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CDRECORD(1)                 Schily's USER COMMANDS                 CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord - record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord [ general options ][ dev=device ][ track options ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange
       Book CD-recorder, to write DVD media on a DVD-recorder or to write
       BluRay media on a BluRay-recorder.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming at all.  If no dev=
       option was specified, cdrecord implements auto target support and
       automagically finds the drive in case that exactly one CD-ROM type
       drive is available in the system.  In case that more than one CD-ROM
       type drive exists on the system, a list of possible device name
       parameters may be retrieved with cdrecord -scanbus or from the target
       example from the output of cdrecord dev=help, then the dev= parameter
       may be set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to the
       SCSI CAM standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-
       recorder.  If a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the parameter to
       the dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES
       section).

   Constraints for running cdrecord
       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the real-time class to get the
       highest scheduling priority that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real-time scheduling cdrecord uses
       real-time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a priority that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run
       at highest priority and lock itself into core cdrecord either needs to
       be run as root, needs to be installed suid root or must be called via a
       fine grained privileges mechanism, such as the Solaris privileges(5)
       mechanism via exec_attr(4) or the Linux capabilities(7) mechanism via
       setcap(8) to allow cdrecord to be used as an ordinary user.

   File to track mapping
       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard input is used for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to track
       relation may not be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file
       contains all data for the whole disk.  To allow DVD writing on
       platforms that do not implement large file support, cdrecord
       concatenates all file arguments to a single track when writing to DVD
       media.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

   Informative options
       -help  display version information for cdrecord on standard output.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

   Media write mode options
       -dummy The -dummy option modifies the current write strategy.  The
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder will go through all steps of the
              recording process, but the laser is turned off during this
              procedure.  It is recommended to run several tests before
              actually writing to a Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if
              the timing and load response of the current system is not yet
              known.

              The -dummy option does not work with all media and write modes.
              DVD+ media and BluRay media does not support dummy writes and
              most CD-recorders do not support dummy writes in raw mode.

       -multi Allow multi-session CDs or multi-border DVDs to be made.  This
              flag needs to be present on all sessions of a multi-session or
              multi-border disk, except you want to create a session on a CD
              that will be the last session on the CD-media.

              For CD-media, the fixation will be done in a way that allows the
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder to append additional sessions later. This
              is done by generating a TOC with a link to the next program
              area. The so generated media is not 100% compatible to
              manufactured CDs (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording of
              multi-session CDs.  If this option is present, the default track
              type is CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048
              bytes.  The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive.
              The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2
              form 1.  You have to specify the -data option in order to create
              multi-session disks on these drives.  If you like to record a
              multi-session disk in SAO mode, you need to force CD-ROM sectors
              by including the -data option.  Not all drives allow multi-
              session CDs in SAO mode.

              For DVD media, -multi switches the write mode to incremental
              packet recording.  There is currently no way to prevent the
              ability to append further sessions and there is currently only
              support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse a DVD-RW that has
              previously been written in incremental packet recording mode for
              different write modes, you need to blank the entire media
              before.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk At
              Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that
              support Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know
              the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs
              -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
              information).

              There are several CD writers with bad firmware that result in
              broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  If you find any
              problems with the layout of a disk or with subchannel content
              (e.g. wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and your
              drive supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should
              give it a try.

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
              mode in previous cdrecord versions.  With most drives, this
              write mode is required for multi-session recording.

              There are several CD writers with bad firmware that result in
              broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  If you find any
              problems with the layout of a disk or with subchannel content
              (e.g. wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and your
              drive supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should
              give it a try.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
              Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of each track in
              advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and
              the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of raw
              P-W sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.
              This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best control
              over the CD-writing process.  Writing data disks in raw mode
              needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes. If
              your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note
              that cdrecord needs to know the size of each track in advance
              for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of
              packed P-W sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode as only a
              few recorders support it and some of these recorders have bugs
              in the firmware implementation.  Don't use this mode if your
              recorder supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in raw
              mode needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes.
              If your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
              Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of each track in
              advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and
              the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes of P-Q
              sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a
              recorder does not support -raw96r, this is the preferred raw
              writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-Text or CD+Graphics
              but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap CD-writers, as
              these cheap writers in most cases do not support -dao mode.
              Don't use this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.  Writing
              data disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than
              other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
              buffer underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
              each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
              option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

   Cdrecord functional options
       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
              only, this should never be needed; but other software may leave
              a drive in an unusable condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may
              be needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the
              software did not tell the drive that it will not continue to
              write.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (Absolute Time In Pre-groove)
              info of a CD/DVD/BluRay recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay re-writable
              media.  With this option, cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP
              info. If the actual drive does not support to read the ATIP
              info, it may be that only a reduced set of information records
              or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC-
              compliant drives support to read the ATIP info.

              If cdrecord is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the manufacturer
              info from the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
              but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
              and printed.

       blank=type
              Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This results in erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank the last track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.

              Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary
              to use blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being
              invalid.  If used together with the -force flag, this option may
              be used to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked.
              Note that you may need to specify blank=all because some drives
              will not continue with certain types of bad CD-RW disks. Note
              also that cdrecord does its best if the -force flag is used but
              it finally depends on the drive's firmware whether the blanking
              operation will succeed or not.

       -checkdrive
              Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, cdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to handle images created by readcd -clone.  The
              -clone write mode may only be used in conjunction with the
              -raw96r or -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with -raw96r is
              preferred as it allows to write all sub-channel data.  The
              -raw16 option should only be used with drives that do not
              support to write in -raw96r mode.

