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CDRECORD(1)		    Schily's USER COMMANDS		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord	- record audio or data CD, DVD or BluRay

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord	  [   general	options	 ][  dev=device	 ][  track  options  ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord	is used	to record data or audio	Compact	 Discs	on  an	Orange
       Book CD-recorder, to write DVD media on a DVD-recorder or to write Blu-
       Ray media on a BluRay-recorder.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming at all.  If no  dev=
       option  was  specified,	cdrecord  implements  auto  target support and
       automagically finds the drive in	case  that  exactly  one  CD-ROM  type
       drive  is  available  in	the system.  In	case that more than one	CD-ROM
       type drive exists on the	system,	a list of possible device name parame-
       ters may	be retrieved with cdrecord -scanbus or from the	target example
       from the	output of cdrecord dev=help, then the dev=  parameter  may  be
       set based on the	device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev=	option explained below refers to scsi-
       bus/target/lun	of   the   CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.     If    a	  file
       /usr/local/etc/cdrecord	exists,	 the  parameter	to the dev= option may
       also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

   Constraints for running cdrecord
       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses	the real-time class to get the
       highest	scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all	kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real-time scheduling	cdrecord  uses
       real-time  scheduling  too, but may not be able to gain a priority that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order	to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and	lock itself into core cdrecord either needs to
       be run as root, needs to	be installed suid root or must be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

   File	to track mapping
       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains	the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard	 input	is  used  for that track.  Only	one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track	 rela-
       tion  may  not  be implemented.	In -clone mode,	a single file contains
       all data	for the	whole disk.  To	allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not  implement large file support, cdrecord concatenates	all file argu-
       ments to	a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL	OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track	file name or track option.

   Informative options
       -help  display version information for cdrecord on standard output.

       -version
	      Print version information	and exit.

       -v     Increment	the level of general verbosity by one.	This  is  used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

   Media write mode options
       -dummy The  -dummy  option  modifies  the  current write	strategy.  The
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder will go through all steps of the  record-
	      ing  process, but	the laser is turned off	during this procedure.
	      It is recommended	to run several tests before  actually  writing
	      to  a  Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if	the timing and
	      load response of the current system is not yet known.

	      The -dummy option	does not work with all media and write	modes.
	      DVD+  media  and	BluRay media does not support dummy writes and
	      most CD-recorders	do not support dummy writes in raw mode.

       -multi Allow multi-session CDs or multi-border DVDs to be  made.	  This
	      flag  needs  to be present on all	sessions of a multi-session or
	      multi-border disk, except	you want to create a session on	 a  CD
	      that will	be the last session on the CD-media.

	      For CD-media, the	fixation will be done in a way that allows the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder to	append additional sessions later. This
	      is  done	by  generating	a  TOC with a link to the next program
	      area. The	so generated media is not 100% compatible to  manufac-
	      tured CDs	(except	for CDplus).  Use only for recording of	multi-
	      session CDs.  If this option is present, the default track  type
	      is  CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 and	the sector size	is 2048	bytes.
	      The XA sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony
	      drives  have  no	hardware  support for CD-ROM XA	mode 2 form 1.
	      You have to specify the -data option in order to	create	multi-
	      session  disks  on these drives.	If you like to record a	multi-
	      session disk in SAO mode,	you need to force  CD-ROM  sectors  by
	      including	 the -data option.  Not	all drives allow multi-session
	      CDs in SAO mode.

	      For DVD media, -multi switches the  write	 mode  to  incremental
	      packet  recording.   There  is  currently	 no way	to prevent the
	      ability to append	further	sessions and there is  currently  only
	      support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse	a DVD-RW that has pre-
	      viously been written in incremental packet  recording  mode  for
	      different	 write	modes,	you  need  to  blank  the entire media
	      before.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once)	mode which is usually called  Disk  At
	      Once  mode.  This	currently only works with MMC drives that sup-
	      port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
	      size  of	each  track  in	advance	for this mode (see the mkisofs
	      -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for	more  informa-
	      tion).

	      There  are  several  CD writers with bad firmware	that result in
	      broken disks when	writing	in TAO or SAO mode.  If	you  find  any
	      problems	with  the  layout of a disk or with subchannel content
	      (e.g. wrong times	on the display when playing the	CD)  and  your
	      drive  supports  to  write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you	should
	      give it a	try.

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At	Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode  in	previous  cdrecord  versions.	With most drives, this
	      write mode is required for multi-session recording.

	      There are	several	CD writers with	bad firmware  that  result  in
	      broken  disks  when writing in TAO or SAO	mode.  If you find any
	      problems with the	layout of a disk or  with  subchannel  content
	      (e.g.  wrong  times on the display when playing the CD) and your
	      drive supports to	write in -raw96r or -raw16  mode,  you	should
	      give it a	try.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing	 mode.	Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
	      Note that	cdrecord needs to know	the  size  of  each  track  in
	      advance  for  this  mode (see the	mkisofs	-print-size option and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes	of raw
	      P-W  sub-channel	data resulting in a sector size	of 2448	bytes.
	      This is the preferred raw	writing	mode as	it gives best  control
	      over  the	 CD-writing  process.	Writing	data disks in raw mode
	      needs significantly more CPU time	than  other  write  modes.  If
	      your CPU is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note
	      that cdrecord needs to know the size of each  track  in  advance
	      for  this	mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAM-
	      PLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors  plus	 96  bytes  of
	      packed  P-W  sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
	      few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
	      in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this	mode  if  your
	      recorder	supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks	in raw
	      mode needs significantly more CPU	time than other	 write	modes.
	      If  your	CPU  is	too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
	      Note that	cdrecord needs to know	the  size  of  each  track  in
	      advance  for  this  mode (see the	mkisofs	-print-size option and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Set RAW writing mode with	2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes	of P-Q
	      sub-channel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a
	      recorder does not	support	-raw96r, this  is  the	preferred  raw
	      writing mode.  It	does not allow to write	CD-Text	or CD+Graphics
	      but it is	the only raw writing  mode  in	cheap  CD-writers,  as
	      these  cheap  writers  in	 most  cases do	not support -dao mode.
	      Don't use	this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r.   Writing
	      data  disks  in  raw mode	needs significantly more CPU time than
	      other write modes. If your CPU is	too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
	      each track in advance for	this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

