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CDRECORD(1)		    Schily's USER COMMANDS		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord	- record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord	  [   general	options	 ][  dev=device	 ][  track  options  ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord	is used	to record data or audio	Compact	 Discs	on  an	Orange
       Book CD-recorder, to write DVD media on a DVD-recorder or to write Blu-
       Ray media on a BluRay-recorder.

   Supported Media
       Cdrecord	supports to write the following	media types:

       CD-R	 CD recordable,	a write	once CD	medium.

       CD-RW	 CD read/write,	a rewritable once CD medium.

       DVD-R	 DVD recordable, a write once DVD medium.  This	 is  the  pre-
		 ferred	single layer write once	DVD medium type.

       DVD-RW	 DVD  read/write,  a  rewritable DVD medium.  This is the pre-
		 ferred	single layer rewritable	DVD medium type.

       DVD+R	 DVDplus recordable, a write once DVDplus medium.

       DVD+RW	 DVDplus read/write, a rewritable DVDplus medium.

       DVD-R/DL	 DVD Dual layer

       DVD+R/DL	 DVD Double layer This is the preferred	dual layer DVD	medium
		 type  as  DVD+R/DL  works  on	most writers and on almost all
		 readers.

       BD-R	 Blu-Ray recordable a write once  Blu-Ray  medium.   This  in-
		 cludes	multi layer support.

       BD-RE	 Blu-Ray  rewritable  a	 rewritable  Blu-Ray medium.  This in-
		 cludes	multi layer support.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming at all.  If no  dev=
       option  was  specified, cdrecord	implements auto	target support and au-
       tomagically finds the drive in case that	exactly	one CD-ROM type	 drive
       is  available  in  the  system.	In case	that more than one CD-ROM type
       drive exists on the system, a list of possible device  name  parameters
       may be retrieved	with cdrecord -scanbus or from the target example from
       the output of cdrecord dev=help,	then the dev=  parameter  may  be  set
       based on	the device listing.

       The  device  parameter to the dev= option explained below refers	to the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       recorder.  If a file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter	to the
       dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES sec-
       tion).

   Constraints for running cdrecord
       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses	the real-time class to get the
       highest scheduling priority that	is possible (higher  than  all	kernel
       processes).   On	 systems with POSIX real-time scheduling cdrecord uses
       real-time scheduling too, but may not be	able to	gain a	priority  that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In  order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem	of the OS, run
       at highest priority and lock itself into	core cdrecord either needs  to
       be run as root, needs to	be installed suid root or must be called via a
       fine grained privileges mechanism, such as  the	Solaris	 privileges(5)
       mechanism  via  exec_attr(4) or the Linux capabilities(7) mechanism via
       setcap(8) to allow cdrecord to be used as an ordinary user.

   File	to track mapping
       In Track	At Once	mode, each track corresponds to	 a  single  file  that
       contains	 the  prepared	data  for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard	input is used for that track.  Only one	 track	may  be	 taken
       from  stdin.   In the other write modes,	the direct file	to track rela-
       tion may	not be implemented.  In	-clone mode, a	single	file  contains
       all data	for the	whole disk.  To	allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file	support, cdrecord concatenates all file	 argu-
       ments to	a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track	file name or track option.

   Informative options
       -help  display version information for cdrecord on standard output.

       -version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -v     Increment	 the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

   Media write mode options
       -dummy The -dummy option	modifies  the  current	write  strategy.   The
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  will go through all steps	of the record-
	      ing process, but the laser is turned off during this  procedure.
	      It  is  recommended to run several tests before actually writing
	      to a Compact Disk	or Digital Versatile Disk, if the  timing  and
	      load response of the current system is not yet known.

	      The  -dummy option does not work with all	media and write	modes.
	      DVD+ media and BluRay media does not support  dummy  writes  and
	      most CD-recorders	do not support dummy writes in raw mode.

       -multi Allow  multi-session  CDs	or multi-border	DVDs to	be made.  This
	      flag needs to be present on all sessions of a  multi-session  or
	      multi-border  disk,  except you want to create a session on a CD
	      that will	be the last session on the CD-media.

	      For CD-media, the	fixation will be done in a way that allows the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder to	append additional sessions later. This
	      is done by generating a TOC with a  link	to  the	 next  program
	      area.  The so generated media is not 100%	compatible to manufac-
	      tured CDs	(except	for CDplus).  Use only for recording of	multi-
	      session  CDs.  If	this option is present,	the default track type
	      is CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1 and the sector	size  is  2048	bytes.
	      The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony
	      drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA  mode  2  form  1.
	      You  have	 to specify the	-data option in	order to create	multi-
	      session disks on these drives.  If you like to record  a	multi-
	      session  disk  in	 SAO mode, you need to force CD-ROM sectors by
	      including	the -data option.  Not all drives allow	 multi-session
	      CDs in SAO mode.

	      For  DVD	media,	-multi	switches the write mode	to incremental
	      packet recording.	 There is currently  no	 way  to  prevent  the
	      ability  to  append further sessions and there is	currently only
	      support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse	a DVD-RW that has pre-
	      viously  been  written  in incremental packet recording mode for
	      different	write modes, you need to blank the  entire  media  be-
	      fore.

       -dao

       -sao   Set  SAO	(Session At Once) mode which is	usually	called Disk At
	      Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that  sup-
	      port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
	      size of each track in advance for	this  mode  (see  the  mkisofs
	      -print-size  option  and	the EXAMPLES section for more informa-
	      tion).

	      There are	several	CD writers with	bad firmware  that  result  in
	      broken  disks  when  writing  in TAO or SAO mode.	 The result of
	      this firmware bugs is that in special with disks written with no
	      pregap,  the  time  is going backwards on	the player or the disk
	      will not continue	with the next  track.  Since  today,  many  CD
	      writers  are  made  by  the Chinese manufacturer Lite-ON that is
	      known for	various	firmware defects, it is	recommended  to	 write
	      all  audio  CDs  in raw mode.  If	you find any problems with the
	      layout of	a disk or with subchannel content (e.g.	wrong times on
	      the  display  when  playing  the	CD) and	your drive supports to
	      write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it a try.

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At	Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode  in	previous  cdrecord  versions.	With most drives, this
	      write mode is required for multi-session recording.

	      There are	several	CD writers with	bad firmware  that  result  in
	      broken  disks  when writing in TAO or SAO	mode.  If you find any
	      problems with the	layout of a disk or  with  subchannel  content
	      (e.g.  wrong  times on the display when playing the CD) and your
	      drive supports to	write in -raw96r or -raw16  mode,  you	should
	      give it a	try.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing	 mode.	Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
	      Note that	cdrecord needs to know the size	of each	track  in  ad-
	      vance  for this mode (see	the mkisofs -print-size	option and the
	      EXAMPLES section for more	information).

       -raw96r
	      Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes	of raw
	      P-W  sub-channel	data resulting in a sector size	of 2448	bytes.
	      Because there are	several	CD writers with	firmware bugs, this is
	      the  preferred  mode  to write audio CDs.	 This is the preferred
	      raw writing mode as it gives best	control	 over  the  CD-writing
	      process.	 Writing  data	disks  in raw mode needs significantly
	      more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU	is  too	 slow,
	      this  may	 result	in buffer underruns.  Note that	cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track in	advance	for this mode (see the
	      mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more in-
	      formation).

       -raw96p
	      Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors  plus	 96  bytes  of
	      packed  P-W  sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
	      few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
	      in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this	mode  if  your
	      recorder	supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks	in raw
	      mode needs significantly more CPU	time than other	 write	modes.
	      If  your	CPU  is	too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
	      Note that	cdrecord needs to know the size	of each	track  in  ad-
	      vance  for this mode (see	the mkisofs -print-size	option and the
	      EXAMPLES section for more	information).

       -raw16 Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes	of P-Q
	      sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a
	      recorder does not	support	-raw96r, this  is  the	preferred  raw
	      writing mode.  It	does not allow to write	CD-Text	or CD+Graphics
	      but it is	the only raw writing  mode  in	cheap  CD-writers,  as
	      these  cheap  writers  in	 most  cases do	not support -dao mode.
	      Don't use	this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.   Writing
	      data  disks  in  raw mode	needs significantly more CPU time than
	      other write modes. If your CPU is	too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
	      each track in advance for	this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

   Cdrecord functional options
       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
	      only, this should	never be needed; but other software may	 leave
	      a	 drive	in an unusable condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may
	      be needed	if a previous write has	been interrupted and the soft-
	      ware did not tell	the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	the ATIP (Absolute Time	In Pre-groove)
	      info of a	CD/DVD/BluRay recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay  re-writable
	      media.  With this	option,	cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP
	      info. If the actual drive	does not  support  to  read  the  ATIP
	      info,  it	 may be	that only a reduced set	of information records
	      or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of  MMC-com-
	      pliant drives support to read the	ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve	the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it	will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media	does not have ATIP information
	      but there	is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       blank=type
	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
	      blanking type may	be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank	the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank	the last track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank	the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank	the last session.