              Note that copying in clone mode disables certain levels of error
              correction and thus always results in a quality degradation.
              Avoid copying audio CDs in clone mode for this reason.

       cuefile=filename
              Take all recording-related information from a CDRWIN-compliant
              CUE sheet file.  No track-file arguments to cdrecord are allowed
              when this option is present and one of the following options:
              -dao, -sao, -raw, -raw16, -raw96r is needed in addition.

       defpregap=#
              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track number
              1.  This option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
              when creating track-at-once disks without the 2-second silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in the future.

       driver=name
              Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
              reason for the existence of the driver=name option is to allow
              users to use cdrecord with drives that are similar to supported
              drives but not known directly by cdrecord.  All drives made
              after 1997 should be MMC-standard-compliant and thus supported
              by one of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that cdrecord is
              unable to find the right driver automatically.  Use this option
              with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the
              possibility of creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum
              problem related to a wrong driver is that the -speed or -dummy
              will not work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To get a list of possible drivers together with a short
                     description.

              mmc_bd The generic SCSI-3/mmc BluRay driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     support to write BluRay media or a multi system that
                     contains a BluRay disk as the current medium.  This
                     driver tries to close the tray, checks the medium found
                     in the tray and then branches to the driver that matches
                     the current medium.

              mmc_bdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc BluRay driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     support to write BluRay BD-R media or a multi system that
                     contains a BluRay BD-R disk as the current medium.

              mmc_bdre
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc BluRay driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     support to write BluRay BD-RE media or a multi system
                     that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current medium.

              mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-ROM driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
                     not identify itself to support writing at all, or that
                     only identifies to support media or write modes not
                     implemented in cdrecord.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD/BluRay driver is auto-
                     selected whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-2 or
                     MMC-3-compliant drive that seems to support more than one
                     medium type and the tray is open or no medium could be
                     found to select the right driver.  This driver tries to
                     close the tray, checks the medium found in the tray and
                     then branches to the driver that matches the current
                     medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-compliant drive that only
                     supports to write CDs or a multi system drive that
                     contains a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord would otherwise select the mmc_cdr
                     driver but the device seems to be made by Sony.  The
                     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
                     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
                     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced by
                     Sony proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony drives
                     (even newer ones) still implement the Sony proprietary
                     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem to use
                     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
                     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-
                     selected whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-2 or
                     MMC-3-compliant drive that supports to write DVDs and an
                     appropriate medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once
                     mode for DVD writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-
                     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media types that are
                     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
                     then branches to the driver that matches the current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a DVD+R medium is found in an appropriate
                     writer.  Note that for unknown reason, the DVD+RW
                     Alliance does not like that there is a simulation mode
                     for DVD+R media.  The author of cdrecord tries to
                     convince manufacturers to implement a simulation mode for
                     DVD+R and implement support.  DVD+R only supports one
                     write mode that is somewhere between Track At Once and
                     Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord via the
                     -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a DVD+RW medium is found in an appropriate
                     writer.  As DVD+RW media need to be formatted before
                     their first use, cdrecord auto-detects this medium state
                     and performs a format before it starts to write.  Note
                     that for unknown reason, the DVD+RW Alliance does not
                     like that there is a simulation mode nor a way to erase
                     DVD+RW media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
                     is close to Packet writing; this mode is selected in
                     cdrecord via the -dao/-sao option.

              cw_7501
                     The driver for Matsushita/Panasonic CW-7501 is auto-
                     selected when cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive.
                     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this drive type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive which has been the
                     first high speed (6x) CD-writer for a long time. This
                     drive behaves similarly to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The driver for Philips CDD-521 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the
                     first CD-writer ever made) or one of the other drives
                     that are known to behave similarly to this drive.  All
                     Philips CDD-521 or similar drives (see other drivers in
                     this list) do not support Session At Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware
                     which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The driver for Philips CDD-522 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is the successor
                     of the 521 or one of its variants with Kodak label.
                     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording with
                     these drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The driver for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic
                     assumptions is never auto-selected.  It may be used by
                     hand with drives that behave similarly to the Philips
                     CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The driver for Pioneer DW-S114X is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds one of the old non-MMC CD-writers from
                     Pioneer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The driver for Plasmon RF 4100 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds this specific variant of the Philips
                     CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds this drive. There is no real support for
                     this drive yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds a pre-MMC drive that does not
                     support writing or a pre-MMC writer that is not supported
                     by cdrecord.

              sony_cdu924
                     The driver for Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
                     whenever cdrecord finds one of the old pre-MMC CD-writers
                     from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
                     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected whenever one of the
                     drives is found that is known to use the non-MMC command
                     set used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that many drives from JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
                     documented command set and JVC has been unwilling to fix
                     or document the bugs.  There is no support for the
                     Session At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
                     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
                     when cdrecord finds one of the old pre-MMC CD-writers
                     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
                     write mode yet.

              bd_simul
                     The simulation BluRay driver allows to run timing and
                     speed tests with parameters that match the behavior of
                     BluRay writers.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
                     tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD-
                     writers.

              dvd_simul
                     The simulation DVD-R driver allows to run timing and
                     speed tests with parameters that match the behavior of
                     DVD writers.

              There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
              dvd_simul.  These driver entries are designed to make timing
              tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do not
              support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers implement a
              drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can be changed via the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable.  The simulation driver
              correctly simulates even a buffer underrun condition.  If the
              -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are specified as a
              comma separated list.  To get a list of valid options use
              driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive option.  If you
              like to set driver options without running a typical cdrecord
              task, you need to use the -setdropts option in addition,
              otherwise the command line parser in cdrecord will complain.
              Currently implemented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
                     This only works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
                     Free technology.  This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof,
                     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

                     The default is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
                     parameter value is the laser power offset and currently
                     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you
                     need to set the write speed to 4 in order to allow
                     VariRec to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
                     parameter value is the disk capacity ratio compared to
                     normal recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
                     0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0
                     are used, then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio
                     Master Q. R.  feature. If values > 1.0 are used, then the
                     disk capacity is increased.

                     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive
                     uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is limited to
                     8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which
                     usually should result in high quality CDs that have less
                     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.  As this is
                     implemented as a variant of the Session At Once write
                     mode, it will only work if you select SAO write mode and
                     there is no need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode
                     will work with a limited speed but may also be used with
                     data CDs. In Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will
                     be written larger than usual so the capacity of the
                     medium is reduced when turning this feature on.  A
                     74-minute CD will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if
                     Audio Master is active and the capacity of a 80-minute CD
                     will be reduced to 68 minutes, the capacity in will be
                     reduced to 85% of the original capacity.  On newer
                     Plextor drives, this feature is also present but the
                     capacity will be reduced to 86.66% of the original
                     capacity. For other factors on Plextor drives, see the
                     gigarec option above.