   Cdrecord functional options
       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
	      only, this should	never be needed; but other software may	 leave
	      a	 drive	in an unusable condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may
	      be needed	if a previous write has	been interrupted and the soft-
	      ware did not tell	the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	the ATIP (Absolute Time	In Pre-groove)
	      info of a	CD/DVD/BluRay recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay  re-writable
	      media.  With this	option,	cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP
	      info. If the actual drive	does not  support  to  read  the  ATIP
	      info,  it	 may be	that only a reduced set	of information records
	      or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of  MMC-com-
	      pliant drives support to read the	ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve	the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it	will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media	does not have ATIP information
	      but there	is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       blank=type
	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
	      blanking type may	be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank	the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank	the last track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank	the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank	the last session.

	      Not  all	drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary
	      to use blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being
	      invalid.	If used	together with the -force flag, this option may
	      be used to blank CD-RW disks that	otherwise cannot  be  blanked.
	      Note  that you may need to specify blank=all because some	drives
	      will not continue	with certain types of bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note
	      also  that cdrecord does its best	if the -force flag is used but
	      it finally depends on the	drive's	firmware whether the  blanking
	      operation	will succeed or	not.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks  if  a  driver for	the current drive is present and exit.
	      If the drive is a	known drive, cdrecord uses exit	code 0.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to	handle images created by readcd	 -clone.   The
	      -clone  write  mode  may	only  be  used in conjunction with the
	      -raw96r or -raw16	option.	 Using -clone together with -raw96r is
	      preferred	 as  it	 allows	 to  write  all	sub-channel data.  The
	      -raw16 option should only	be used	with drives that do  not  sup-
	      port to write in -raw96r mode.

	      Note that	copying	in clone mode disables certain levels of error
	      correction and thus always results  in  a	 quality  degradation.
	      Avoid copying audio CDs in clone mode for	this reason.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all	 recording-related information from a CDRWIN-compliant
	      CUE sheet	file.  No track-file arguments to cdrecord are allowed
	      when  this  option  is present and one of	the following options:
	      -dao, -sao, -raw,	-raw16,	-raw96r	is needed in addition.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number
	      1.   This	 option	currently only makes sense with	the TEAC drive
	      when creating track-at-once disks	without	the  2-second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to	 allow
	      users  to	use cdrecord with drives that are similar to supported
	      drives but not known directly  by	 cdrecord.   All  drives  made
	      after  1997  should be MMC-standard-compliant and	thus supported
	      by one of	the MMC	drivers.  It is	most unlikely that cdrecord is
	      unable  to find the right	driver automatically.  Use this	option
	      with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a  device,  the
	      possibility  of  creating	 corrupted disks is high.  The minimum
	      problem related to a wrong driver	is that	the -speed  or	-dummy
	      will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To	 get  a	list of	possible drivers together with a short
		     description.

	      mmc_bd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay media or a	multi system that con-
		     tains  a  BluRay disk as the current medium.  This	driver
		     tries to close the	tray, checks the medium	found  in  the
		     tray  and	then  branches	to the driver that matches the
		     current medium.

	      mmc_bdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     support to	write BluRay BD-R media	or a multi system that
		     contains a	BluRay BD-R disk as the	current	medium.

	      mmc_bdre
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds an	MMC-compliant drive that  does
		     support  to  write	 BluRay	 BD-RE media or	a multi	system
		     that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current medium.

	      mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that does
		     not identify itself to support writing at	all,  or  that
		     only  identifies  to  support  media  or  write modes not
		     implemented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD/BluRay  driver  is	 auto-
		     selected  whenever	 cdrecord finds	an MMC-2 or MMC-3-com-
		     pliant drive that seems to	support	more than  one	medium
		     type  and the tray	is open	or no medium could be found to
		     select the	right driver.  This driver tries to close  the
		     tray,  checks  the	 medium	 found	in  the	 tray and then
		     branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	finds an MMC-compliant drive that only
		     supports to write CDs or a	multi system drive  that  con-
		     tains a CD	as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord	would  otherwise  select  the  mmc_cdr
		     driver  but  the  device  seems  to be made by Sony.  The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely	needed for the Sony CDU	928 as
		     this drive	does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced  by
		     Sony  proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even newer ones) still implement	the  Sony  proprietary
		     SCSI  commands  so	it has not yet become a	problem	to use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that	does not work with this	driver,	please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2	 DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever cdrecord	finds an MMC-2	or  MMC-3-com-
		     pliant drive that supports	to write DVDs and an appropri-
		     ate medium	is loaded.  There is no	Track At Once mode for
		     DVD writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
		     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
		     incompatible to each other	is found.  It checks media and
		     then branches to the  driver  that	 matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3	 DVD+R driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a	 DVD+R	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.	Note  that  for	 unknown  reason,  the	DVD+RW
		     Alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
		     for  DVD+R	 media.	  The author of	cdrecord tries to con-
		     vince manufacturers to implement a	 simulation  mode  for
		     DVD+R  and	 implement  support.   DVD+R only supports one
		     write mode	that is	somewhere between Track	 At  Once  and
		     Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord via the
		     -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW	media  need  to	 be  formatted	before
		     their  first use, cdrecord	auto-detects this medium state
		     and performs a format before it starts  to	 write.	  Note
		     that  for	unknown	 reason,  the DVD+RW Alliance does not
		     like that there is	a simulation mode nor a	way  to	 erase
		     DVD+RW  media.   DVD+RW only supports one write mode that
		     is	close to Packet	writing;  this	mode  is  selected  in
		     cdrecord via the -dao/-sao	option.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
		     selected when cdrecord  finds  this  old  pre-MMC	drive.
		     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this	drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord finds this old pre-MMC drive which has been  the
		     first  high  speed	 (6x)  CD-writer for a long time. This
		     drive behaves similarly to	the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver	for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a	 Philips  CDD-521  drive (which	is the
		     first CD-writer ever made)	or one	of  the	 other	drives
		     that  are	known  to behave similarly to this drive.  All
		     Philips CDD-521 or	similar	drives (see other  drivers  in
		     this list)	do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-521 with very	 old  firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522	 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips CDD-522 which is	the  successor
		     of	 the  521  or  one  of	its variants with Kodak	label.
		     Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording  with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
		     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be	used  by  hand
		     with drives that behave similarly to the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The  driver  for  Pioneer	DW-S114X is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds one	of the	old  non-MMC  CD-writers  from
		     Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for  Plasmon	RF  4100 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds  this  specific  variant  of  the  Philips
		     CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1060C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds this drive.	There is no real  support  for
		     this drive	yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The  driver  for  Ricoh  RO-1420C	is  auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The  generic  SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver	is auto-selected when-
		     ever cdrecord finds a pre-MMC drive that does not support
		     writing  or  a  pre-MMC  writer  that is not supported by
		     cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The driver	for Sony CDU-924 /  CDU-948  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds one of the	old pre-MMC CD-writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The driver	for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S,	JVC  XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle  RCD-5020	 is  auto-selected whenever one	of the
		     drives is found that is known to use the non-MMC  command
		     set used by TEAC and JVC.	Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they	do not correctly implement the
		     documented	 command set and JVC has been unwilling	to fix
		     or	document the bugs.  There is no	support	for  the  Ses-
		     sion At Once write	mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The  driver  for  Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a drive with this specific variant of  the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The  driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
		     when cdrecord finds one of	 the  old  pre-MMC  CD-writers
		     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
		     write mode	yet.