	      Not  all	drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary
	      to use blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being
	      invalid.	If used	together with the -force flag, this option may
	      be used to blank CD-RW disks that	otherwise cannot  be  blanked.
	      Note  that you may need to specify blank=all because some	drives
	      will not continue	with certain types of bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note
	      also  that cdrecord does its best	if the -force flag is used but
	      it finally depends on the	drive's	firmware whether the  blanking
	      operation	will succeed or	not.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks  if  a  driver for	the current drive is present and exit.
	      If the drive is a	known drive, cdrecord uses exit	code 0.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to	handle images created by readcd	 -clone.   The
	      -clone  write  mode  may	only  be  used in conjunction with the
	      -raw96r or -raw16	option.	 Using -clone together with -raw96r is
	      preferred	 as  it	 allows	 to  write  all	sub-channel data.  The
	      -raw16 option should only	be used	with drives that do  not  sup-
	      port to write in -raw96r mode.

	      Note that	copying	in clone mode disables certain levels of error
	      correction and thus always results  in  a	 quality  degradation.
	      Avoid copying audio CDs in clone mode for	this reason.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all	 recording-related information from a CDRWIN-compliant
	      CUE sheet	file.  No track-file arguments to cdrecord are allowed
	      when  this  option  is present and one of	the following options:
	      -dao, -sao, -raw,	-raw16,	-raw96r	is needed in addition.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number
	      1.   This	 option	 currently only	makes sense with the following
	      drives:

	      Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,	Pinnacle RCD-5020

	      when creating track-at-once disks	without	the  2-second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to	 allow
	      users  to	use cdrecord with drives that are similar to supported
	      drives but not known directly by cdrecord.  All drives made  af-
	      ter  1997	should be MMC-standard-compliant and thus supported by
	      one of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely  that  cdrecord  is
	      unable  to find the right	driver automatically.  Use this	option
	      with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a  device,  the
	      possibility  of  creating	 corrupted disks is high.  The minimum
	      problem related to a wrong driver	is that	the -speed  or	-dummy
	      will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To	 get  a	list of	possible drivers together with a short
		     description.

	      mmc_bd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay media or a	multi system that con-
		     tains  a  BluRay disk as the current medium.  This	driver
		     tries to close the	tray, checks the medium	found  in  the
		     tray  and	then  branches	to the driver that matches the
		     current medium.

	      mmc_bdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay BD-R media	or a multi system that
		     contains a	BluRay BD-R disk as the	current	medium.

	      mmc_bdre
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-compliant drive that  does
		     support  to  write	 BluRay	 BD-RE media or	a multi	system
		     that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current medium.

	      mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     not identify itself to support writing at	all,  or  that
		     only  identifies  to support media	or write modes not im-
		     plemented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD/BluRay driver  is  auto-se-
		     lected  whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-2 or MMC-3-compli-
		     ant drive that seems to support more than one medium type
		     and  the  tray is open or no medium could be found	to se-
		     lect the right driver.  This driver tries	to  close  the
		     tray,  checks  the	 medium	 found	in  the	 tray and then
		     branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that only
		     supports to write CDs or a	multi system drive  that  con-
		     tains a CD	as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord	would  otherwise  select  the  mmc_cdr
		     driver  but  the  device  seems  to be made by Sony.  The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely	needed for the Sony CDU	928 as
		     this drive	does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced  by
		     Sony  proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even newer ones) still implement	the  Sony  proprietary
		     SCSI  commands  so	it has not yet become a	problem	to use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that	does not work with this	driver,	please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-se-
		     lected whenever cdrecord finds an MMC-2 or	 MMC-3-compli-
		     ant  drive	that supports to write DVDs and	an appropriate
		     medium is loaded.	There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
		     writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-se-
		     lected whenever one of the	DVD+ media types that are  in-
		     compatible	 to  each other	is found.  It checks media and
		     then branches to the  driver  that	 matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a	 DVD+R	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.   Note  that  for	unknown	reason,	the DVD+RW Al-
		     liance does not like that there is	a simulation mode  for
		     DVD+R  media.   The  author of cdrecord tries to convince
		     manufacturers to implement	a simulation  mode  for	 DVD+R
		     and  implement  support.	DVD+R  only supports one write
		     mode that is somewhere between Track At Once  and	Packet
		     writing;  this  mode  is  selected	 in  cdrecord  via the
		     -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW	media  need  to	 be  formatted	before
		     their  first use, cdrecord	auto-detects this medium state
		     and performs a format before it starts  to	 write.	  Note
		     that  for	unknown	 reason,  the DVD+RW Alliance does not
		     like that there is	a simulation mode nor a	way  to	 erase
		     DVD+RW  media.   DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
		     is	close to Packet	writing;  this	mode  is  selected  in
		     cdrecord via the -dao/-sao	option.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for Matsushita/Panasonic CW-7501 is auto-se-
		     lected  when  cdrecord  finds  this  old  pre-MMC	drive.
		     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this	drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive which has been  the
		     first  high  speed	 (6x)  CD-writer for a long time. This
		     drive behaves similarly to	the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver	for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a	 Philips  CDD-521  drive (which	is the
		     first CD-writer ever made)	or one	of  the	 other	drives
		     that  are	known  to behave similarly to this drive.  All
		     Philips CDD-521 or	similar	drives (see other  drivers  in
		     this list)	do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very	 old  firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522	 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is	the  successor
		     of	 the  521  or  one  of	its variants with Kodak	label.
		     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording  with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
		     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be	used  by  hand
		     with drives that behave similarly to the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The  driver  for  Pioneer	DW-S114X is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds one	of the old non-MMC CD-writers from Pi-
		     oneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for  Plasmon	RF  4100 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds  this  specific  variant  of  the  Philips
		     CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1060C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds this drive.	There is no real  support  for
		     this drive	yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1420C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The  generic  SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver	is auto-selected when-
		     ever cdrecord finds a pre-MMC drive that does not support
		     writing  or  a  pre-MMC  writer  that is not supported by
		     cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The driver	for Sony CDU-924 /  CDU-948  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds one of the	old pre-MMC CD-writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The driver	for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S,	JVC  XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle  RCD-5020	 is  auto-selected whenever one	of the
		     drives is found that is known to use the non-MMC  command
		     set used by TEAC and JVC.	Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they	do not correctly implement the
		     documented	 command set and JVC has been unwilling	to fix
		     or	document the bugs.  There is no	support	for  the  Ses-
		     sion At Once write	mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The  driver  for  Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The  driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
		     when cdrecord finds one of	 the  old  pre-MMC  CD-writers
		     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
		     write mode	yet.

	      bd_simul
		     The simulation BluRay driver allows  to  run  timing  and
		     speed  tests  with	 parameters that match the behavior of
		     BluRay writers.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver	allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with	parameters that	match the behavior of CD-writ-
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The simulation DVD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and
		     speed  tests  with	 parameters that match the behavior of
		     DVD writers.

	      There are	two special driver entries in the list:	cdr_simul  and
	      dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed	to make	timing
	      tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup-
	      port  the	 -dummy	 option.   The	simulation drivers implement a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can	 be  changed  via  the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	 environment  variable.	 The simulation	driver
	      correctly	simulates even a buffer	underrun  condition.   If  the
	      -dummy  option is	present, the simulation	is not aborted in case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The	options	 are  specified	 as  a
	      comma  separated	list.	To  get	 a  list  of valid options use
	      driveropts=help together with the	-checkdrive  option.   If  you
	      like  to	set  driver options without running a typical cdrecord
	      task, you	need to	use the	-setdropts option in addition,	other-
	      wise  the	 command  line parser in cdrecord will complain.  Cur-
	      rently implemented driver	options	are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer  Underrun  Free  writing  on.
		     This  only	 works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
		     Free technology.  This may	be called:  Sanyo  BURN-Proof,
		     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The  default  is to turn BURN-Free	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.	The  mandatory
		     parameter	value  is the laser power offset and currently
		     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1,	2.  In	addition,  you
		     need  to  set  the	 write	speed  to  4 in	order to allow
		     VariRec to	work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage the	Plextor	GigaRec	writing	 mode.	The  mandatory
		     parameter	value  is  the disk capacity ratio compared to
		     normal recording and currently may	be selected from  0.6,
		     0.7,  0.8,	0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0
		     are used, then the	effect is similar to the Yamaha	 Audio
		     Master Q. R.  feature. If values >	1.0 are	used, then the
		     disk capacity is increased.