              forcespeed
                     Normally, modern drives know the highest possible speed
                     for different media and may reduce the speed in order to
                     grant best write quality.  This technology may be called:
                     Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
                     Speed Control or similar.  Some drives (e.g. Plextor,
                     Ricoh and Yamaha) allow to force the drive to use the
                     selected speed even if the medium is so bad that the
                     write quality would be poor. This option tells such a
                     drive to force to use the selected speed regardless of
                     the medium quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
                     should know better which medium will work at full speed.
                     The default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some ultra high speed drives such as 48x and faster
                     drives from Plextor limit the read speed for unknown
                     media to e.g. 40x in order to avoid damaged disks and
                     drives.  Using this option tells the drive to read any
                     media as fast as possible.  Be very careful as this may
                     cause the media to break in the drive while reading,
                     resulting in damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn the drive into a single-session only drive.  This
                     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
                     with extremely non-standard additional (broken/illegal)
                     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
                     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
                     from the first session is used.  You need to enable
                     Single Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single-session mode. The drive will again behave
                     as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
                     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and
                     applications believe that the media in the drive is not a
                     CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
                     image size information for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
                     The images always have a line length of 3744 pixels.
                     Line number 0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the
                     disk.  If you know the inner and outer radii you will be
                     able to create a pre distorted image that later may
                     appear undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write an
                     image prepared for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature to the
                     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W data
                     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
                     call to tattooinfo.  If the size of the image equals the
                     maximum possible size (3744 x 320 pixels), cdrecord will
                     use the first part of the file. This first part then will
                     be written to the leftover space on the CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable from
                     the pick up side of the CD.

              layerbreak
                     Switch a drive with DVD-R/DL medium into layer jump
                     recording recording mode and use automatic layer-break
                     position setup.

                     By default, DVD-R/DL media is written in sequential
                     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

              layerbreak=value
                     Set up a manual layer-break value for DVD-R/DL and
                     DVD+R/DL.  The specified layer-break value must not be
                     set to less than half of the recorded data size and must
                     not be set to more than the remaining Layer 0 size of the
                     medium.  The manual layer-break value needs to be a
                     multiple of the ECC sector size which is 16 logical 2048
                     byte sectors in case of DVD media and 32 logical 2048
                     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

                     Cdrecord does not allow to write DL media in case that
                     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
                     the medium except when a manual layer-break has been
                     specified by using the layerbreak=value option.

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips)
              need to eject the medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
              -dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
              on these devices.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk has
              been written but not fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -force Force to continue on some errors. Be careful when using this
              option.  Cdrecord implements several checks that prevent you
              from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
              drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
              option is used.

              This option also implements some tricks that will allow you to
              blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -format
              Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE disc.  Formatting is
              currently only implemented for DVD+RW and BD-RE media.  A
              'maiden' DVD+RW or BD-RE medium needs to be formatted before you
              may write to it.  However, as cdrecord autodetects the need for
              formatting in this case and auto formats the medium before it
              starts writing, the -format option is only needed if you like to
              forcibly reformat a DVD+RW or BD-RE medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same
              syntax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing
              the size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a
              number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or
              `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or
              2352.  If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',
              multiplication of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k
              will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared
              memory that is needed for administration. This is at least one
              page of memory.  If no fs= option is present, cdrecord will try
              to get the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.
              The default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
              process.  It allows to run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
              cdrecord.  If the FIFO is active and a pipe from mkisofs into
              cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord will abort prior to do
              any modifications on the disk if mkisofs dies before writing
              starts.  The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
              As a rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at least equal to
              the size of the internal buffer of the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder
              and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in
              the machine.  If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO
              statistics will print a FIFO empty count of zero and a FIFO min
              fill not below 20%.  It is not wise to use too much space for
              the FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a speed
              less than 20x from an image on a local file system on an idle
              machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware
              problems or is mis-configured.  If you like to write DVDs or to
              write CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB
              for the FIFO.

              On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the
              FIFO size.  If your machine has less than 256 MB of physical
              RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than 32 MB.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
              table entries for 16 MBytes per process. Using more than
              14 MBytes for the FIFO may cause the operating system in this
              case to spend much time to constantly reload the MMU tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem.
              The author has no information on PC hardware reflecting this
              problem.

              Old Linux systems for non-x86 platforms have broken definitions
              for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
              kernel or manually tell cdrecord to use a smaller FIFO.

              If you have buffer underruns or similar problems (like a
              constantly empty drive-buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty
              count, you have hardware problems that prevent the data from
              flowing fast enough from the kernel memory to the drive. The
              FIFO size in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a
              working DMA setup.

       gracetime=#
              Set the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.
              Values below 3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the
              volume management from interrupting the write process.

       -ignsize
              Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be used
              with extreme care, it exists only for debugging purposes so do
              not use it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks
              with more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies
              -overburn.

       -immed Tell cdrecord to set the SCSI IMMED flag in certain commands
              (load, eject, blank, close_track, close_session).  This can be
              useful on broken systems with ATAPI hard-disk and CD/DVD/BluRay
              writer on the same bus or with SCSI systems that do not use
              disconnect/reconnect.  These systems will freeze while blanking
              or fixating a CD/DVD/BluRay or while a DVD writer is filling up
              a session to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the
              -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
              the operation proceeds in background, making the bus usable for
              the other devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an
              experimental feature which may work or not, depending on the
              model of the CD/DVD/BluRay writer.  A correct solution would be
              to set up a correct cabling but there seem to be notebooks
              around that have been set up the wrong way by the manufacturer.
              As it is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed
              option has been added.

              A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is to tell
              cdrecord to try to wait short times while writing to the media.
              This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD/BluRay writer
              and the data source are connected to the same IDE cable. In this
              case, the CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the
              IDE bus for nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch
              data from the source drive. See also the minbuf= and -v options.

              Use both features at your own risk.  If it turns out that it
              would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
              write to the author and convince him.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info for the
              drive and exit.

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray-loading
              mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk
              transporter.

       -lock  Load the media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
              tray-loading mechanism but seems to be useful when using the
              Kodak disk transporter.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       minbuf=value
              The minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive-buffer
              fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
              to free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD/BluRay writer
              to be on the same IDE cable.  As the wait mode currently only
              works when the verbose option -v has been specified, cdrecord
              implies the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf= option
              has been specified.  Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and
              95 for 25%...95% minimum drive-buffer fill ratio.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state of the medium.
              This option currently only works for MMC-compliant drives.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve multi-session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
              or later.

