux SG_IO problems	on modern hardware, higher min_percent
	      and lower	usec might  yield  better  buffer  fills  while	 still
	      avoiding the problem:

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are	only intended for very special
       situations and not for  normal use:

	      Establish	default	signal handling	not to leave a drive  in  busy
	      state  but rather	to shut	it down	and to wait until it has ended
	      the final	operations.  This option is only needed	 for  revoking
	      eventual --ignore_signals	or --no_abort_handler.

	      Enable the use of	media profiles which have been implemented but
	      not yet tested. Currently	this option is without effect  because
	      no media types are under test reservation.
	      (If  you	really test experimental media,	then please report the
	      outcome on

	      Prepare a	burn run, report the effective array of	CD-TEXT	 packs
	      to stdout, and then end the program run without starting to burn
	      the session.  A blank CD-R or CD-RW has to  be  present  in  the
	      drive, nevertheless.
	      The  output  is  formatted  in  lines which describe 18 bytes as
	      2-digit hex numbers or as	single printable characters.  See lib-
	      burn document doc/cdtext.txt about the format of these records.

	      Like --cdtext_dummy but without preventing the burn run. Combin-
	      able with	option -dummy to exercise a CD burn run	with  no  per-
	      sistent impact on	the medium.

	      Set drive	address	alias. This was	necessary before cdrskin-0.2.4
	      to manually translate cdrecord addresses into cdrskin addresses.
	      <sep> is a single	character which	may not	occur in  the  address
	      string  <from>.  <from> is an address as expected	to be given by
	      the user via option dev=.	<to> is	the address to be used instead
	      whenever <from> is given.	 More than one translation instruction
	      can be given in one cdrskin run.
	      E.g.:	 dev_translation=+ATA:1,0,0+/dev/sr1	  dev_transla-

	      Linux specific: Abort process if a busy drive is encountered.

	      Linux  specific:	Try  to	 wait for a busy drive to become free.
	      This is not guaranteed to	work with all drivers. Some need  non-
	      blocking i/o.

	      Linux  specific:	Try to get exclusive lock on drive device file
	      via fcntl(2).

	      Linux	specific:     Combine	  --drive_not_f_setlk	   and

	      Linux specific: Do not try to get	exclusive lock on drive	device
	      file via fcntl(2).

	      Linux specific: Do not ask the operating system to prevent open-
	      ing  busy	 drives.   Whether this	leads to senseful behavior de-
	      pends on operating system	and kernel.

	      Linux specific: Select a SCSI device file	family to  be  scanned
	      for by options --devices,	--device_links and -scanbus.  Normally
	      this is /dev/sgN on kernel versions < 2.6	and /dev/srN  on  ker-
	      nels  >=	2.6 . This option explicitly overrides that default in
	      order to meet other programs at a	common device  file  for  each
	      drive.  On kernel	2.4 families sr	and scd	will find no drives.
	      Device  file family /dev/hdX on kernel >=	2.6 is not affected by
	      this setting.

	      Linux  specific:	Try  to	 exclusively  reserve	device	 files
	      /dev/srN,	 /dev/scdM, /dev/sgK of	drives.	 This would be helpful
	      to protect against collisions with program  growisofs.   Regret-
	      tably on Linux kernel 2.4	with ide-scsi emulation	this seems not
	      to work. Whether it becomes helpful with new Linux  systems  has
	      to be evaluated.

	      Disable fifo despite any fs=.

	      Use a separate fifo for each track.

	      Expand  the  last	 track	of the session to occupy all remaining
	      free space on the	media.
	      This option overrides option -multi. It will not fill  up	 media
	      if option	-sao is	given with CD media.
	      Caution:	With  multi-session  media  this option	might increase
	      readatibility on DVD-ROM drives but with some DVD	recorders  and
	      media types it might also	fail to	produce	readable media at all.
	      "Your mileage may	vary".
	      You can expect the best possible read compatibility  if  you  do
	      not use -multi at	all.

	      Open  the	addressed drive, wait the given	number of seconds, re-
	      lease the	drive, and do normal work as indicated	by  the	 other
	      options  used. This option helps to explore the program behavior
	      when faced with busy drives. Just	start a	 second	 cdrskin  with
	      option --devices while grab_drive_and_wait= is still active.

	      Try to ignore any	signals	rather than to abort the program. This
	      is not a very good idea. You might end up	waiting	 a  very  long
	      time for cdrskin to finish.

	      On  signals exit even if the drive is in busy state. This	is not
	      a	very good idea.	You might end up with a	stuck drive  that  re-
	      fuses to hand out	the media.

	      Refuse  to  blank	 appendable CD-RW or DVD-RW. This is a feature
	      that was once builtin with libburn. No information available for
	      what use case it was needed.

	      Do only literal translations of dev=. This prevents cdrskin from
	      test-opening device files	in order to find one that matches  the
	      given dev= specifier.
	      Partly Linux specific: Such opening is needed for	Bus,Target,Lun
	      addresses	unless option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr is	given.	It  is
	      also  needed  to	resolve	 device	 file  addresses which are not
	      listed with cdrskin --devices but	nevertheless point to a	usable
	      drive. (Like /dev/sg0 using the same SCSI	address	as /dev/sr0.)