		     Not all drives support all	GigaRec	values.	 When a	 drive
		     uses  the	GigaRec	feature, the write speed is limited to
		     8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha	Audio Master Q.	R.  feature which usu-
		     ally  should  result  in  high quality CDs	that have less
		     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.	  As  this  is	imple-
		     mented as a variant of the	Session	At Once	write mode, it
		     will only work if you select SAO write mode and there  is
		     no	 need to turn it off.  The Audio Master	mode will work
		     with a limited speed but may also be used with data  CDs.
		     In	 Audio Master mode, the	pits on	the CD will be written
		     larger than usual so the capacity of the  medium  is  re-
		     duced  when turning this feature on.  A 74-minute CD will
		     only have a capacity of 63	minutes	if Audio Master	is ac-
		     tive  and	the capacity of	a 80-minute CD will be reduced
		     to	68 minutes, the	capacity in will be reduced to 85%  of
		     the  original  capacity.	On  newer Plextor drives, this
		     feature is	also present but the capacity will be  reduced
		     to	 86.66%	of the original	capacity. For other factors on
		     Plextor drives, see the gigarec option above.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible	 speed
		     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
		     grant best	write quality.	This technology	may be called:
		     Plextor  PowerRec,	Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
		     Speed Control or similar.	Some drives (e.g. Plextor, Ri-
		     coh  and  Yamaha) allow to	force the drive	to use the se-
		     lected speed even if the medium is	so bad that the	 write
		     quality  would be poor. This option tells such a drive to
		     force to use the selected speed regardless	of the	medium
		     quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note	that the drive
		     should know better	which medium will work at full	speed.
		     The  default is to	turn forcespeed	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force	speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra	high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and	faster
		     drives  from Plextor limit	the read speed for unknown me-
		     dia to e.g. 40x in	 order	to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
		     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
		     media as fast as possible.	 Be very careful as  this  may
		     cause  the	media to break in the drive while reading, re-
		     sulting in	damaged	media and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited	read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single-session  only	 drive.	  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the	TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become	usable if only the information
		     from  the first session is	used.  You need	to enable Sin-
		     gle Session mode before you insert	the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single-session mode. The drive will again	behave
		     as	usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that	a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
		     tions believe that	the media in the drive is not a	CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image size	information for	the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature.
		     The  images  always  have	a  line	length of 3744 pixels.
		     Line number 0 (radius 0) is mapped	to the center  of  the
		     disk.   If	you know the inner and outer radii you will be
		     able to create a pre distorted image that later  may  ap-
		     pear undistorted on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write	an im-
		     age prepared  for	the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature  to  the
		     medium.   The file	must be	a file with raw	image B&W data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call  to tattooinfo.  If the size of the image equals the
		     maximum possible size (3744 x 320 pixels),	cdrecord  will
		     use the first part	of the file. This first	part then will
		     be	written	to the leftover	space on the CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be	readable  from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

	      layerbreak
		     Switch  a	drive  with  DVD-R/DL  medium  into layer jump
		     recording recording mode and  use	automatic  layer-break
		     position setup.

		     By	 default,  DVD-R/DL  media  is	written	 in sequential
		     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

	      layerbreak=value
		     Set up  a	manual	layer-break  value  for	 DVD-R/DL  and
		     DVD+R/DL.	 The  specified	 layer-break value must	not be
		     set to less than half of the recorded data	size and  must
		     not be set	to more	than the remaining Layer 0 size	of the
		     medium.  The manual layer-break value needs to be a  mul-
		     tiple  of	the  ECC  sector size which is 16 logical 2048
		     byte sectors in case of DVD media	and  32	 logical  2048
		     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

		     Cdrecord  does  not  allow	to write DL media in case that
		     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
		     the  medium  except  when	a  manual layer-break has been
		     specified by using	the layerbreak=value option.

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.	Some  devices  (e.g.  Philips)
	      need  to	eject  the  medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
	      -dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not  work
	      on these devices.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a	CD-reader will
	      be written).  This may be	used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated.	This option currently does not
	      work with	old TEAC drives	(CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -force Force to continue	on some	errors.	Be careful when	using this op-
	      tion.   Cdrecord implements several checks that prevent you from
	      doing unwanted things like  damaging  CD-RW  media  by  improper
	      drives.  Many  of	the sanity checks are disabled when the	-force
	      option is	used.

	      This option also implements some tricks that will	allow  you  to
	      blank bad	CD-RW disks.

       -format
	      Format  a	 CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE  disc.   Formatting is cur-
	      rently only implemented for DVD+RW and BD-RE media.  A  'maiden'
	      DVD+RW  or  BD-RE	 medium	 needs	to be formatted	before you may
	      write to it.  However, as	cdrecord autodetects the need for for-
	      matting  in  this	 case  and  auto  formats the medium before it
	      starts writing, the -format option is only needed	if you like to
	      forcibly reformat	a DVD+RW or BD-RE medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
	      tax as in	dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size  is taken in	bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',	 `s'  or  `f',
	      the  size	 is  multiplied	by 512,	1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
	      If the size consists of numbers separated	by `x' or `*',	multi-
	      plication	 of the	two numbers is performed.  Thus	fs=10x63k will
	      specify a	FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the	fs= argument includes the shared  mem-
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at	least one page
	      of memory.  If no	fs= option is present, cdrecord	 will  try  to
	      get  the FIFO size value from the	CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
	      default FIFO size	is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
	      process.	 It  allows  to	 run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
	      cdrecord.	 If the	FIFO is	active and a pipe  from	 mkisofs  into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord	will abort prior to do
	      any modifications	on the disk if	mkisofs	 dies  before  writing
	      starts.	The recommended	FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
	      As a rule	of thumb, the FIFO size	should be at  least  equal  to
	      the  size	 of  the internal buffer of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder
	      and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in
	      the  machine.   If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statis-
	      tics will	print a	FIFO empty count of zero and a FIFO  min  fill
	      not  below  20%.	 It  is	not wise to use	too much space for the
	      FIFO. If you need	more than 8 MB to write	a CD at	a  speed  less
	      than  20x	 from  an  image on a local file system	on an idle ma-
	      chine, your machine is either underpowered, has  hardware	 prob-
	      lems  or	is  mis-configured.   If  you like to write DVDs or to
	      write CDs	at higher speed, it makes sense	to use at least	 16 MB
	      for the FIFO.

	      On  old and small	machines, you need to be more careful with the
	      FIFO size.  If your machine has less  than  256 MB  of  physical
	      RAM,  you	should not set up a FIFO size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c	architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	for the	FIFO may cause the operating  system  in  this
	      case  to	spend  much  time to constantly	reload the MMU tables.
	      Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU  hardware  problem.
	      The  author  has	no  information	on PC hardware reflecting this
	      problem.

	      Old Linux	systems	for non-x86 platforms have broken  definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or	manually tell cdrecord to use a	smaller	FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems	(like  a  con-
	      stantly empty drive-buffer) and observe a	zero fifo empty	count,
	      you have hardware	problems that prevent the  data	 from  flowing
	      fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
	      in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
	      DMA setup.

       gracetime=#
	      Set  the grace time before starting to write to #	seconds.  Val-
	      ues below	3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the vol-
	      ume management from interrupting the write process.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore  the known	size of	the medium. This option	should be used
	      with extreme care, it exists only	for debugging purposes	so  do
	      not  use	it for other reasons.  It is not needed	to write disks
	      with more	than the nominal capacity.  This option	implies	-over-
	      burn.

       -immed Tell  cdrecord  to  set  the SCSI	IMMED flag in certain commands
	      (load, eject, blank, close_track,	close_session).	 This  can  be
	      useful  on broken	systems	with ATAPI hard-disk and CD/DVD/BluRay
	      writer on	the same bus or	with SCSI systems that do not use dis-
	      connect/reconnect.   These systems will freeze while blanking or
	      fixating a CD/DVD/BluRay or while	a DVD writer is	filling	 up  a
	      session  to  the	minimum	 amount	(approx. 800 MB).  Setting the
	      -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
	      the  operation proceeds in background, making the	bus usable for
	      the other	devices	and avoiding the system	freeze.	  This	is  an
	      experimental  feature  which  may	 work or not, depending	on the
	      model of the CD/DVD/BluRay writer.  A correct solution would  be
	      to  set  up  a  correct  cabling	but there seem to be notebooks
	      around that have been set	up the wrong way by the	 manufacturer.
	      As it is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the	-immed
	      option has been added.

	      A	second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
	      cdrecord	to try to wait short times while writing to the	media.
	      This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      and the data source are connected	to the same IDE	cable. In this
	      case, the	CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the
	      IDE  bus	for  nearly all	the time making	it impossible to fetch
	      data from	the source drive. See also the minbuf= and -v options.

	      Use both features	at your	own risk.  If it  turns	 out  that  it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for	the drive, print  the  inquiry	info  for  the
	      drive and	exit.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This	only works with	a tray-loading
	      mechanism	but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media,	lock the door and exit.	This only works	with a
	      tray-loading mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Ko-
	      dak disk transporter.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to	med_cat_nr.

       minbuf=value
	      The  minbuf=  option  allows  to define the minimum drive-buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to  free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      to be on the same	IDE cable.  As the wait	 mode  currently  only
	      works  when  the	verbose	option -v has been specified, cdrecord
	      implies the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=	option
	      has been specified.  Valid values	for minbuf= are	between	25 and
	      95 for 25%...95% minimum drive-buffer fill ratio.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state  of  the  medium.
	      This option currently only works for MMC-compliant drives.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi-session info in a	form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This option makes	only sense with	a CD that  contains  at	 least
	      one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
	      Some drives create error messages	if you try to get  the	multi-
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       -nofix Do not fixate the	disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps.	An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive	but there  are
	      audio CD-players that will be able to play such a	disk.