              This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least
              one closed session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
              Some drives create error messages if you try to get the multi-
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -noclose
              Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet
              writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may be
              used to create an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there are
              audio CD-players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -overburn
              Allow cdrecord to write more than the official size of a medium.
              This feature is usually called overburning and depends on the
              fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
              size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
              90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there are
              at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
              at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD-recorders only do
              overburning in SAO or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
              R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.  Some drives do
              not allow to overburn as much as you might like and limit the
              size of a CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This problem may be
              circumvented by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the
              drive has no chance to find the size before starting to burn.
              There is no guarantee that your drive supports overburning at
              all.  Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
              experimental interface.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc-compliant drives as
              obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000
              bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB use 1024 bytes as
              Kilo-byte.

       -setdropts
              Set the driveropts specified by driveropts=option list, the
              speed of the drive and the dummy flag and exit.  This allows
              cdrecord to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
              used by cdrecord like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and
              similar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option list
              should be called without planning to run a typical cdrecord
              task.

       speed=#
              Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an
              integer, representing a multiple of what has been defined as
              single speed for the medium.

              For CD-media, single speed is the audio playback speed.  This is
              about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.
              Single speed is about 1385 kB/s for DVD media and about
              4496 kB/s for BluRay media.

              If no speed option is present, cdrecord will try to get a drive
              specific speed value from the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord and
              if it cannot find one, it will try to get the speed value from
              the CDR_SPEED environment and later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in
              /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.  If no speed value could be found,
              cdrecord uses a drive specific default speed.  The default for
              all new (MMC-compliant) drives is to use the maximum supported
              by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC-compliant drive,
              cdrecord will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive and
              medium.  If you are using an old (non-MMC) drive that has
              problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
              that contains ascii information for the text strings.  Cdrecord
              supports CD-Text information based on the content of the *.inf
              files created by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based on the
              content from a CUE sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
              both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
              the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
              cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
              tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like
              to write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or
              the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that
              are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write CD-Text based on information found in the binary file
              filename.  This file must contain information in a data format
              defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
              four-byte-sized header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.  This is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
              data from existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
              To get data in a format suitable for this option use cdrecord
              -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.  If both,
              textfile=filename and CD-Text information from *.inf or *.cue
              files are present, textfile=filename will overwrite the other
              information.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of contents or PMA of a CD.
              With this option, cdrecord will work with CD-R drives and with
              CD-ROM drives.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before
              trying to open the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read its
              input from a pipe even when writing additional sessions to a
              multi-session disk.  When writing another session to a multi-
              session disk, mkisofs needs to read the old session from the
              device before writing output.  This cannot be done if cdrecord
              opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -useinfo
              Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this option is
              used, the pregap size information, the index information, the
              pre-emphasis information and the CD-Text information is read
              from the *.inf file that is associated with the file that
              contains the audio data for a track.

              If used together with the -audio option, cdrecord may be used to
              write audio CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord
              with the *.inf files as track parameter list instead of using
              audio files.  The audio data is read from stdin in this case.
              See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that stdin
              is not connected to a terminal and runs some heuristic
              consistency checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track
              lengths from the information in the *.inf files.

              If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is
              called with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed to
              a value below the read speed of the source drive and switch the
              burn-free option for the recording drive on.

   SCSI options
       dev=target
              Set the SCSI target for the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder, see notes
              above.  A typical target device specification is dev=1,6,0 .  If
              a filename must be provided together with the numerical target
              specification, the filename is implementation specific.  The
              correct filename in this case can be found in the system
              specific manuals of the target operating system.  On a FreeBSD
              system without CAM support, you need to use the control device
              (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specification in this
              case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              General SCSI addressing
              The target device to the dev= option refers to the SCSI CAM
              standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-
              recorder. Communication on SunOS is done with the SCSI general
              driver scg.  Other operating systems are using a library
              simulation of this driver.  Possible syntax is: dev=
              scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the latter case, the
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder has to be connected to the default SCSI
              bus of the machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer
              numbers.  Some operating systems or SCSI transport
              implementations may require to specify a filename in addition.
              In this case the correct syntax for the device is: dev=
              devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:target,lun.  If
              the name of the device node that has been specified on such a
              system refers to exactly one SCSI device, a shorthand in the
              form dev= devicename:@ or dev= devicename:@,lun may be used
              instead of dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

              Remote SCSI addressing
              To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI
              device name by a remote device indicator. The remote device
              indicator is either REMOTE:user@host: or REMOTE:host: A valid
              remote SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow
              remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the
              SCSI device at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0, lun 0.
              In order to allow remote access to a specific host, the rscsi(1)
              program needs to be present and configured on the host.

              Alternate SCSI transports
              Cdrecord is completely based on SCSI commands but this is no
              problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay writers ever made use SCSI commands
              for the communication. Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI drives
              that inherently use the ATA packet interface as SCSI command
              transport layer build into the IDE (ATA) transport.  You may
              need to specify an alternate transport layer on the command
              line if your OS does not implement a fully integrated kernel
              driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI
              commands via a single unique user interface.

              To access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need
              to prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer indicator.
              The transport layer indicator may be something like USCSI: or
              ATAPI:.  To get a list of supported transport layers for your
              platform, use dev= HELP:

              Portability Background
              To make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
              devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides OS
              specific knowledge about device names from the user.  A specific
              OS may not necessarily support a way to specify a real device
              file name nor a way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

              Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot
              messages for more information or look into /var/run/dmesg.boot
              for more information about the SCSI configuration of your
              machine.  If you have problems to figure out what values for
              scsibus,target,lun should be used, try the -scanbus option of
              cdrecord described below.

              Using logical names for devices
              If no dev option is present, cdrecord will try to get the device
              from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, and if the argument to
              the dev= option or the CDR_DEVICE environment does not contain
              the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as a
              device label name that was defined in the file
              /usr/local/etc/cdrecord (see FILES section).

              Autotarget Mode
              If no dev= option and no CDR_DEVICE environment is present, or
              if it only contains a transport specifier but no address
              notation, cdrecord tries to scan the SCSI address space for CD-
              ROM drives.  If exactly one is found, this is used by default.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
              misc debug level by one (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a driver for libscg as well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD-recorder is located. This
              does not work on all operating systems.