	      bd_simul
		     The simulation BluRay driver allows  to  run  timing  and
		     speed  tests  with	 parameters that match the behavior of
		     BluRay writers.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver	allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with	parameters that	match the behavior of CD-writ-
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The simulation DVD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and
		     speed  tests  with	 parameters that match the behavior of
		     DVD writers.

	      There are	two special driver entries in the list:	cdr_simul  and
	      dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed	to make	timing
	      tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup-
	      port  the	 -dummy	 option.   The	simulation drivers implement a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can	 be  changed  via  the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	 environment  variable.	 The simulation	driver
	      correctly	simulates even a buffer	underrun  condition.   If  the
	      -dummy  option is	present, the simulation	is not aborted in case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The	options	 are  specified	 as  a
	      comma  separated	list.	To  get	 a  list  of valid options use
	      driveropts=help together with the	-checkdrive  option.   If  you
	      like  to	set  driver options without running a typical cdrecord
	      task, you	need to	use the	-setdropts option in addition,	other-
	      wise  the	 command  line parser in cdrecord will complain.  Cur-
	      rently implemented driver	options	are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer  Underrun  Free  writing  on.
		     This  only	 works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
		     Free technology.  This may	be called:  Sanyo  BURN-Proof,
		     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The  default  is to turn BURN-Free	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.	The  mandatory
		     parameter	value  is the laser power offset and currently
		     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1,	2.  In	addition,  you
		     need  to  set  the	 write	speed  to  4 in	order to allow
		     VariRec to	work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage the	Plextor	GigaRec	writing	 mode.	The  mandatory
		     parameter	value  is  the disk capacity ratio compared to
		     normal recording and currently may	be selected from  0.6,
		     0.7,  0.8,	0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0
		     are used, then the	effect is similar to the Yamaha	 Audio
		     Master Q. R.  feature. If values >	1.0 are	used, then the
		     disk capacity is increased.

		     Not all drives support all	GigaRec	values.	 When a	 drive
		     uses  the	GigaRec	feature, the write speed is limited to
		     8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha	Audio Master Q.	R.  feature which usu-
		     ally  should  result  in  high quality CDs	that have less
		     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.	  As  this  is	imple-
		     mented as a variant of the	Session	At Once	write mode, it
		     will only work if you select SAO write mode and there  is
		     no	 need to turn it off.  The Audio Master	mode will work
		     with a limited speed but may also be used with data  CDs.
		     In	 Audio Master mode, the	pits on	the CD will be written
		     larger than usual	so  the	 capacity  of  the  medium  is
		     reduced  when  turning  this  feature on.	A 74-minute CD
		     will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if	 Audio	Master
		     is	 active	 and  the  capacity  of	a 80-minute CD will be
		     reduced to	68 minutes, the	capacity in will be reduced to
		     85%  of  the original capacity.  On newer Plextor drives,
		     this feature is also present but  the  capacity  will  be
		     reduced  to  86.66%  of  the original capacity. For other
		     factors on	Plextor	drives,	see the	gigarec	option above.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible	 speed
		     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
		     grant best	write quality.	This technology	may be called:
		     Plextor  PowerRec,	Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
		     Speed Control or similar.	 Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
		     Ricoh  and	 Yamaha)  allow	 to force the drive to use the
		     selected speed even if the	medium	is  so	bad  that  the
		     write  quality  would  be	poor. This option tells	such a
		     drive to force to use the selected	 speed	regardless  of
		     the medium	quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note	that the drive
		     should know better	which medium will work at full	speed.
		     The  default is to	turn forcespeed	off, regardless	of the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force	speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra	high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and	faster
		     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the	read speed for unknown
		     media to e.g. 40x in order	to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
		     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
		     media as fast as possible.	 Be very careful as  this  may
		     cause  the	 media	to  break  in the drive	while reading,
		     resulting in damaged media	and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited	read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single-session  only	 drive.	  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the	TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become	usable if only the information
		     from  the first session is	used.  You need	to enable Sin-
		     gle Session mode before you insert	the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single-session mode. The drive will again	behave
		     as	usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that	a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
		     tions believe that	the media in the drive is not a	CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image size	information for	the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature.
		     The  images  always  have	a  line	length of 3744 pixels.
		     Line number 0 (radius 0) is mapped	to the center  of  the
		     disk.   If	you know the inner and outer radii you will be
		     able to create a  pre  distorted  image  that  later  may
		     appear undistorted	on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use  this	option	together  with -checkdrive to write an
		     image prepared for	the  Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature  to  the
		     medium.   The file	must be	a file with raw	image B&W data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call  to tattooinfo.  If the size of the image equals the
		     maximum possible size (3744 x 320 pixels),	cdrecord  will
		     use the first part	of the file. This first	part then will
		     be	written	to the leftover	space on the CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be	readable  from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

	      layerbreak
		     Switch  a	drive  with  DVD-R/DL  medium  into layer jump
		     recording recording mode and  use	automatic  layer-break
		     position setup.