       -overburn
	      Allow cdrecord to	write more than	the official size of a medium.
	      This feature is usually called overburning and  depends  on  the
	      fact that	most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size. As the official size of the	lead-out area on the  disk  is
	      90  seconds (6750	sectors) and a disk usually works if there are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out,	all media may be overburned by
	      at  least	 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD-recorders only do
	      overburning in SAO or RAW	mode. Known exceptions	are  TEAC  CD-
	      R50S,  TEAC  CD-R55S  and	the Panasonic CW-7502.	Some drives do
	      not allow	to overburn as much as you might like  and  limit  the
	      size  of	a  CD  to e.g. 76 minutes. This	problem	may be circum-
	      vented by	writing	the CD in RAW mode because this	way the	 drive
	      has  no  chance to find the size before starting to burn.	 There
	      is no guarantee that your	drive  supports	 overburning  at  all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the	feature.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is	an experimental	interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set  the packet size to #, forces	fixed packet mode.  This is an
	      experimental interface.

       -prcap Print the	drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc-compliant drives  as
	      obtained	from  mode  page  0x2A.	Values marked with kB use 1000
	      bytes as kilo-byte, values marked	with  KB  use  1024  bytes  as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -setdropts
	      Set  the	driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
	      speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.	  This	allows
	      cdrecord	to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
	      used by cdrecord like e.g.  single session mode,	hide  cdr  and
	      similar.	 It  is	 needed	 in  case  that	driveropts=option list
	      should be	called without planning	 to  run  a  typical  cdrecord
	      task.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte-
	      ger, representing	a multiple of what has been defined as	single
	      speed for	the medium.

	      For CD-media, single speed is the	audio playback speed.  This is
	      about 150	KB/s for CD-ROM	and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  Sin-
	      gle  speed  is about 1385	kB/s for DVD media and about 4496 kB/s
	      for BluRay media.

	      If no speed option is present, cdrecord will try to get a	 drive
	      specific	speed value from the file /etc/default/cdrecord	and if
	      it cannot	find one, it will try to get the speed value from  the
	      CDR_SPEED	 environment  and  later  from the CDR_SPEED= entry in
	      /etc/default/cdrecord.   If  no  speed  value  could  be	found,
	      cdrecord	uses  a	drive specific default speed.  The default for
	      all new (MMC-compliant) drives is	to use the  maximum  supported
	      by  the  drive.	If you use speed=0 with	a MMC-compliant	drive,
	      cdrecord will switch to the lowest possible speed	for drive  and
	      medium.	If you are using an old	(non-MMC) drive	that has prob-
	      lems with	speed=2	or speed=4, you	should try speed=0.

       -text  Write CD-Text information	based on information taken from	a file
	      that  contains ascii information for the text strings.  Cdrecord
	      supports CD-Text information based on the	content	of  the	 *.inf
	      files  created  by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based	on the
	      content from a CUE sheet file.  If a  CUE	 sheet	file  contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
	      tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet	file in	addition.  If you like
	      to  write	 your own CD-Text information, edit the	*.inf files or
	      the CUE sheet file with a	text editor and	change the fields that
	      are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write  CD-Text  based  on	 information  found in the binary file
	      filename.	 This file must	contain	information in a  data	format
	      defined  in  the	SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
	      four-byte-sized header that is defined in	the SCSI  standard  is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.  This is the best option to be	used to	 copy  CD-Text
	      data  from  existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
	      To get data in a format suitable for this	 option	 use  cdrecord
	      -vv  -toc	 to  extract  the  information	from  disk.   If both,
	      textfile=filename	and CD-Text information	from  *.inf  or	 *.cue
	      files  are  present,  textfile=filename will overwrite the other
	      information.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of contents or  PMA  of	a  CD.
	      With  this  option, cdrecord will	work with CD-R drives and with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -waiti Wait for input to	become available on standard input before try-
	      ing  to  open  the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read its
	      input from a pipe	even when writing  additional  sessions	 to  a
	      multi-session  disk.   When  writing another session to a	multi-
	      session disk, mkisofs needs to read the old session from the de-
	      vice  before  writing  output.   This cannot be done if cdrecord
	      opens the	SCSI driver at the same	time.

       -useinfo
	      Use *.inf	files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
	      used,  the  pregap  size information, the	index information, the
	      pre-emphasis information and the	CD-Text	 information  is  read
	      from  the	 *.inf file that is associated with the	file that con-
	      tains the	audio data for a track.

	      If used together with the	-audio option, cdrecord	may be used to
	      write  audio  CDs	from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord
	      with the *.inf files as track parameter list  instead  of	 using
	      audio  files.   The  audio data is read from stdin in this case.
	      See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that	 stdin
	      is  not  connected to a terminal and runs	some heuristic consis-
	      tency checks on the *.inf	files and then sets the	track  lengths
	      from the information in the *.inf	files.

	      If  you  like  to	 write	from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is
	      called with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed  to
	      a	 value below the read speed of the source drive	and switch the
	      burn-free	option for the recording drive on.

   SCSI	options
       dev=target
	      Set the SCSI target for the  CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder,  see	 notes
	      above.  A	typical	target device specification is dev=1,6,0 .  If
	      a	filename must be provided together with	the  numerical	target
	      specification,  the  filename  is	 implementation	specific.  The
	      correct filename in this case can	be found in  the  system  spe-
	      cific manuals of the target operating system.  On	a FreeBSD sys-
	      tem without CAM support, you need	 to  use  the  control	device
	      (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).	A correct device specification in this
	      case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	    General SCSI addressing
	      The target device	to the dev=  option  refers  to	 the  SCSI CAM
	      standard	notation  for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
	      recorder.	Communication on SunOS is done with the	 SCSI  general
	      driver scg.  Other operating systems are using a library simula-
	      tion of this driver.   Possible  syntax  is:  dev=  scsibus,tar-
	      get,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the latter case, the CD/DVD/Blu-
	      Ray-recorder has to be connected to the default SCSI bus of  the
	      machine.	Scsibus, target	and lun	are integer numbers.  Some op-
	      erating systems or SCSI transport	implementations	may require to
	      specify a	filename in addition.  In this case the	correct	syntax
	      for the device is: dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun  or  dev=
	      devicename:target,lun.   If the name of the device node that has
	      been specified on	such a system refers to	exactly	one  SCSI  de-
	      vice,  a shorthand in the	form dev= devicename:@ or dev= device-
	      name:@,lun may be	used instead of	 dev=  devicename:scsibus,tar-
	      get,lun.

	    Remote SCSI	addressing
	      To  access remote	SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI de-
	      vice name	by a remote device indicator. The remote device	 indi-
	      cator is either REMOTE:user@host:	or REMOTE:host:	A valid	remote
	      SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow remote  SCSI
	      bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to	access the SCSI	device
	      at host connected	to SCSI	bus # 1,target 0, lun 0.  In order  to
	      allow  remote  access  to	 a specific host, the rscsi(1) program
	      needs to be present and configured on the	host.

	    Alternate SCSI transports
	      Cdrecord is completely based on SCSI commands  but  this	is  no
	      problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay writers ever	made use SCSI commands
	      for the communication. Even ATAPI	drives are  just  SCSI	drives
	      that  inherently	use  the  ATA packet interface as SCSI command
	      transport	layer build into the IDE  (ATA)	 transport.   You  may
	      need  to	specify	 an  alternate	transport layer	on the command
	      line if your OS does not implement  a  fully  integrated	kernel
	      driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
	      mands via	a single unique	user interface.

	      To access	SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you  need
	      to  prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer indicator.
	      The transport layer indicator may	be something  like  USCSI:  or
	      ATAPI:.	To  get	 a list	of supported transport layers for your
	      platform,	use dev= HELP:

	    Portability	Background
	      To make cdrecord portable	to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
	      devicename:scsibus,target,lun  is	 preferred as it hides OS spe-
	      cific knowledge about device names from the user.	 A specific OS
	      may  not necessarily support a way to specify a real device file
	      name nor a way to	specify	scsibus,target,lun.

	      Scsibus 0	is the default SCSI bus	on the machine.	Watch the boot
	      messages for more	information or look into /var/adm/messages for
	      more information about the SCSI configuration of	your  machine.
	      If  you have problems to figure out what values for scsibus,tar-
	      get,lun should be	used, try the -scanbus option of cdrecord  de-
	      scribed below.

	    Using logical names	for devices
	      If no dev	option is present, cdrecord will try to	get the	device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If a file	/etc/default/cdrecord exists, and if the  argument  to
	      the  dev=	 option	or the CDR_DEVICE environment does not contain
	      the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as	a  de-
	      vice   label   name  that	 was  defined  in  the	file  /etc/de-
	      fault/cdrecord (see FILES	section).