       -scanbus
              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
              strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder on a system.  The numbers printed out as
              labels are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       timeout=#
              Set the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The
              default SCSI command timeout is the minimum timeout used for
              sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to a
              timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout
              above the timeout value of the failed command.  If the command
              runs correctly with a raised command timeout, please report the
              better timeout value and the corresponding command to the author
              of the program.  If no timeout= option is present, a default
              timeout of 40 seconds is used.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
              The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
              or sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been specified, cdrecord defaults to a
              transfer size of 63 kB. If libscg gets lower values from the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is possible with the current operating system.  Sometimes, it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it,
              but note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by one.  This helps to debug problems during the writing
              process, that occur in the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  If you get
              incomprehensible error messages you should use this flag to get
              more detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in
              addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the
              reason for a buffer underrun.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-DA  (similar to Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following: MSB
              left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The
              track should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
              put the master image of an audio track on a raw disk because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
              process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured audio data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
              this case is a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV file and
              extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the non-
              audio header information.  In all other cases, cdrecord will
              only work correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
              header.  Because many structured audio files do not have an
              integral number of blocks (1/75th second each) in length, it is
              often necessary to specify the -pad option as well.  cdrecord
              recognizes that audio data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel
              (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
              data if the CD-recorder requires big-endian data.  Cdrecord will
              reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book
              requirements of 16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100
              samples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to cdrecord
              will usually work if the structure of the data is the structure
              described above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).
              However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of the track.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, cdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for the disk is set to
              CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied without limit.  This option has no
              effect on data tracks.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
              of 2048 bytes.  The file with track data should contain an
              ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
              details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment
              size should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB
              sector size to be used for reading.

              -data is the default, if no other flag is present and the file
              does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, cdrecord
              defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
              to -data for all other files.

       index=list
              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated list of numbers that are counting from index 1. The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
              that represent the start of the indices. An index list in the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2 100 seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200
              seconds from the start of the track.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This option is needed if you want cdrecord to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case the option -isosize is needed to prevent cdrecord from
              reading the two run-out blocks that are appended by each CD-
              recorder in track-at-once mode. These two run-out blocks cannot
              be read and would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a
              defective copy.

              Note that if this option is used on files created by mkisofs,
              the padding data that was added by mkisofs is lost and replaced
              by padding added by cdrecord.  This may also change the amount
              of padding.

              In case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin, only the first
              track may be used with the -isosize option.

              If -isosize is used for a track, cdrecord will automatically add
              padding for this track as if the -pad option had been used but
              the amount of padding may be less than the padding written by
              mkisofs.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
              Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
              of a file system if the -multi option is present.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next
              track to ISRC_number.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -nocopy
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
              default.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -nopreemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been mastered with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be
              added to the end of this and each subsequent data track.  In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If the
              -pad option refers to an audio track, cdrecord will pad the
              audio data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data
              padding is done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute
              silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to the next
              track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of the -pad option, the
              value for padsize= is reset to zero for each new track.
              Cdrecord assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize=
              option, independent from the real sector size and independent
              from the write mode.  The megabytes mentioned in the verbose
              mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
              e.g. 2448 bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See the fs=
              option for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20
              minutes on a CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this
              option if your CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of
              a track or if you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux
              system with the ISO-9660 filesystem read-ahead bug.  If an empty
              file is used for track data, this option may be used to create a
              disk that is entirely made of padding.  This may e.g. be used to
              find out how much overburning is possible with a specific
              medium.

       -preemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
              50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The data however is not modified
              during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2-second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in the future.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

       -shorttrack
              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
              standard which requires a minimum track length of 4 seconds.
              This option is only useful when used in SAO or RAW mode.  Not
              all drives support this feature. The drive must accept the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to be in byte-
              swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types of CD-writers e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte
              order normally used by the SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a
              CD-recorder needs audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note that the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if
              swapping is necessary to make the byte order of the input data
              fit the required byte order of the recorder.  Cdrecord will not
              show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       tsize=#
              If the master image for the next track has been stored on a raw
              disk, use this option to specify the valid amount of data on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file, the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
              this track.  If the track contains an ISO-9660 filesystem image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length of that
              filesystem image.
              In Disk At Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC
              programming interface, even in Track At Once mode, cdrecord
              needs to know the size of each track before starting to write
              the disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts before starting
              to write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs
              -print-size before and use the output (with `s' appended) as an
              argument to the tsize= option of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be created by the
              drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers are part of the user data
              and have to be supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2324
              bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in a
              way that allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The
              data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub-
              headers are part of the user data and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to be written.  The CRC and
              the P/Q parity ECC/EDC information (depending on the sector
              type) have to be supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the machine includes
       two drives.  The reader is assumed to be target 1 on the primary SCSI
       bus.  The CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder is assumed to be target 2 on the
       primary SCSI bus of the machine.

       If there is only one drive in the machine, the dev= option may be
       omitted in the examples below, but in this case the examples for
       replication without intermediate files do not apply.

   Replicating an Audio CD
       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 paraopts=proof -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will try to
       get the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including track size info) from the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is called with
       a large enough FIFO size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a
       value below the read speed of the source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and
       switch the burn-free option for the recording drive on by adding
       driveropts=burnfree.  For the same reason, it is not recommended to
       extract the audio data in paranoia mode in this case.

   Replicating a simple CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To copy a simple disk, first read the master using:

           readcd dev=1,0 f=somefile

       Then write the disk using:

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v somefile

   Replicating a CD-ROM in clone mode
       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readcd dev=1,0 -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by
       intention) by calling:

           readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       This will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the
       CD using:

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

   Creating an Audio CD
       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track
       contained in files named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

           cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be OK to use double speed for the example above,
       use the dummy write option:

           cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a mixed Audio-Data CD
       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO-9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

           cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To record a pure disk at double speed, using data from the file
       cdimage.raw:

           cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw

       To create an image for an ISO-9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge
       extensions:

           mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to disk on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in 1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer comes with a variant of the original fbk idea called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

            mount -r -F hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute path names.

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will run without creating
       an image of the ISO-9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO size for running this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs to be
       present only if you want to use a different FIFO size.  If your system
       is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real-time class too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

           mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that do not have UNIX International-compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to
       handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

           mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao speed=2 dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

   Setting drive options
       To set drive options without writing a disk (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single-session mode), run

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no disk is in the drive, call

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open call of the SCSI transport library or a label in the file
              /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed
              option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to
              write at the full RAW encoding speed a single CPU supports.
              This will create high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
              care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to
              write at the full DMA speed the system supports.  There is no
              DMA reserve for reading the data that is to be written from
              disk.  This will create high potential of buffer underruns. Use
              with care.

              If this environment variable is set to the value any, cdrecord
              allows to write at any speed even though it may fail later with
              a buffer underrun.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is present, the remote connection will
              not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
              by RSH.  Use e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a secure shell
              connection.