	      Pad  the	data of	last write operation of	a DVD-R[W] DAO session
	      or stdio:	pseudo-drive up	to the full size of an	output	chunk.
	      This  padding  has  to be	applied	automatically to the other DVD
	      and BD media types, where	it causes  e.g.	 ISO  images  to  have
	      trailing unclaimed blocks.
	      Use  this	 option	 if  there  is the suspicion that DAO sessions
	      abort with your kernel and/or DVD	drive, if their	size is	not  a
	      multiple of 16 blocks.
	      This option may also get enabled at compile time of libburn.

	      Linux  specific: Use and report literal Bus,Target,Lun addresses
	      rather than real SCSI and	pseudo ATA addresses. This  method  is
	      outdated and was never compatible	with original cdrecord.

	      Define  whether  a  post-gap  shall be written at	the end	of the
	      track and	how many sectors this gap shall	have. A	post-gap occu-
	      pies  the	range of an additional index of	the track. It contains
	      zeros. No	bytes from the track source will be read  for  writing
	      the post-gap.
	      This setting affects only	CD SAO write runs.

	      Define  whether  a pre-gap shall be written before the track and
	      how many sectors this pre-gap shall have.	A pre-gap  is  written
	      in  the range of track index 0 and contains zeros. No bytes from
	      the track	source will be read for	writing	the pre-gap.
	      This setting affects only	CD SAO write runs.
	      The first	track automatically gets a pre-gap  of	at  least  150
	      sectors. Its size	can only be enlarged by	this call.

	      Control whether several long lasting SCSI	commands shall be exe-
	      cuted with the Immed bit,	which makes  the  commands  end	 early
	      while  the  drive	 operation is still going on. cdrskin then in-
	      quires progress indication until the drive reports to  be	 ready
	      again.  If this feature is turned	off, then blanking and format-
	      ting will	show no	progress indication.
	      It may depend on the operating system whether use_immed_bit=  is
	      set to "off" by default.

	      Silently	interpret  option -xa1 as -data. This may be necessary
	      if a frontend does not prepare -xa1 block	headers	but insists in
	      using option -xa1.

   Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
       cdrskin -scanbus
       cdrskin dev=ATA -scanbus
       cdrskin --device_links

   Get info about a particular drive or	loaded media:
       cdrskin dev=0,1,0 -checkdrive
       cdrskin dev=ATA:1,0,0 -v	-atip
       cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -minfo

   Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, DVD-RAM or BD-RE	for first use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sg1 blank=as_needed -eject

   Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite

   De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session	again:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat_sequential

   Write ISO-9660 filesystem image as only one to blank	or formatted media:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/hdc speed=12	fs=8m \
	 blank=as_needed -eject	padsize=300k my_image.iso

   Write  compressed  afio  archive  on-the-fly	 (not  possible	with minimally
       blanked DVD-RW or DVD-R DL):
       find . |	afio -oZ - | \
       cdrskin -v dev=0,1,0 fs=32m speed=8 \
	 blank=as_needed padsize=300k -

   Write multi-session to the same CD, DVD-R[W], DVD+R[/DL], or	BD-R:
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 1.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 2.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 3.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k 4.iso

   Get multi-session info for option -C	of program mkisofs:
       c_values=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -msinfo 2>/dev/null)
       mkisofs ... -C "$c_values" ...

   Inquire free	space on media for a -multi run:
       x=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0	-multi \
	 --tell_media_space 2>/dev/null)
       echo "Available:	$x blocks of 2048 data bytes"

   Write audio tracks and CD-TEXT to CD:
       cdrskin -v dev=ATA:1,0,0	speed=48 -sao \
	 input_sheet_v07t=cdtext.v07t \
	 track1.wav -audio -swab track3.raw

   Extract audio tracks	and CD-TEXT from CD into directory /home/me/my_cd:
       mkdir /home/me/my_cd
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 extract_audio_to=/home/me/my_cd \

   Startup files:
       If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then cdrskin attempts  on
       startup to read the arguments from the following	files:


       The files are read in the sequence given	above, but none	of them	is re-
       quired for cdrskin to function properly.	Each readable line is  treated
       as one single argument. No extra	blanks.	 A first character '#' marks a
       comment,	empty lines are	ignored.
       Example content of a startup file:
       # This is the default device
       # Some more options

   Disabling superuser safety precautions:
       The superuser is	normally banned	from using any	other  emulated	 drive
       but /dev/null. This ban can be lifted by	the existence of file


       where  the  directory must be owned by the superuser and	must not offer
       w-permissions for group or others.
       Warning:	Superusers must	take care not to spoil their hard disk via its
       raw block device	(like stdio:/dev/hda or	stdio:/dev/sd0).

       Formatting data track sources for cdrskin:
	      mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8), xorriso(1), afio(1), star(1)

       Other CD/DVD/BD burn programs:
	      cdrecord(1), wodim(1), xorriso(1)

       For DVD/BD burning (also	tutor of libburn's DVD/BD capabilities):

       cdrskin was written by Thomas Schmitt <>.

       This  manual page was started by	George Danchev <> and
       is now maintained by Thomas Schmitt.

			  Version 1.4.6, Sep 16, 2016		    CDRSKIN(1)


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