	    Autotarget Mode
	      If no dev= option	and no CDR_DEVICE environment is  present,  or
	      if  it  only contains a transport	specifier but no address nota-
	      tion, cdrecord tries to scan the SCSI address space  for	CD-ROM
	      drives.  If exactly one is found,	this is	used by	default.

       debug=#,	-d
	      Set  the	misc  debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
	      misc debug level by one (with -d).  If  you  specify  -dd,  this
	      equals to	debug=2.  This may help	to find	problems while opening
	      a	driver for libscg as well as  with  sector  sizes  and	sector
	      types.   Using -debug slows down the process and may be the rea-
	      son for a	buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell the scg-driver to modify the	kernel debug value while  SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus	where the CD-recorder is located. This
	      does not work on all operating systems.

       -scanbus
	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI	busses and print  the  inquiry
	      strings.	This  option  may  be used to find SCSI	address	of the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder on	a system.  The numbers printed out  as
	      labels are computed by: bus * 100	+ target

       scgopts=list
	      A	 comma separated list of SCSI options that are handled by lib-
	      scg.  The	implemented options may	be uptated indepentendly  from
	      applications.   Currently, one option: ignore-resid is supported
	      to work around a Linux kernel bug.

       -silent,	-s
	      Do not print out a status	report for failed SCSI commands.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #	seconds.   The
	      default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
	      sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI	command	fails due to  a	 time-
	      out, you may try to raise	the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value	of the failed command.	If  the	 command  runs
	      correctly	 with a	raised command timeout,	please report the bet-
	      ter timeout value	and the	corresponding command to the author of
	      the  program.  If	no timeout= option is present, a default time-
	      out of 40	seconds	is used.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for	a single SCSI  command	to  #.
	      The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts=	option has been	 specified,  cdrecord  defaults	 to  a
	      transfer size of 63 kB. If libscg	gets lower values from the op-
	      erating system, the value	is reduced to the maximum  value  that
	      is  possible  with  the current operating	system.	 Sometimes, it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
	      but  note	that it	may take a long	time to	find a better value by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

       -V     Increment	the verbose level in respect of	SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  If  you  get
	      incomprehensible	error messages you should use this flag	to get
	      more detailed output.  -VV will show data	buffer content in  ad-
	      dition.	Using  -V or -VV slows down the	process	and may	be the
	      reason for a buffer underrun.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The	file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the	following: MSB
	      left, LSB	left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB	left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will	be read	in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au	or .wav	the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case	is a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV	file  and  ex-
	      tracts  the  audio data from the files by	skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio files do not have an  in-
	      tegral  number  of  blocks (1/75th second	each) in length, it is
	      often necessary to specify the -pad option  as  well.   cdrecord
	      recognizes  that	audio  data  in	a .WAV file is stored in Intel
	      (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
	      data if the CD-recorder requires big-endian data.	 Cdrecord will
	      reject any audio file that does not match	the Red	Book  require-
	      ments  of	 16-bit	 stereo	 samples  in  PCM coding at 44100 sam-
	      ples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data	formats	as input  to  cdrecord
	      will  usually work if the	structure of the data is the structure
	      described	above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte	order).	  How-
	      ever,  if	 the  data  format  includes a header, you will	hear a
	      click at the start of the	track.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been  specified,	 cdrecord  de-
	      faults  to  -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for	the  disk  is  set  to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -copy  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission  to  be copied	without	limit.	This option has	no ef-
	      fect on data tracks.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
	      of 2048 bytes.  The file	with  track  data  should  contain  an
	      ISO-9660	or  Rock  Ridge	filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
	      details).	If the track data is an	ufs filesystem image, fragment
	      size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB
	      sector size to be	used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other	flag is	present	and  the  file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file	types.

	      If  neither  -data  nor -audio have been specified, cdrecord de-
	      faults to	-audio for all filenames that end in .au or  .wav  and
	      to -data for all other files.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated	list of	numbers	that are counting from	index  1.  The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must be an ascending list	of numbers (counting in	1/75  seconds)
	      that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list	in the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	 100  seconds from the start of	the track and index 3 200 sec-
	      onds from	the start of the track.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size	as the size of the next	track.
	      This  option is needed if	you want cdrecord to directly read the
	      image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO	master
	      CD. In the first case the	option -isosize	is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to	the size of the	ISO filesystem.	 In the	second
	      case  the	 option	 -isosize  is  needed to prevent cdrecord from
	      reading the two run-out blocks that are  appended	 by  each  CD-
	      recorder	in track-at-once mode. These two run-out blocks	cannot
	      be read and would	cause a	buffer underrun	that would cause a de-
	      fective copy.

	      Note  that  if  this option is used on files created by mkisofs,
	      the padding data that was	added by mkisofs is lost and  replaced
	      by  padding  added by cdrecord.  This may	also change the	amount
	      of padding.

	      In case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin,	only the first
	      track may	be used	with the -isosize option.

	      If -isosize is used for a	track, cdrecord	will automatically add
	      padding for this track as	if the -pad option had been  used  but
	      the  amount  of  padding may be less than	the padding written by
	      mkisofs.	Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
	      Sparc boot information, the boot information will	be lost.

	      Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
	      of a file	system if the -multi option is present.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording	Number	for  the  next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       -mode2 If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The	data size is a multiple	of 2336	bytes.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once	for personal use - this	is the
	      default.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks -	the default.

       -nopreemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	mastered  with
	      linear data - this is the	default.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       -pad   If the track is a	data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio track, cdrecord will pad the  au-
	      dio data to be a multiple	of 2352	bytes.	The audio data padding
	      is done with binary zeroes which is equal	to absolute silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled	by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set the amount of	data to	be appended as	padding	 to  the  next
	      track  to	 #.   Opposed  to the behavior of the -pad option, the
	      value for	 padsize=  is  reset  to  zero	for  each  new	track.
	      Cdrecord	assumes	 a  sector size	of 2048	bytes for the padsize=
	      option, independent from the real	sector	size  and  independent
	      from  the	 write	mode.	The megabytes mentioned	in the verbose
	      mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
	      e.g. 2448	bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96	mode.  See the fs= op-
	      tion for possible	arguments.  To pad the equivalent of  20  min-
	      utes  on a CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this	option
	      if your CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of a track
	      or  if you want to be able to read the CD	on a Linux system with
	      the ISO-9660 filesystem read-ahead bug.  If  an  empty  file  is
	      used  for	 track	data, this option may be used to create	a disk
	      that is entirely made of padding.	 This may e.g. be used to find
	      out how much overburning is possible with	a specific medium.

       -preemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	 sampled  with
	      50/15  microsec  pre-emphasis.  The data however is not modified
	      during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This  op-
	      tion has no effect on data tracks.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for	the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the	TEAC drive when	creating track-at-once
	      disks without the	2-second silence before	each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       -scms  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all	subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track	length
	      standard which requires a	minimum	track  length  of  4  seconds.
	      This  option  is	only useful when used in SAO or	RAW mode.  Not
	      all drives support this feature. The drive must accept  the  re-
	      sulting CUE sheet	or support RAW writing.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is present, audio	data is	assumed	to be in byte-
	      swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types  of  CD-writers  e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio  data to be	presented in the big-endian (network) byte or-
	      der normally used	by the SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord	knows if a CD-
	      recorder	needs  audio  data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte	order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the  recorder.  You only need the	-swab flag if your data	stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that	the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if	 swap-
	      ping  is	necessary to make the byte order of the	input data fit
	      the required byte	order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was	actually present for a track.

       tsize=#
	      If  the master image for the next	track has been stored on a raw
	      disk, use	this option to specify the valid  amount  of  data  on
	      this disk. If the	image of the next track	is stored in a regular
	      file, the	size of	that file is taken to determine	the length  of
	      this  track.  If the track contains an ISO-9660 filesystem image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
	      tem image.
	      In Disk At Once mode and with some drives	that use the TEAC pro-
	      gramming interface, even in Track	At Once	mode,  cdrecord	 needs
	      to  know	the  size  of  each track before starting to write the
	      disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts  before  starting  to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before and use the output	(with `s' appended) as an argument  to
	      the tsize= option	of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

       -xa    If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2048  bytes.   The  XA sector sub-headers	will be	created	by the
	      drive.  With this	option,	the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers are part of the user data
	      and have to be supplied by the  application  that	 prepares  the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple  of  2324
	      bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers	will be	created	by the drive.

       -xamix If  this flag is present,	all subsequent tracks are written in a
	      way that allows a	mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2	form 1/2  format.  The
	      data  size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub-head-
	      ers are part of the user data and	have to	be supplied by the ap-
	      plication	that prepares the data to be written.  The CRC and the
	      P/Q parity ECC/EDC information (depending	on  the	 sector	 type)
	      have to be supplied by the application that prepares the data to
	      be written.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples	below, it will be assumed that	the  machine  includes
       two  drives.   The reader is assumed to be target 1 on the primary SCSI
       bus.  The CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder	is assumed to be target	2 on the  pri-
       mary SCSI bus of	the machine.

       If there	is only	one drive in the machine, the dev= option may be omit-
       ted in the examples below, but in this case the examples	 for  replica-
       tion without intermediate files do not apply.