              Note that this forces cdrecord to create a pipe to the rsh(1)
              program and disallows cdrecord to directly access the network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root-initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
              not be the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the program pointed
              to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program name will
              be ignored if you log in using an account that has been created
              with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/cdrecord
              Default values can be set for the following options in
              /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or
              CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord that allows to
                     identify a specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed
                     option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other label
                     is an identifier for a specific drive on the system.
                     Such an identifier may not contain the characters ',',
                     '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each line that follows a label contains a TAB separated
                     list of items.  Currently, four items are recognized: the
                     SCSI ID of the drive, the default speed that should be
                     used for this drive, the default FIFO size that should be
                     used for this drive and drive specific options. The
                     values for speed and fifosize may be set to -1 to tell
                     cdrecord to use the global defaults.  The value for
                     driveropts may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
                     typical line may look this way:

                     teac1= 0,5,0   4    8m   ""

                     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1   -1   burnfree

                     This tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at
                     scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used with speed
                     4 and a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A second drive may be found
                     at scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed
                     and the default FIFO size.

       *.inf  The *.inf files are created by cdda2wav where * is replaced by
              the actual audio file prefix.  They are read and used by
              cdrecord in case cdrecord was called with the -useinfo option.

              There are three general types of parameters:

              numerical parameters
                     A numerical parameter is a number and directly follows
                     the tag label without any quoting.

              unquoted string type parameters
                     An unquoted parameter is make from one or more words that
                     directly follow the tag label.  How many words from the
                     parameter list are used by cdrecord depends on the tag
                     label.

              quoted string type parameters
                     A string type parameter is enclosed in single quotes. The
                     string starts after the first single quote character that
                     follows the tag label and ends before the last single
                     quote on the same line.  It needs no escape sequences in
                     case that a single quote appears inside the string.  Any
                     text to the right of the rightmost single quote character
                     is ignored.

              The order of the tag labels in the file is not important.

              The following tag labels may appear in a *.inf file:

              CDINDEX_DISCID=
                     The cdindex disk ID is used by the musicbrainz CD-
                     database.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

              CDDB_DISCID=
                     The cddb disk ID is used by the cddb and the freedb CD-
                     database.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MCN=   The Media Catalog Number (MCN) is a 13 digit number that
                     follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

                     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel data.

              ISRC=  The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is a 12
                     byte string that is created from two uppercase characters
                     for the country code, followed by three uppercase
                     characters for the owner, followed by two digits for the
                     year of recording followed by five digits for the
                     recording serial number.

                     To increase the readability of the ISRC tag, there may be
                     a minus sign between every two fields of the ISRC string.

                     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel data.

              Albumtitle=
                     The Album Title is the name of the disk in the CD-Text
                     information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Tracktitle=
                     The Track Title is the name of the current track in the
                     CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumperformer=
                     The Album Performer is the global name of the of the
                     performer of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Performer=
                     The Performer is the name of the of the performer of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumsongwriter=
                     The Album Songwriter is the global name of the of the
                     songwriter of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Songwriter=
                     The Songwriter is the name of the of the songwriter of
                     the current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumcomposer=
                     The Album Composer is the global name of the of the
                     composer of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Composer=
                     The Composer is the name of the of the composer of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumarranger=
                     The Album Arranger is the global name of the of the
                     arranger of the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Arranger=
                     The Arranger is the name of the of the arranger of the
                     current track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albummessage=
                     The Album Message is the global message text of the disk
                     in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Message=
                     The Message is the message text of the current track in
                     the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Albumclosed_info=
                     The Album Closed_info is the global closed info text of
                     the disk in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Closed_info=
                     The Closed_info is the closed info text of the current
                     track in the CD-Text information.

                     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

              Track= The parameter contains the relative number of the current
                     track on the original disk.  The first track always has
                     the track number 1, a hidden track uses track number 0.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord except when
                     checking the the Trackstart for track #1.

              Tracknumber=
                     The parameter contains the absolute number of the current
                     track, taken from the TOC on the original disk.  The
                     first track on the original disk may have a number
                     greater than 1, a hidden track always uses track number
                     0.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This tag label is currently ignored by cdrecord as
                     cdrecord assigns track numbers when compiling the disk
                     information.

              Trackstart=
                     The parameter contains the track start offset in sectors
                     on the original disk.  If the current track becomes the
                     first track on the new disk and if the track was the
                     first track on the original disk.  cdrecord uses this
                     number to set up the offset for index 1 on the new disk.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

              Tracklength=
                     The parameter is used by cdrecord to set up the size of
                     the track on the new disk.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter in
                     the form "sectors, samples".

                     This label is mandatory for cdrecord.

              Pre-emphasis=
                     The pre-emphasis parameter controls whether the related
                     pre-emphasis bit in the sub-channel data is set by
                     cdrecord.  Permitted values for this parameter are yes
                     and no.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter.
                     Valid values are yes and no.

              Channels=
                     The parameter of this tag is the number of channels on
                     the disk.  All CD-audio disks use stereo recording and
                     thus a 2 is the correct parameter.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is currently ignored by cdrecord.

              Copy_permitted=
                     The parameter for this tag label contains information
                     about the copyright state of a track on the original
                     disk.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter.
                     Valid values are:

                     yes    The digital copy permitted bit is set in the TOC
                            and in the sub-channel data.  If this bit is set,
                            the related track is not copyright protected and
                            may be copied infinitely.

                     no     The digital copy permitted bit is not set in the
                            TOC.  The digital copy permitted bit in the sub-
                            channel data alters with 9.375 Hz.  This is called
                            Serial Copy Management System (SCMS).  The sense
                            of this track state is to flag that the creator of
                            the CD does not have the copyright permission to
                            create copies of the related track. The related
                            track is copyright protected and the creator of
                            the CD thus is just given the permission to create
                            one single copy from fair use rights and no
                            further copies are permitted from this source.

                     once   The digital copy permitted bit is not set in the
                            TOC and in the sub-channel data.  The sense of
                            this track state is to flag that the related track
                            is copyright protected and thus may not be coped
                            infinitely.  One single copy from fair use rights
                            is permitted.

                     Note that many CDs sold by the music industry have SCMS
                     flagged for one or more tracks, signalling that the
                     related content company does not own the copyright to
                     make copies from this track.