		     By	 default,  DVD-R/DL  media  is	written	 in sequential
		     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

	      layerbreak=value
		     Set up  a	manual	layer-break  value  for	 DVD-R/DL  and
		     DVD+R/DL.	 The  specified	 layer-break value must	not be
		     set to less than half of the recorded data	size and  must
		     not be set	to more	than the remaining Layer 0 size	of the
		     medium.  The manual layer-break value needs to be a  mul-
		     tiple  of	the  ECC  sector size which is 16 logical 2048
		     byte sectors in case of DVD media	and  32	 logical  2048
		     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

		     Cdrecord  does  not  allow	to write DL media in case that
		     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
		     the  medium  except  when	a  manual layer-break has been
		     specified by using	the layerbreak=value option.

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.	Some  devices  (e.g.  Philips)
	      need  to	eject  the  medium before creating a new disk. Doing a
	      -dummy test and immediately creating a real disk would not  work
	      on these devices.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a	CD-reader will
	      be written).  This may be	used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated.	This option currently does not
	      work with	old TEAC drives	(CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -force Force to continue	on some	errors.	Be  careful  when  using  this
	      option.	Cdrecord  implements  several  checks that prevent you
	      from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
	      drives.  Many  of	the sanity checks are disabled when the	-force
	      option is	used.

	      This option also implements some tricks that will	allow  you  to
	      blank bad	CD-RW disks.

       -format
	      Format  a	 CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE  disc.   Formatting is cur-
	      rently only implemented for DVD+RW and BD-RE media.  A  'maiden'
	      DVD+RW  or  BD-RE	 medium	 needs	to be formatted	before you may
	      write to it.  However, as	cdrecord autodetects the need for for-
	      matting  in  this	 case  and  auto  formats the medium before it
	      starts writing, the -format option is only needed	if you like to
	      forcibly reformat	a DVD+RW or BD-RE medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
	      tax as in	dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size  is taken in	bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',	 `s'  or  `f',
	      the  size	 is  multiplied	by 512,	1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
	      If the size consists of numbers separated	by `x' or `*',	multi-
	      plication	 of the	two numbers is performed.  Thus	fs=10x63k will
	      specify a	FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the	fs= argument includes the shared  mem-
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at	least one page
	      of memory.  If no	fs= option is present, cdrecord	 will  try  to
	      get  the FIFO size value from the	CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
	      default FIFO size	is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
	      process.	 It  allows  to	 run a pipe from mkisofs directly into
	      cdrecord.	 If the	FIFO is	active and a pipe  from	 mkisofs  into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord	will abort prior to do
	      any modifications	on the disk if	mkisofs	 dies  before  writing
	      starts.	The recommended	FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
	      As a rule	of thumb, the FIFO size	should be at  least  equal  to
	      the  size	 of  the internal buffer of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder
	      and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in
	      the  machine.   If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statis-
	      tics will	print a	FIFO empty count of zero and a FIFO  min  fill
	      not  below  20%.	 It  is	not wise to use	too much space for the
	      FIFO. If you need	more than 8 MB to write	a CD at	a  speed  less
	      than  20x	 from  an  image  on  a	 local	file system on an idle
	      machine, your machine is either underpowered, has	hardware prob-
	      lems  or	is  mis-configured.   If  you like to write DVDs or to
	      write CDs	at higher speed, it makes sense	to use at least	 16 MB
	      for the FIFO.

	      On  old and small	machines, you need to be more careful with the
	      FIFO size.  If your machine has less  than  256 MB  of  physical
	      RAM,  you	should not set up a FIFO size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c	architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	for the	FIFO may cause the operating  system  in  this
	      case  to	spend  much  time to constantly	reload the MMU tables.
	      Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU  hardware  problem.
	      The  author  has	no  information	on PC hardware reflecting this
	      problem.

	      Old Linux	systems	for non-x86 platforms have broken  definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or	manually tell cdrecord to use a	smaller	FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems	(like  a  con-
	      stantly empty drive-buffer) and observe a	zero fifo empty	count,
	      you have hardware	problems that prevent the  data	 from  flowing
	      fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
	      in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
	      DMA setup.

       gracetime=#
	      Set  the grace time before starting to write to #	seconds.  Val-
	      ues below	3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the vol-
	      ume management from interrupting the write process.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore  the known	size of	the medium. This option	should be used
	      with extreme care, it exists only	for debugging purposes	so  do
	      not  use	it for other reasons.  It is not needed	to write disks
	      with more	than the nominal capacity.  This option	implies	-over-
	      burn.

       -immed Tell  cdrecord  to  set  the SCSI	IMMED flag in certain commands
	      (load, eject, blank, close_track,	close_session).	 This  can  be
	      useful  on broken	systems	with ATAPI hard-disk and CD/DVD/BluRay
	      writer on	the same bus or	with SCSI systems that do not use dis-
	      connect/reconnect.   These systems will freeze while blanking or
	      fixating a CD/DVD/BluRay or while	a DVD writer is	filling	 up  a
	      session  to  the	minimum	 amount	(approx. 800 MB).  Setting the
	      -immed flag will request the command to return immediately while
	      the  operation proceeds in background, making the	bus usable for
	      the other	devices	and avoiding the system	freeze.	  This	is  an
	      experimental  feature  which  may	 work or not, depending	on the
	      model of the CD/DVD/BluRay writer.  A correct solution would  be
	      to  set  up  a  correct  cabling	but there seem to be notebooks
	      around that have been set	up the wrong way by the	 manufacturer.
	      As it is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the	-immed
	      option has been added.

	      A	second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
	      cdrecord	to try to wait short times while writing to the	media.
	      This is expected to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      and the data source are connected	to the same IDE	cable. In this
	      case, the	CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the
	      IDE  bus	for  nearly all	the time making	it impossible to fetch
	      data from	the source drive. See also the minbuf= and -v options.