   Replicating an Audio	CD
       To copy an audio	CD in the most accurate	way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 paraopts=proof -vall cddb=0	-B -Owav

       and then	run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try	to  copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav	 will  try  to
       get the information from	freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio	CD from	a pipe (without	intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then	run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will  get	all  information  (including track size	info) from the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data	from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin,	make sure that cdrecord	is called with
       a  large	 enough	FIFO size (e.g.	 fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a
       value below the read speed of the source	drive  (e.g.   speed=12),  and
       switch  the  burn-free  option  for  the	 recording  drive on by	adding
       driveropts=burnfree.  For the same reason, it is	not recommended	to ex-
       tract the audio data in paranoia	mode in	this case.

   Replicating a simple	CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To copy a simple	disk, first read the master using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 f=somefile

       Then write the disk using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v somefile

   Replicating a CD-ROM	in clone mode
       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone f=somefile

       or  (in case the	CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by	inten-
       tion) by	calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       This will create	the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then  write  the
       CD using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

   Creating an Audio CD
       To  record  a  pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track con-
       tained in files named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check	if it will be OK to use	double speed for  the  example	above,
       use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a mixed Audio-Data CD
       To  record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO-9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio	tracks from the	 files
       track01.cdaudio,	track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw	-audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To  record  a pure disk at double speed,	using data from	the file cdim-
       age.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw

       To create an image for an ISO-9660 filesystem with  Rock	 Ridge	exten-
       sions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check	the resulting file before writing to disk on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs	/dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in	1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer comes	with a variant of the original fbk idea	called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

	    mount -r -F	hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute	path names.

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r	-t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient	and the	 structure  of
       the  filesystem	is not too complex, cdrecord will run without creating
       an image	of the ISO-9660	filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO  size  for	running	 this  pipeline	 is  4
       MBytes.	 As  the default FIFO size is 4	MB, the	fs= option needs to be
       present only if you want	to use a different FIFO	size.  If your	system
       is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the	real-time class	too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p	59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice	--18 mkisofs -R	/master/tree

       on systems that do  not	have  UNIX  International-compliant  real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord	 runs  at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems,	you should run mkisofs	at  no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating	 a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has	been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2	with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up  to  quad	 speed
       when  the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to han-
       dle quad	speed also in the loaded case.

       To handle drives	that need to know the size of a	track before  starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then	run

	   mkisofs   -R	 /master/tree  |  cdrecord  -v	-dao  speed=2  dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by	the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

   Setting drive options
       To set drive options without writing a disk (e.g. to switch a drive  to
       single-session mode), run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no disk is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable	to the
	      open call	of the SCSI transport library or a label in  the  file
	      /etc/default/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets  the	 default  speed	value for writing (see also -speed op-
	      tion).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO	(see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
	      write  at	 the  full  RAW	 encoding speed	a single CPU supports.
	      This will	create high potential of buffer	 underruns.  Use  with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow	you to
	      write at the full	DMA speed the system supports.	 There	is  no
	      DMA  reserve  for	 reading  the  data that is to be written from
	      disk.  This will create high potential of	buffer underruns.  Use
	      with care.

	      If  this	environment variable is	set to the value any, cdrecord
	      allows to	write at any speed even	though it may fail later  with
	      a	buffer underrun.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment	is present, the	remote connection will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by	calling	the program pointed to
	      by  RSH.	 Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create	a secure shell
	      connection.

	      Note that	this forces cdrecord to	create a pipe  to  the	rsh(1)
	      program  and  disallows  cdrecord	to directly access the network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root-initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
	      pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI  server  program
	      name  will  be  ignored  if you log in using an account that has
	      been created with	a remote SCSI server program as	login shell.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit codes	are used:

       0      No error appeared.

       -1     A	specific error appeared. This may be a usage error  caused  by
	      an illegal command line or another error with a problem specific
	      error message from cdrecord.

       -2     An unspecified error appeared during the process of  talking  to
	      the  drive.   See	 SCSI error message for	more informations. The
	      section DIAGNOSTICS below	contains an explanation	on how to read
	      SCSI error messages.

       other  The errno	value from a failed system call.

       Note  that older	operating systems and older shells may not support the
       full 32 bit range of the	exit code and mask the value with  0xFF.  This
       results	in shortened exit codes	in the range 0..255 where -1 is	mapped
       to 255.

FILES
       /etc/default/cdrecord
	      Default values can be set	for the	following options in  /etc/de-
	      fault/cdrecord.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to	the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in	the file /etc/default/cdrecord that allows to identify
		     a specific	drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also	-speed
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other	label
		     is	 an  identifier	 for  a	 specific drive	on the system.
		     Such an identifier	may not	contain	 the  characters  ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line	 that follows a	label contains a TAB separated
		     list of items.  Currently,	four items are recognized: the
		     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed	that should be
		     used for this drive, the default FIFO size	that should be
		     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
		     ues for speed and fifosize	may  be	 set  to  -1  to  tell
		     cdrecord  to  use	the  global  defaults.	 The value for
		     driveropts	may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
		     typical line may look this	way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi-
		     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and	should be used	with  speed  4
		     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.	A second drive may be found at
		     scsibus 1,	target 6, lun 0	and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

       *.inf  The  *.inf  files	are created by cdda2wav	where *	is replaced by
	      the actual audio	file  prefix.	They  are  read	 and  used  by
	      cdrecord in case cdrecord	was called with	the -useinfo option.

	      There are	three general types of parameters:

	      numerical	parameters
		     A	numerical  parameter  is a number and directly follows
		     the tag label without any quoting.

	      unquoted string type parameters
		     An	unquoted parameter is make from	one or more words that
		     directly  follow  the tag label.  How many	words from the
		     parameter list are	used by	cdrecord depends  on  the  tag
		     label.

	      quoted string type parameters
		     A string type parameter is	enclosed in single quotes. The
		     string starts after the first single quote	character that
		     follows  the  tag	label  and ends	before the last	single
		     quote on the same line.  It needs no escape sequences  in
		     case  that	a single quote appears inside the string.  Any
		     text to the right of the rightmost	single quote character
		     is	ignored.

	      The order	of the tag labels in the file is not important.

	      The following tag	labels may appear in a *.inf file:

	      CDINDEX_DISCID=
		     The  cdindex  disk	ID is used by the musicbrainz CD-data-
		     base.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      CDDB_DISCID=
		     The cddb disk ID is used by the cddb and the  freedb  CD-
		     database.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MCN=   The  Media	Catalog	Number (MCN) is	a 13 digit number that
		     follows UPC/EAN-13	rules.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	data.

	      ISRC=  The International Standard	Recording Code (ISRC) is a  12
		     byte string that is created from two uppercase characters
		     for the country code, followed by three uppercase charac-
		     ters  for	the owner, followed by two digits for the year
		     of	recording followed by five digits  for	the  recording
		     serial number.

		     To	increase the readability of the	ISRC tag, there	may be
		     a minus sign between every	two fields of the ISRC string.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	data.

	      Albumtitle=
		     The Album Title is	the name of the	disk  in  the  CD-Text
		     information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Tracktitle=
		     The  Track	 Title is the name of the current track	in the
		     CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumperformer=
		     The Album Performer is the	global name of the of the per-
		     former of the disk	in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Performer=
		     The  Performer is the name	of the of the performer	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumsongwriter=
		     The Album Songwriter is the global	name  of  the  of  the
		     songwriter	of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Songwriter=
		     The  Songwriter  is  the name of the of the songwriter of
		     the current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumcomposer=
		     The Album Composer	is the global name of the of the  com-
		     poser of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Composer=
		     The  Composer  is	the name of the	of the composer	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumarranger=
		     The Album Arranger	is the global name of the of  the  ar-
		     ranger of the disk	in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Arranger=
		     The  Arranger  is	the name of the	of the arranger	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albummessage=
		     The Album Message is the global message text of the  disk
		     in	the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Message=
		     The  Message  is the message text of the current track in
		     the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumclosed_info=
		     The Album Closed_info is the global closed	info  text  of
		     the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Closed_info=
		     The  Closed_info  is  the closed info text	of the current
		     track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Track= The parameter contains the	relative number	of the current
		     track  on	the original disk.  The	first track always has
		     the track number 1, a hidden track	uses track number 0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord except when	check-
		     ing the the Trackstart for	track #1.

	      Tracknumber=
		     The parameter contains the	absolute number	of the current
		     track, taken from the TOC	on  the	 original  disk.   The
		     first  track  on  the  original  disk  may	 have a	number
		     greater than 1, a hidden track always uses	 track	number
		     0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This  tag	label  is  currently  ignored  by  cdrecord as
		     cdrecord assigns track numbers when  compiling  the  disk
		     information.

	      Trackstart=
		     The  parameter contains the track start offset in sectors
		     on	the original disk.  If the current track  becomes  the
		     first  track  on  the  new	 disk and if the track was the
		     first track on the	original  disk.	  cdrecord  uses  this
		     number to set up the offset for index 1 on	the new	disk.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      Tracklength=
		     The  parameter  is	used by	cdrecord to set	up the size of
		     the track on the new disk.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter  in
		     the form "sectors,	samples".