              Endianess=
                     The parameter for this tag is the byte order used in the
                     audio data file that was created for this track.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter.
                     Valid values are little and big.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord as the endianess is
                     retrieved from the audio file format.

              Index= The parameter list for this tag is a list of numbers that
                     are sector numbers counting relatively to the logical
                     beginning of the track (which always is at index #1). As
                     any track needs to have an entry for index #1, the first
                     entry in the list is always 0.  If more entries are
                     present for this tag, there are more offset values that
                     correspond to index values greater than 1.

                     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter
                     that contains a list of space separated index offset
                     numbers.

              Index0=
                     The parameter for this tag is a number that represents
                     the number of sectors relatively to the beginning (index
                     #1) of this track.  This number identifies where index #0
                     of the next track begins. It the parameter is set to -1,
                     the next track has no index #0, resulting in pregap size
                     0 for the next track.

                     Note that cdrecord strictly follows the CD-standard that
                     defines that the logical beginning of a track is at the
                     location where index #1 starts in this track.  If index
                     #0 for track n contains audio data, the related audio
                     data is a logical part of track n-1.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

              MD5-offset=
                     The parameter for this tag is the byte offset where the
                     raw audio data begins in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MD5-size=
                     The parameter for this tag is the number of bytes of raw
                     audio data in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.

              MD5-sum=
                     The parameter for this tag is the md5 sum for the raw
                     audio data in the related audio file.

                     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

                     This label is ignored by cdrecord.

       *.cue  The *.cue files are CD-structure description files introduced by
              CDRWIN.  They are read and used by cdrecord in case cdrecord was
              called with the cuefile=name.cue option.

              The following commands are supported in CUE files:

              ARRANGER arranger-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of a arranger
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the name of a arranger. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in quotation
                     marks.

                     If the ARRANGER command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the arranger of
                     the entire disk.  If the ARRANGER command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be encoded the
                     the arranger of the current track.

                     This command is only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              CATALOG media-catalog-number
                     This command is used to specify the disc's Media Catalog
                     Number.  The media-catalog-number is a 13 digit number
                     that follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

                     This command can appear only once in the CUE SHEET file.
                     It must appear before any TRACK command.

              CDTEXTFILE filename
                     This command is used to specify the name of a file that
                     contains binary encoded CD-Text information.  CDRWIN only
                     accepts headerless binary encoded CD-Text information,
                     but cdrecord also accepts binary encoded CD-Text
                     information with an MMC-compliant header.  The CD-Text
                     information is ignored by cdrecord unless the -text
                     option is used.

                     If the filename contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

              COMPOSER composer-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of a composer
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the name of a composer. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in quotation
                     marks.

                     If the COMPOSER command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the composer of
                     the entire disk.  If the COMPOSER command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be encoded the
                     the composer of the current track.

                     This command is only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              FILE filename filetype
                     This command is used to specify a data or audio file that
                     contains data to be written to the medium.

                     If the filename contains spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

                     The following values are allowed for the file type
                     parameter:

                     BINARY      Intel binary file (LSB first)

                     MOTOTOLA    Motorola binary file (MSB first)

                     AIFF        Audio AIFF file

                     WAVE        Audio WAVE file

                     MP3         Audio MP3 file

                     AU          Audio AU file (only permitted if cdrecord CUE
                                 extensions are enabled)

                     OGG         Audio OGG file (only permitted if cdrecord
                                 CUE extensions are enabled)

                     All audio files (WAVE, AIFF, MP3, AU and OGG) must be in
                     44100 Hz 16 bit stereo format.  MP3 and OGG is currently
                     unsupported.

                     If an audio file is not an exact multiple of a CDROM
                     sector (2352 bytes), then is is padded with zeroes to
                     fill up to the needed size.

                     All FILE commands need to be before a related TRACK
                     command and after the last INDEX command or POSTGAP
                     command for the previous track.

                     If the cdrecord specific CUE extensions are enabled, then
                     a FILE command may also appear between an INDEX 00 and an
                     INDEX 01 command.  This allows to let the create one file
                     per track where the file starts at INDEX 01 of the track
                     and enda after INDEX 00 of the following track.  In this
                     case, no FILE command is allowed before the related TRACK
                     command.

              FLAGS flags
                     This command is used to set special subcode flags within
                     a track.

                     The following flags are supported:

                     DCP         Digital copy permitted

                     4CH         Four channel audio

                     PRE         Pre-emphasis enabled (audio tracks only)

                     SCMS        Serial copy management system (not supported
                                 by all recorders)

                     More than one flag type argument may appear after the
                     FLAGS command (e.g FLAGS DCP PRE).

                     The FLAGS command must appear after a TRACK command but
                     before any INDEX command.  Only one FLAGS command is
                     allower per TRACK command.

                     The fourth subcode flag that marks data tracks is set
                     automatically for data tracks.

              INDEX number mm:ss:ff
                     This command is used to specify indexes within a track.

                     The first parameter is the index number in the range
                     0-99.

                     The second parameter is a relative time in minutes,
                     seconds and frames (there are 75 frames/second).

                     All index numbers must be between 0 and 99 inclusive.
                     The first index for a track must be either 0 or 1 with
                     all indexes being sequential to the first one.  The first
                     index for a file must start at 00:00.00.

                     INDEX 00  specifies the starting time of the pregap of
                               the track.

                     INDEX 01  specifies the starting time of the track.  This
                               is the index that is stored in the table of
                               content for the disk as the track start.

                     INDEX > 1 specifies a subindex within a track.

              ISRC recording code
                     This command is used to specify the International
                     Standard Recording Code (ISRC) of a track. This is a code
                     that should exist for all commercial audio tracks.

                     The ISRC code must be 12 characters in length.  The first
                     two characters are characters that are from the two
                     character country code.  The next three characters are
                     alphanumeric and describe the studio code.  The next two
                     characters are the last two digits from the recording
                     year.  The last 5 characters are digits that form a
                     serial number that is unique for the same studio and
                     year.

                     If cdrecord specific CUE extensions are permitted, the
                     four fields of the ISRC may be separated by a minus sign.

                     If the ISRC command is used, it must appear after a TRACK
                     command but before any INDEX command.

              MESSAGE message-string
                     This command is used to specify the test of a message for
                     a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the test of a message. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in quotation
                     marks.

                     If the MESSAGE command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the message of
                     the entire disk.  If the MESSAGE command appears after a
                     TRACK command, the string parameter will be encoded the
                     the message of the current track.