	      Use both features	at your	own risk.  If it  turns	 out  that  it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for	the drive, print  the  inquiry	info  for  the
	      drive and	exit.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This	only works with	a tray-loading
	      mechanism	but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media,	lock the door and exit.	This only works	with a
	      tray-loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
	      Kodak disk transporter.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to	med_cat_nr.

       minbuf=value
	      The  minbuf=  option  allows  to define the minimum drive-buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to  free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD/BluRay	writer
	      to be on the same	IDE cable.  As the wait	 mode  currently  only
	      works  when  the	verbose	option -v has been specified, cdrecord
	      implies the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=	option
	      has been specified.  Valid values	for minbuf= are	between	25 and
	      95 for 25%...95% minimum drive-buffer fill ratio.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state  of  the  medium.
	      This option currently only works for MMC-compliant drives.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi-session info in a	form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This option makes	only sense with	a CD that  contains  at	 least
	      one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
	      Some drives create error messages	if you try to get  the	multi-
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       -nofix Do not fixate the	disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps.	An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive	but there  are
	      audio CD-players that will be able to play such a	disk.

       -overburn
	      Allow cdrecord to	write more than	the official size of a medium.
	      This feature is usually called overburning and  depends  on  the
	      fact that	most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size. As the official size of the	lead-out area on the  disk  is
	      90  seconds (6750	sectors) and a disk usually works if there are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out,	all media may be overburned by
	      at  least	 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD-recorders only do
	      overburning in SAO or RAW	mode. Known exceptions	are  TEAC  CD-
	      R50S,  TEAC  CD-R55S  and	the Panasonic CW-7502.	Some drives do
	      not allow	to overburn as much as you might like  and  limit  the
	      size  of	a  CD  to e.g. 76 minutes. This	problem	may be circum-
	      vented by	writing	the CD in RAW mode because this	way the	 drive
	      has  no  chance to find the size before starting to burn.	 There
	      is no guarantee that your	drive  supports	 overburning  at  all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the	feature.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is	an experimental	interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set  the packet size to #, forces	fixed packet mode.  This is an
	      experimental interface.

       -prcap Print the	drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc-compliant drives  as
	      obtained	from  mode  page  0x2A.	Values marked with kB use 1000
	      bytes as kilo-byte, values marked	with  KB  use  1024  bytes  as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -setdropts
	      Set  the	driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
	      speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.	  This	allows
	      cdrecord	to set drive specific parameters that are not directly
	      used by cdrecord like e.g.  single session mode,	hide  cdr  and
	      similar.	 It  is	 needed	 in  case  that	driveropts=option list
	      should be	called without planning	 to  run  a  typical  cdrecord
	      task.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte-
	      ger, representing	a multiple of what has been defined as	single
	      speed for	the medium.

	      For CD-media, single speed is the	audio playback speed.  This is
	      about 150	KB/s for CD-ROM	and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  Sin-
	      gle  speed  is about 1385	kB/s for DVD media and about 4496 kB/s
	      for BluRay media.

	      If no speed option is present, cdrecord will try to get a	 drive
	      specific	speed  value from the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord and
	      if it cannot find	one, it	will try to get	the speed  value  from
	      the CDR_SPEED environment	and later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.	If no  speed  value  could  be	found,
	      cdrecord	uses  a	drive specific default speed.  The default for
	      all new (MMC-compliant) drives is	to use the  maximum  supported
	      by  the  drive.	If you use speed=0 with	a MMC-compliant	drive,
	      cdrecord will switch to the lowest possible speed	for drive  and
	      medium.	If you are using an old	(non-MMC) drive	that has prob-
	      lems with	speed=2	or speed=4, you	should try speed=0.

       -text  Write CD-Text information	based on information taken from	a file
	      that  contains ascii information for the text strings.  Cdrecord
	      supports CD-Text information based on the	content	of  the	 *.inf
	      files  created  by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based	on the
	      content from a CUE sheet file.  If a  CUE	 sheet	file  contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
	      tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet	file in	addition.  If you like
	      to  write	 your own CD-Text information, edit the	*.inf files or
	      the CUE sheet file with a	text editor and	change the fields that
	      are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write  CD-Text  based  on	 information  found in the binary file
	      filename.	 This file must	contain	information in a  data	format
	      defined  in  the	SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
	      four-byte-sized header that is defined in	the SCSI  standard  is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.  This is the best option to be	used to	 copy  CD-Text
	      data  from  existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
	      To get data in a format suitable for this	 option	 use  cdrecord
	      -vv  -toc	 to  extract  the  information	from  disk.   If both,
	      textfile=filename	and CD-Text information	from  *.inf  or	 *.cue
	      files  are  present,  textfile=filename will overwrite the other
	      information.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of contents or  PMA  of	a  CD.
	      With  this  option, cdrecord will	work with CD-R drives and with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -waiti Wait for input to	become available on standard input before try-
	      ing  to  open  the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read its
	      input from a pipe	even when writing  additional  sessions	 to  a
	      multi-session  disk.   When  writing another session to a	multi-
	      session disk, mkisofs needs to read the  old  session  from  the
	      device  before  writing output.  This cannot be done if cdrecord
	      opens the	SCSI driver at the same	time.

       -useinfo
	      Use *.inf	files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
	      used,  the  pregap  size information, the	index information, the
	      pre-emphasis information and the	CD-Text	 information  is  read
	      from  the	 *.inf file that is associated with the	file that con-
	      tains the	audio data for a track.

	      If used together with the	-audio option, cdrecord	may be used to
	      write  audio  CDs	from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord
	      with the *.inf files as track parameter list  instead  of	 using
	      audio  files.   The  audio data is read from stdin in this case.
	      See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that	 stdin
	      is  not  connected to a terminal and runs	some heuristic consis-
	      tency checks on the *.inf	files and then sets the	track  lengths
	      from the information in the *.inf	files.

	      If  you  like  to	 write	from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is
	      called with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed  to
	      a	 value below the read speed of the source drive	and switch the
	      burn-free	option for the recording drive on.