		     This label	is mandatory for cdrecord.

	      Pre-emphasis=
		     The  pre-emphasis	parameter controls whether the related
		     pre-emphasis bit  in  the	sub-channel  data  is  set  by
		     cdrecord.	 Permitted  values  for	this parameter are yes
		     and no.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are yes and no.

	      Channels=
		     The  parameter  of	 this tag is the number	of channels on
		     the disk.	All CD-audio disks use	stereo	recording  and
		     thus a 2 is the correct parameter.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is currently ignored by	cdrecord.

	      Copy_permitted=
		     The  parameter  for  this	tag label contains information
		     about the copyright state of  a  track  on	 the  original
		     disk.

		     This  tag	label  uses an unquoted	string type parameter.
		     Valid values are:

		     yes    The	digital	copy permitted bit is set in  the  TOC
			    and	 in the	sub-channel data.  If this bit is set,
			    the	related	track is not copyright	protected  and
			    may	be copied infinitely.

		     no	    The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC.  The digital copy permitted bit in  the  sub-
			    channel data alters	with 9.375 Hz.	This is	called
			    Serial Copy	Management System (SCMS).   The	 sense
			    of this track state	is to flag that	the creator of
			    the	CD does	not have the copyright	permission  to
			    create  copies  of	the related track. The related
			    track is copyright protected and  the  creator  of
			    the	CD thus	is just	given the permission to	create
			    one	single copy from fair use rights and  no  fur-
			    ther copies	are permitted from this	source.

		     once   The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC	and in the sub-channel	data.	The  sense  of
			    this track state is	to flag	that the related track
			    is copyright protected and thus may	not  be	 coped
			    infinitely.	  One single copy from fair use	rights
			    is permitted.

		     Note that many CDs	sold by	the music industry  have  SCMS
		     flagged  for  one or more tracks, signalling that the re-
		     lated content company does	not own	the copyright to  make
		     copies from this track.

	      Endianess=
		     The  parameter for	this tag is the	byte order used	in the
		     audio data	file that was created for this track.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are little and big.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord as the endianess	is re-
		     trieved from the audio file format.

	      Index= The parameter list	for this tag is	a list of numbers that
		     are sector	numbers	counting relatively to the logical be-
		     ginning of	the track (which always	is at  index  #1).  As
		     any  track	needs to have an entry for index #1, the first
		     entry in the list is  always  0.	If  more  entries  are
		     present  for  this	tag, there are more offset values that
		     correspond	to index values	greater	than 1.

		     This tag label uses an  unquoted  string  type  parameter
		     that contains a list of space separated index offset num-
		     bers.

	      Index0=
		     The parameter for this tag	is a  number  that  represents
		     the  number of sectors relatively to the beginning	(index
		     #1) of this track.	 This number identifies	where index #0
		     of	 the next track	begins.	It the parameter is set	to -1,
		     the next track has	no index #0, resulting in pregap  size
		     0 for the next track.

		     Note  that	cdrecord strictly follows the CD-standard that
		     defines that the logical beginning	of a track is  at  the
		     location  where  index #1 starts in this track.  If index
		     #0	for track n contains audio  data,  the	related	 audio
		     data is a logical part of track n-1.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      MD5-offset=
		     The  parameter  for this tag is the byte offset where the
		     raw audio data begins in the related audio	file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-size=
		     The parameter for this tag	is the number of bytes of  raw
		     audio data	in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-sum=
		     The parameter for this tag	is the md5 sum for the raw au-
		     dio data in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

       *.cue  The *.cue	files are CD-structure description files introduced by
	      CDRWIN.  They are	read and used by cdrecord in case cdrecord was
	      called with the cuefile=name.cue option.

	      The following commands are supported in CUE files:

	      ARRANGER arranger-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  arranger
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a arranger. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the ARRANGER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  arranger  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the ARRANGER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the arranger of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      CATALOG media-catalog-number
		     This command is used to specify the disc's	Media  Catalog
		     Number.   The  media-catalog-number  is a 13 digit	number
		     that follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

		     This command can appear only once in the CUE SHEET	 file.
		     It	must appear before any TRACK command.

	      CDTEXTFILE filename
		     This  command  is used to specify the name	of a file that
		     contains binary encoded CD-Text information.  CDRWIN only
		     accepts  headerless  binary  encoded CD-Text information,
		     but cdrecord also accepts binary encoded CD-Text informa-
		     tion  with	an MMC-compliant header.  The CD-Text informa-
		     tion is ignored by	cdrecord unless	the  -text  option  is
		     used.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

	      COMPOSER composer-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  composer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a composer. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the COMPOSER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  composer  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the COMPOSER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the composer of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      FILE filename filetype
		     This command is used to specify a data or audio file that
		     contains data to be written to the	medium.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     The following values are allowed for the file type	param-
		     eter:

		     BINARY	 Intel binary file (LSB	first)

		     MOTOTOLA	 Motorola binary file (MSB first)

		     AIFF	 Audio AIFF file

		     WAVE	 Audio WAVE file

		     MP3	 Audio MP3 file

		     AU		 Audio AU file (only permitted if cdrecord CUE
				 extensions are	enabled)

		     OGG	 Audio OGG file	(only  permitted  if  cdrecord
				 CUE extensions	are enabled)

		     All  audio	files (WAVE, AIFF, MP3,	AU and OGG) must be in
		     44100 Hz 16 bit stereo format.  MP3 and OGG is  currently
		     unsupported.

		     If	an audio file is not an	exact multiple of a CDROM sec-
		     tor (2352 bytes), then is is padded with zeroes  to  fill
		     up	to the needed size.

		     All  FILE commands	need to	be before a related TRACK com-
		     mand and after the	last INDEX command or POSTGAP  command
		     for the previous track.

		     If	the cdrecord specific CUE extensions are enabled, then
		     a FILE command may	also appear between an INDEX 00	and an
		     INDEX 01 command.	This allows to let the user create one
		     file per track where the file starts at INDEX 01  of  the
		     track and ends after INDEX	00 of the following track.  In
		     this case,	no FILE	command	is allowed before the  related
		     TRACK command.

	      FLAGS flags
		     This  command is used to set special subcode flags	within
		     a track.

		     The following flags are supported:

		     DCP	 Digital copy permitted

		     4CH	 Four channel audio

		     PRE	 Pre-emphasis enabled (audio tracks only)

		     SCMS	 Serial	copy management	system (not  supported
				 by all	recorders)

		     More  than	 one  flag  type argument may appear after the
		     FLAGS command (e.g	FLAGS DCP PRE).

		     The FLAGS command must appear after a TRACK  command  but
		     before  any INDEX command.	 Only one FLAGS	command	is al-
		     lower per TRACK command.

		     The fourth	subcode	flag that marks	data tracks is set au-
		     tomatically for data tracks.

	      INDEX number mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify indexes within a track.

		     The  first	 parameter  is	the  index number in the range
		     0-99.

		     The second	parameter is a relative	time in	minutes,  sec-
		     onds and frames (there are	75 frames/second).

		     All  index	 numbers  must	be between 0 and 99 inclusive.
		     The first index for a track must be either	0  or  1  with
		     all indexes being sequential to the first one.  The first
		     index for a file must start at 00:00.00.

		     INDEX 00  specifies the starting time of  the  pregap  of
			       the track.

		     INDEX 01  specifies the starting time of the track.  This
			       is the index that is stored  in	the  table  of
			       content for the disk as the track start.

		     INDEX > 1 specifies a subindex within a track.

	      ISRC recording code
		     This  command  is used to specify the International Stan-
		     dard Recording Code (ISRC)	of a track.  This  is  a  code
		     that should exist for all commercial audio	tracks.

		     The ISRC code must	be 12 characters in length.  The first
		     two characters are	characters that	are from the two char-
		     acter  country  code.   The next three characters are al-
		     phanumeric	and describe the studio	code.	The  next  two
		     characters	 are  the  last	 two digits from the recording
		     year.  The	last 5 characters are digits that form	a  se-
		     rial number that is unique	for the	same studio and	year.

		     If	 cdrecord  specific  CUE extensions are	permitted, the
		     four fields of the	ISRC may be separated by a minus sign.

		     If	the ISRC command is used, it must appear after a TRACK
		     command but before	any INDEX command.

	      MESSAGE message-string
		     This command is used to specify the test of a message for
		     a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the test of a  message.  If  the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the MESSAGE command appears before any TRACK  command,
		     the  string  parameter  will be encoded as	the message of
		     the entire	disk.  If the MESSAGE command appears after  a
		     TRACK  command,  the string parameter will	be encoded the
		     the message of the	current	track.

		     This command is only accepted if  the  cdrecord  specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      PERFORMER	performer-string
		     This  command  is used to specify the name	of a performer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the name of the performer. If the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the PERFORMER command appears before  any  TRACK  com-
		     mand,  the	 string	 parameter will	be encoded as the per-
		     former of the entire disk.	 If the	PERFORMER command  ap-
		     pears after a TRACK command, the string parameter will be
		     encoded the the performer of the current track.