                     This command is only accepted if the cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions are permitted.

              PERFORMER performer-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of a performer
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the name of the performer. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in quotation
                     marks.

                     If the PERFORMER command appears before any TRACK
                     command, the string parameter will be encoded as the
                     performer of the entire disk.  If the PERFORMER command
                     appears after a TRACK command, the string parameter will
                     be encoded the the performer of the current track.

              POSTGAP mm:ss:ff
                     This command is used to specify the length of a postgap
                     at the end of a track.  The postgap data is generated
                     internally by cdrecord.  No data is consumed from the
                     current data file.

                     The parameter specifies the postgap length in minutes,
                     seconds and frames.

                     The POSTGAP command must appear after all INDEX commands
                     for the current track.  Only one POSTGAP command is
                     allowed per track.

              PREGAP mm:ss:ff
                     This command is used to specify the length of a pregap at
                     the beginning of a track.  The pregap data is generated
                     internally by cdrecord.  No data is consumed from the
                     current data file.

                     The parameter specifies the postgap length in minutes,
                     seconds and frames.

                     The PREGAP command must appear after a TRACK command but
                     before any INDEX command.  Only one PREGAP command is
                     allowed per track.

              REM comment
                     This command is used to put comments into a CUE file.

                     The text that appears in the line after a REM command is
                     usually ignored. There is an exception: The special
                     comment REM CDRTOOLS is used to enable cdrecord specific
                     CUE extensions in the parser.

              SONGWRITER songwriter-string
                     This command is used to specify the name of a songwriter
                     for a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the name of a songwriter. If the string
                     contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in quotation
                     marks.

                     If the SONGWRITER command appears before any TRACK
                     command, the string parameter will be encoded as the
                     songwriter of the entire disk.  If the SONGWRITER command
                     appears after a TRACK command, the string parameter will
                     be encoded the the songwriter of the current track.

              TITLE title-string
                     This command is used to specify a title for a disk that
                     includes CD-Text enhancements.

                     The parameter is the title for a track or for the disk.
                     If the string contains any spaces, it must be enclosed in
                     quotation marks.

                     If the TITLE command appears before any TRACK command,
                     the string parameter will be encoded as the title of the
                     entire disk.  If the TITLE command appears after a TRACK
                     command, the string parameter will be encoded the the
                     title of the current track.

              TRACK number datatype
                     This command is used to start a new TRACK.

                     The first parameter is a track number in the range 1-99.

                     The second parameter specifies the track data type.

                     The following datatypes are permitted:

                     AUDIO       Audio/Music (2352)

                     CDG         Karaoke CD+G (2448)

                     MODE1/2048  CDROM Mode1 Data (cooked)

                     MODE1/2352  CDROM Mode1 Data (raw)

                     MODE2/2336  CDROM-XA Mode2 Data

                     MODE2/2352  CDROM-XA Mode2 Data

                     CDI/2336    CDI Mode2 Data

                     CDI/2352    CDI Mode2 Data

                     All track numbers must be between 1 and 99 inclusive.
                     The first track number can be greater than one, but all
                     track numbers after the first must be sequential.  There
                     must be at least one track per file.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not all options described in this manual may be supported by the
       OpenSource variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if an attempt
       is made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource
       variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume
       management if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code.
       Even things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume
       management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once  mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD-manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once  will normally be read in all CD-players. Some old audio CD-
       players however may produce a two second click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-recorder will add dummy blocks. This is not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord has been tested on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at
       single and double speed on a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems,
       slower computer systems should work also.  The newer
       Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102
       work also. The Plasmon RF-4100 works, but has not been tested in multi-
       session.  A Philips CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will not work.
       The Sony CDU-924 has been tested, but does not support XA-mode2 in
       hardware.  The Sony therefore cannot create conforming multi-session
       disks.  The Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems
       to use them with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are
       supported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using cdrecord on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a real-time process.  NFS will not always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use cdrecord
       with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the FIFO size is big enough.  The author used cdrecord with medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily loaded, but it is recommended to leave the system as lightly
       loaded as possible while writing a CD.  If you want to make sure that
       buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you may use the
       command

           cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  Cdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be
       able to lock itself into memory.

       If you don't want to allow users to become root on your system,
       cdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or a
       group of users with no root privileges to use cdrecord.  Cdrecord in
       this case checks if the real user would have been able to read the
       specified files.  To give all users access to use cdrecord, enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for non root users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would allow anybody to read/write/format all your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support
       disconnect/reconnect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the
       CD-recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a CDplus disk which is a
       multi-session disk with the first session containing the audio tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI command set of a HP CD-recorder can be
       found at:

            http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If you have more information or SCSI command manuals for currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BluRay-recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-recorder (even in the upgraded version) has
       several firmware bugs. Some of them will force you to power cycle the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with the Linux SCSI generic driver, you should note
       that cdrecord uses a layer, that tries to emulate the functionality of
       the scg driver on top of the drives of the local operating system.
       Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has several flaws:

       o      It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at all.

       o      It cannot get the SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord for that reason
              cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell
              you if there is a DMA residual count.

       o      It cannot get number of bytes valid in auto sense data.
              Cdrecord cannot tell you if device transfers no sense data at
              all.

       o      It fetches too few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
              needs >= 18).

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written to the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder. For this reason, there will
       never be 100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the
       message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually is: I/O error unless other
       problems happen. The next words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of the command succeeds.  This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if available,
       followed by the segment number which is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If the error message is not directly related to the
       current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense
       qualifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense
       data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text is followed by
       the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may not be
       valid.

       The eighth line reports the timeout set up for this command and the
       time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that have been
       written during a power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For creating the experimental packet writing support,
                      the first implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the
                      first .wav file decoder and many nice discussions on
                      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport
                      implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for providing the CAM port for FreeBSD together with
                      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for making libedc_ecc available (needed to write RAW
                      data sectors).

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of cdrecord, you
       may join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.org/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrtools-support@lists.sourceforge.net

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrtools-developers@lists.sourceforge.net
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers
       or https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The interfaces provided by cdrecord are designed for long term
       stability.  As cdrecord depends on interfaces provided by the
       underlying operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered by
       cdrecord depends on the interface stability of the OS interfaces.
       Modified interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in
       cdrecord.

Joerg Schilling             Version 3.02 2015/11/03                CDRECORD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHOR | INTERFACE STABILITY

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