   SCSI	options
       dev=target
	      Set the SCSI target for the  CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder,  see	 notes
	      above.  A	typical	target device specification is dev=1,6,0 .  If
	      a	filename must be provided together with	the  numerical	target
	      specification,  the  filename  is	 implementation	specific.  The
	      correct filename in this case can	be found in  the  system  spe-
	      cific manuals of the target operating system.  On	a FreeBSD sys-
	      tem without CAM support, you need	 to  use  the  control	device
	      (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).	A correct device specification in this
	      case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	    General SCSI addressing
	      The target device	to the	dev=  option  refers  to  scsibus/tar-
	      get/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder. Communication on SunOS is
	      done with	the SCSI general driver	scg.  Other operating  systems
	      are  using a library simulation of this driver.  Possible	syntax
	      is: dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In  the	latter
	      case,  the  CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  has  to  be connected	to the
	      default SCSI bus of the machine.	Scsibus, target	 and  lun  are
	      integer  numbers.	  Some	operating  systems  or	SCSI transport
	      implementations may require to specify a filename	 in  addition.
	      In  this case the	correct	syntax for the device is: dev= device-
	      name:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:target,lun.   If  the
	      name of the device node that has been specified on such a	system
	      refers to	exactly	one SCSI device, a shorthand in	the form  dev=
	      devicename:@  or	dev=  devicename:@,lun	may be used instead of
	      dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

	    Remote SCSI	addressing
	      To access	remote SCSI devices, you  need	to  prepend  the  SCSI
	      device  name  by	a  remote  device indicator. The remote	device
	      indicator	is either REMOTE:user@host: or	REMOTE:host:  A	 valid
	      remote  SCSI  device  name  may  be:  REMOTE:user@host: to allow
	      remote SCSI bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the
	      SCSI  device  at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0,	lun 0.
	      In order to allow	remote access to a specific host, the rscsi(1)
	      program needs to be present and configured on the	host.

	    Alternate SCSI transports
	      Cdrecord	is  completely	based  on SCSI commands	but this is no
	      problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay writers ever	made use SCSI commands
	      for  the	communication.	Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI	drives
	      that inherently use the ATA packet  interface  as	 SCSI  command
	      transport	 layer	build  into  the IDE (ATA) transport.  You may
	      need to specify an alternate  transport  layer  on  the  command
	      line  if	your  OS  does not implement a fully integrated	kernel
	      driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com-
	      mands via	a single unique	user interface.

	      To  access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need
	      to prepend the SCSI device name by a transport layer  indicator.
	      The  transport  layer  indicator may be something	like USCSI: or
	      ATAPI:.  To get a	list of	supported transport  layers  for  your
	      platform,	use dev= HELP:

	    Portability	Background
	      To make cdrecord portable	to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev=
	      devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides  OS  spe-
	      cific knowledge about device names from the user.	 A specific OS
	      may not necessarily support a way	to specify a real device  file
	      name nor a way to	specify	scsibus,target,lun.

	      Scsibus 0	is the default SCSI bus	on the machine.	Watch the boot
	      messages for more	information or look  into  /var/run/dmesg.boot
	      for  more	 information  about  the  SCSI	configuration  of your
	      machine.	If you have problems to	figure	out  what  values  for
	      scsibus,target,lun  should  be  used, try	the -scanbus option of
	      cdrecord described below.

	    Using logical names	for devices
	      If no dev	option is present, cdrecord will try to	get the	device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If a file	/usr/local/etc/cdrecord	exists,	and if the argument to
	      the dev= option or the CDR_DEVICE	environment does  not  contain
	      the  characters  ',',  '/',  '@'	or ':',	it is interpreted as a
	      device   label   name   that   was   defined   in	   the	  file
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord (see FILES section).

	    Autotarget Mode
	      If  no  dev= option and no CDR_DEVICE environment	is present, or
	      if it only contains a transport specifier	but no	address	 nota-
	      tion,  cdrecord  tries to	scan the SCSI address space for	CD-ROM
	      drives.  If exactly one is found,	this is	used by	default.

       debug=#,	-d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or	increment  the
	      misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
	      equals to	debug=2.  This may help	to find	problems while opening
	      a	 driver	 for  libscg  as  well as with sector sizes and	sector
	      types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
	      son for a	buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell  the	scg-driver to modify the kernel	debug value while SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus	where the CD-recorder is located. This
	      does not work on all operating systems.

       -scanbus
	      Scan  all	 SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder  on a system.  The	numbers	printed	out as
	      labels are computed by: bus * 100	+ target

       -silent,	-s
	      Do not print out a status	report for failed SCSI commands.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #	seconds.   The
	      default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
	      sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI	command	fails due to  a	 time-
	      out, you may try to raise	the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value	of the failed command.	If  the	 command  runs
	      correctly	 with a	raised command timeout,	please report the bet-
	      ter timeout value	and the	corresponding command to the author of
	      the  program.  If	no timeout= option is present, a default time-
	      out of 40	seconds	is used.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for	a single SCSI  command	to  #.
	      The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts=	option has been	 specified,  cdrecord  defaults	 to  a
	      transfer	size  of  63 kB.  If libscg gets lower values from the
	      operating	system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is  possible  with  the current operating	system.	 Sometimes, it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
	      but  note	that it	may take a long	time to	find a better value by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