	      POSTGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify the length	of  a  postgap
		     at	the end	of a track.  The postgap data is generated in-
		     ternally by cdrecord.  No data is consumed	from the  cur-
		     rent data file.

		     The  parameter  specifies	the postgap length in minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The POSTGAP command must appear after all INDEX  commands
		     for  the  current track.  Only one	POSTGAP	command	is al-
		     lowed per track.

	      PREGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify the length	of a pregap at
		     the  beginning  of	a track.  The pregap data is generated
		     internally	by cdrecord.  No data  is  consumed  from  the
		     current data file.

		     The  parameter  specifies	the postgap length in minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The PREGAP	command	must appear after a TRACK command  but
		     before any	INDEX command.	Only one PREGAP	command	is al-
		     lowed per track.

	      REM comment
		     This command is used to put comments into a CUE file.

		     The text that appears in the line after a REM command  is
		     usually  ignored. There is	an exception: The special com-
		     ment REM CDRTOOLS is used to enable cdrecord specific CUE
		     extensions	in the parser.

	      SONGWRITER songwriter-string
		     This  command is used to specify the name of a songwriter
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the name of a songwriter.	If the	string
		     contains  any  spaces,  it	 must be enclosed in quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the SONGWRITER command appears before any  TRACK  com-
		     mand,  the	 string	parameter will be encoded as the song-
		     writer of the entire disk.	 If the	SONGWRITER command ap-
		     pears after a TRACK command, the string parameter will be
		     encoded the the songwriter	of the current track.

	      TITLE title-string
		     This command is used to specify a title for a  disk  that
		     includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	the title for a	track or for the disk.
		     If	the string contains any	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     If	 the  TITLE  command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the title of  the
		     entire  disk.  If the TITLE command appears after a TRACK
		     command, the string parameter will	be encoded the the ti-
		     tle of the	current	track.

	      TRACK number datatype
		     This command is used to start a new TRACK.

		     The first parameter is a track number in the range	1-99.

		     The second	parameter specifies the	track data type.

		     The following datatypes are permitted:

		     AUDIO	 Audio/Music (2352)

		     CDG	 Karaoke CD+G (2448)

		     MODE1/2048	 CDROM Mode1 Data (cooked)

		     MODE1/2352	 CDROM Mode1 Data (raw)

		     MODE2/2336	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     MODE2/2352	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     CDI/2336	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     CDI/2352	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     All  track	 numbers  must	be between 1 and 99 inclusive.
		     The first track number can	be greater than	one,  but  all
		     track  numbers after the first must be sequential.	 There
		     must be at	least one track	per file.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not all options described in this manual	may be supported by the	 Open-
       Source  variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if an attempt is
       made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume man-
       agement if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume management is
       running.

       Disks  made  in Track At	Once mode are not suitable as a	master for di-
       rect mass production by CD-manufacturers.  You will need	 the  disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be	read in	all CD-players.	 Some  old  audio  CD-
       players	however	 may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size	of a track is 4	seconds	or 300 sectors.	If  you	 write
       smaller	tracks,	 the CD-recorder will add dummy	blocks.	This is	not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	has been tested	on an upgraded	Philips	 CDD-521  recorder  at
       single  and  double  speed  on  a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems,
       slower computer systems should work also.  The  newer  Philips/HP/Plas-
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and	CDR-102	work also. The
       Plasmon RF-4100 works, but has not been	tested	in  multi-session.   A
       Philips	CDD-521	 that  has  not	been upgraded will not work.  The Sony
       CDU-924 has been	tested,	but does not  support  XA-mode2	 in  hardware.
       The  Sony  therefore cannot create conforming multi-session disks.  The
       Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use them
       with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are sup-
       ported in single	and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the  -dummy  option  turned  on if you are using	cdrecord on an unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a real-time process.  NFS will not  always  de-
       liver  constantly  the  needed data rates.  If you want to use cdrecord
       with CD-images that are located on a NFS	mounted	 filesystem,  be  sure
       that the	FIFO size is big enough.  The author used cdrecord with	medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily	loaded,	 but  it is recommended	to leave the system as lightly
       loaded as possible while	writing	a CD.  If you want to make  sure  that
       buffer  underruns  are  not caused by your source disk, you may use the
       command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m	/dev/null

       to create a disk	that is	entirely made of dummy data.   Cdrecord	 needs
       to  run	as root	to get access to the /dev/scg?	device nodes and to be
       able to lock itself into	memory.

       If you don't want to  allow  users  to  become  root  on	 your  system,
       cdrecord	 may safely be installed suid root. This allows	all users or a
       group of	users with no root privileges to use  cdrecord.	  Cdrecord  in
       this  case  checks  if  the  real user would have been able to read the
       specified files.	 To give all users access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /opt/schily/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write	permissions for	non root users to the  /dev/scg?   de-
       vices  unless  you  would  allow	 anybody to read/write/format all your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that	is connected to	the CD-recorder	or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and	data tracks, the  data	should
       be  on  track  1	 otherwise  you	should create a	CDplus disk which is a
       multi-session disk with the first session containing the	 audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the	data track.

       Many  operating	systems	 are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More information	on the SCSI command set	of a  HP  CD-recorder  can  be
       found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If  you have more information or	SCSI command manuals for currently un-
       supported CD/DVD/BluRay-recorders please	contact	the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-recorder (even in	the upgraded version) has sev-
       eral  firmware bugs. Some of them will force you	to power cycle the de-
       vice or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with	the Linux SCSI generic driver, you should note
       that  cdrecord uses a layer, that tries to emulate the functionality of
       the scg driver on top of	the drives of the local	operating system.  Un-
       fortunately, the	sg driver on Linux has several flaws:

       o      It cannot	see if a SCSI command could not	be sent	at all.

       o      It  cannot  get  the SCSI	status byte.  Cdrecord for that	reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It cannot	get real DMA count of transfer.	 Cdrecord cannot  tell
	      you if there is a	DMA residual count.

       o      It  cannot  get  number  of  bytes  valid	 in  auto  sense data.
	      Cdrecord cannot tell you if device transfers no  sense  data  at
	      all.

       o      It fetches too few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The FIFO	percent	output is computed just	after a	block of data has been
       written	to  the	 CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  For  this reason, there will
       never be	100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have	9 seconds to type ^C to	abort cdrecord after you see the  mes-
       sage:

       Starting	to write CD at speed %d	in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	like:

	      cdrecord:	I/O error. test	unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00	00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00	0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       The  first  line	 gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text	after the first	colon gives the	error text for the system call
       from  the  view	of  the	 kernel. It usually is:	I/O error unless other
       problems	happen.	The next words contain a  short	 description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for	the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error  means that it was	not possible to	transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block	for the	failed
       command.

       The  third  line	 gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of	the command succeeds.  This  is	 error
       information from	the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex	dump of	the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text	for the	sense key if  available,  fol-
       lowed  by  the  segment number which is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If	the error message is not directly related to the  cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is	appended.

       The sixth line is the error text	for the	sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if	available.  If the type	of the device is known,	the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text	is followed by the er-
       ror value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line	prints the block number	that is	related	to the	failed
       command	and  text for several error flags. The block number may	not be
       valid.

       The eighth line reports the timeout set up for  this  command  and  the
       time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is	not an error:

	      Track 01:	Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord:	I/O error. flush cache:	scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00	00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27	0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy	data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       It  simply  notifies that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been	expanded to 300	sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord	has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option	to make	disks usable, that  have  been
       written during a	power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For  creating  the  experimental packet writing support,
		      the first	implementation of CD-RW	blanking support,  the
		      first  .wav  file	 decoder  and many nice	discussions on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P.	Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a	BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R.	Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry	(ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port for FreeBSD together with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for making libedc_ecc available  (needed	to  write  RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING	LISTS
       If  you	want to	actively take part on the development of cdrecord, you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.org/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrtools-support@lists.sourceforge.net

       If you have definitely found a bug, send	a mail to:

       cdrtools-developers@lists.sourceforge.net
       or joerg@schily.net

       To subscribe, use:

       https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-developers
       or https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/cdrtools-support

SOURCE DOWNLOAD
       A frequently updated source code	for the	cdrtools is  included  in  the
       schilytools  project  and may be	retrieved from the schilytools project
       at Sourceforge at:

	   http://sourceforge.net/projects/schilytools/

       The download directory is:

	   http://sourceforge.net/projects/schilytools/files/

       Check for the schily-*.tar.bz2 archives.

       Less frequently updated source code for the cdrtools is at:

	   http://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/

       and
	   http://sourceforge.net/projects/cdrtools/files/alpha

       Separate	project	informations for the cdrtools project may be retrieved
       from:

	   http://cdrecord.org

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The  interfaces provided	by cdrecord are	designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As	cdrecord depends on interfaces provided	by the underlying  op-
       erating system, the stability of	the interfaces offered by cdrecord de-
       pends on	the interface stability	of the OS interfaces.  Modified	inter-
       faces in	the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdrecord.

Joerg Schilling		    Version 3.02 2020/09/04		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | EXIT STATUS | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHOR | SOURCE DOWNLOAD | INTERFACE STABILITY

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