       -V     Increment	the verbose level in respect of	SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  If  you  get
	      incomprehensible	error messages you should use this flag	to get
	      more detailed output.  -VV will  show  data  buffer  content  in
	      addition.	 Using -V or -VV slows down the	process	and may	be the
	      reason for a buffer underrun.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The	file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the	following: MSB
	      left, LSB	left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB	left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will	be read	in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au	or .wav	the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case	is a Sun audio file  or	 a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
	      extracts the audio data from the files by	skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio  files  do	 not  have  an
	      integral	number of blocks (1/75th second	each) in length, it is
	      often necessary to specify the -pad option  as  well.   cdrecord
	      recognizes  that	audio  data  in	a .WAV file is stored in Intel
	      (little-endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the
	      data if the CD-recorder requires big-endian data.	 Cdrecord will
	      reject any audio file that does not match	the Red	Book  require-
	      ments  of	 16-bit	 stereo	 samples  in  PCM coding at 44100 sam-
	      ples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data	formats	as input  to  cdrecord
	      will  usually work if the	structure of the data is the structure
	      described	above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte	order).	  How-
	      ever,  if	 the  data  format  includes a header, you will	hear a
	      click at the start of the	track.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for	the  disk  is  set  to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -copy  If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option	has no
	      effect on	data tracks.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
	      of 2048 bytes.  The file	with  track  data  should  contain  an
	      ISO-9660	or  Rock  Ridge	filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
	      details).	If the track data is an	ufs filesystem image, fragment
	      size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB
	      sector size to be	used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other	flag is	present	and  the  file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file	types.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that	end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated	list of	numbers	that are counting from	index  1.  The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must be an ascending list	of numbers (counting in	1/75  seconds)
	      that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list	in the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	 100  seconds from the start of	the track and index 3 200 sec-
	      onds from	the start of the track.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size	as the size of the next	track.
	      This  option is needed if	you want cdrecord to directly read the
	      image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO	master
	      CD. In the first case the	option -isosize	is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to	the size of the	ISO filesystem.	 In the	second
	      case  the	 option	 -isosize  is  needed to prevent cdrecord from
	      reading the two run-out blocks that are  appended	 by  each  CD-
	      recorder	in track-at-once mode. These two run-out blocks	cannot
	      be read and would	cause a	buffer underrun	 that  would  cause  a
	      defective	copy.

	      Note  that  if  this option is used on files created by mkisofs,
	      the padding data that was	added by mkisofs is lost and  replaced
	      by  padding  added by cdrecord.  This may	also change the	amount
	      of padding.

	      In case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin,	only the first
	      track may	be used	with the -isosize option.

	      If -isosize is used for a	track, cdrecord	will automatically add
	      padding for this track as	if the -pad option had been  used  but
	      the  amount  of  padding may be less than	the padding written by
	      mkisofs.	Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
	      Sparc boot information, the boot information will	be lost.

	      Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
	      of a file	system if the -multi option is present.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording	Number	for  the  next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       -mode2 If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks	are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The	data size is a multiple	of 2336	bytes.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once	for personal use - this	is the
	      default.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks -	the default.

       -nopreemp
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks will indicate that	the audio data has been	mastered  with
	      linear data - this is the	default.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       -pad   If the track is a	data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio  track,  cdrecord	will  pad  the
	      audio  data to be	a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data pad-
	      ding is done with	binary	zeroes	which  is  equal  to  absolute
	      silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled	by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set  the	amount	of  data to be appended	as padding to the next
	      track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
	      value  for  padsize=  is	reset  to  zero	 for  each  new	track.
	      Cdrecord assumes a sector	size of	2048 bytes  for	 the  padsize=
	      option,  independent  from  the real sector size and independent
	      from the write mode.  The	megabytes  mentioned  in  the  verbose
	      mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
	      e.g. 2448	bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96	 mode.	 See  the  fs=
	      option for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 min-
	      utes on a	CD, you	may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this	option
	      if your CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of a track
	      or if you	want to	be able	to read	the CD on a Linux system  with
	      the  ISO-9660  filesystem	 read-ahead  bug.  If an empty file is
	      used for track data, this	option may be used to  create  a  disk
	      that is entirely made of padding.	 This may e.g. be used to find
	      out how much overburning is possible with	a specific medium.

       -preemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
	      50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The	data however is	 not  modified
	      during  the  process  of	transferring  from file	to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for	the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the	TEAC drive when	creating track-at-once
	      disks without the	2-second silence before	each track.
	      This option may go away in the future.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of	the resulting CD will indicate that the	audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all	subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track	length
	      standard	which  requires	 a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
	      This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
	      all  drives  support  this  feature.  The	 drive must accept the
	      resulting	CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to	 be  in	 byte-
	      swapped  (little-endian)	order.	 Some types of CD-writers e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio data to be presented  in  the  big-endian  (network)  byte
	      order  normally  used by the SCSI	protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a
	      CD-recorder needs	audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte	order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data	stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord	will show you if swap-
	      ping is necessary	to make	the byte order of the input  data  fit
	      the required byte	order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was	actually present for a track.

       tsize=#
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on	a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the	image of the next track	is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.  If the track	contains an ISO-9660 filesystem	 image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
	      tem image.
	      In Disk At Once mode and with some drives	that use the TEAC pro-
	      gramming	interface,  even in Track At Once mode,	cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track  before  starting	to  write  the
	      disk.   Cdrecord	now  checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before  and use the output (with `s' appended) as	an argument to
	      the tsize= option	of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers will be  created  by  the
	      drive.  With this	option,	the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1	format.	The data size is a multiple of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers are part of the user data
	      and  have	 to  be	 supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2	format.	The data is a multiple of 2324
	      bytes.  The XA sector sub-headers	will be	created	by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
	      way  that	 allows	a mix of CD-ROM	XA mode	2 form 1/2 format. The
	      data size	is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector  sub-head-
	      ers  are	part  of  the user data	and have to be supplied	by the
	      application that prepares	the data to be written.	 The  CRC  and
	      the  P/Q	parity	ECC/EDC	 information  (depending on the	sector
	      type) have to be supplied	by the application that	 prepares  the
	      data to be written.

EXAMPLES
       For  all	 examples  below, it will be assumed that the machine includes
       two drives.  The	reader is assumed to be	target 1 on the	 primary  SCSI
       bus.   The CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder is assumed to be target 2 on the pri-
       mary SCSI bus of	the machine.

       If there	is only	one drive in the machine, the dev= option may be omit-
       ted  in	the examples below, but	in this	case the examples for replica-
       tion without intermediate files do not apply.

   Replicating an Audio	CD
       To copy an audio	CD in the most accurate	way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 paraopts=proof -vall cddb=0	-B -Owav

       and then	run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to	copy track indices and	to  read  CD-Text  information
       from  disk.   If	 there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will	try to
       get the information from	freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio	CD from	a pipe (without	intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then	run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including	 track	size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data	from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin,	make sure that cdrecord	is called with
       a large enough FIFO size	(e.g.  fs=128m), reduce	the write speed	 to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of	the source drive (e.g.	speed=12), and
       switch the burn-free option  for	 the  recording	 drive	on  by	adding
       driveropts=burnfree.   For  the	same  reason, it is not	recommended to
       extract the audio data in paranoia mode in this case.

   Replicating a simple	CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To copy a simple	disk, first read the master using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 f=somefile

       Then write the disk using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

   Replicating a CD-ROM	in clone mode
       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many	sectors	that are unreadable by	inten-
       tion) by	calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       This  will  create the files somefile and somefile.toc.	Then write the
       CD using:

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

   Creating an Audio CD
       To record a pure	CD-DA (audio) at single	speed, with  each  track  con-
       tained in files named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be OK to use double speed	for the	example	above,
       use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao -audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a mixed Audio-Data CD
       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO-9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the	other tracks being audio tracks	from the files
       track01.cdaudio,	track02.cdaudio, etc.:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw	-audio track*.cdaudio

   Creating a CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
       To record a pure	disk at	double speed, using data from the  file	 cdim-
       age.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 -dao cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image for an ISO-9660 filesystem	with Rock Ridge	exten-
       sions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check	the resulting file before writing to disk on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs	/dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in	1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer comes	with a variant of the original fbk idea	called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

	    mount -r -F	hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute	path names.

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r	-t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If  the	overall	speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will	run  without  creating
       an image	of the ISO-9660	filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v -dao fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended	 minimum  FIFO	size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.	As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs	to  be
       present	only if	you want to use	a different FIFO size.	If your	system
       is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the	real-time class	too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p	59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice	--18 mkisofs -R	/master/tree

       on  systems  that  do  not  have	UNIX International-compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord	runs at	priority 59 on Solaris,	you should run mkisofs	at  no
       more  than  priority 58.	On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating	a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with	a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the	machine	was not	loaded.	 A faster machine may be able to  han-
       dle quad	speed also in the loaded case.

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then	run

	   mkisofs  -R	/master/tree  |	 cdrecord  -v  -dao  speed=2   dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by	the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

   Setting drive options
       To  set drive options without writing a disk (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single-session mode), run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no disk is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable	to the
	      open  call  of the SCSI transport	library	or a label in the file
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default	speed  value  for  writing  (see  also	-speed
	      option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO	(see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow	you to
	      write at the full	RAW encoding  speed  a	single	CPU  supports.
	      This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
	      write  at	 the  full DMA speed the system	supports.  There is no
	      DMA reserve for reading the data that  is	 to  be	 written  from
	      disk.   This will	create high potential of buffer	underruns. Use
	      with care.

	      If this environment variable is set to the value	any,  cdrecord
	      allows  to write at any speed even though	it may fail later with
	      a	buffer underrun.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is	present, the  remote  connection  will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by	calling	the program pointed to
	      by RSH.  Use e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a	 secure	 shell
	      connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces cdrecord	to create a pipe to the	rsh(1)
	      program and disallows cdrecord to	directly  access  the  network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root-initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not be the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the program pointed
	      to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program name will
	      be ignored if you	log in using an	account	that has been  created
	      with a remote SCSI server	program	as login shell.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/cdrecord
	      Default	values	can  be	 set  for  the	following  options  in
	      /usr/local/etc/cdrecord.	 For   example:	  CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m   or
	      CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to	the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in	 the file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord that allows to iden-
		     tify a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also	-speed
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other	label
		     is	 an  identifier	 for  a	 specific drive	on the system.
		     Such an identifier	may not	contain	 the  characters  ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line	 that follows a	label contains a TAB separated
		     list of items.  Currently,	four items are recognized: the
		     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed	that should be
		     used for this drive, the default FIFO size	that should be
		     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
		     ues for speed and fifosize	may  be	 set  to  -1  to  tell
		     cdrecord  to  use	the  global  defaults.	 The value for
		     driveropts	may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
		     typical line may look this	way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi-
		     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and	should be used	with  speed  4
		     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.	A second drive may be found at
		     scsibus 1,	target 6, lun 0	and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

       *.inf  The  *.inf  files	are created by cdda2wav	where *	is replaced by
	      the actual audio	file  prefix.	They  are  read	 and  used  by
	      cdrecord in case cdrecord	was called with	the -useinfo option.

	      There are	three general types of parameters:

	      numerical	parameters
		     A	numerical  parameter  is a number and directly follows
		     the tag label without any quoting.

	      unquoted string type parameters
		     An	unquoted parameter is make from	one or more words that
		     directly  follow  the tag label.  How many	words from the
		     parameter list are	used by	cdrecord depends  on  the  tag
		     label.

	      quoted string type parameters
		     A string type parameter is	enclosed in single quotes. The
		     string starts after the first single quote	character that
		     follows  the  tag	label  and ends	before the last	single
		     quote on the same line.  It needs no escape sequences  in
		     case  that	a single quote appears inside the string.  Any
		     text to the right of the rightmost	single quote character
		     is	ignored.

	      The order	of the tag labels in the file is not important.

	      The following tag	labels may appear in a *.inf file:

	      CDINDEX_DISCID=
		     The  cdindex  disk	ID is used by the musicbrainz CD-data-
		     base.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      CDDB_DISCID=
		     The cddb disk ID is used by the cddb and the  freedb  CD-
		     database.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MCN=   The  Media	Catalog	Number (MCN) is	a 13 digit number that
		     follows UPC/EAN-13	rules.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	data.

	      ISRC=  The International Standard	Recording Code (ISRC) is a  12
		     byte string that is created from two uppercase characters
		     for the country code, followed by three uppercase charac-
		     ters  for	the owner, followed by two digits for the year
		     of	recording followed by five digits  for	the  recording
		     serial number.

		     To	increase the readability of the	ISRC tag, there	may be
		     a minus sign between every	two fields of the ISRC string.

		     The data is used by cdrecord to create sub-channel	data.

	      Albumtitle=
		     The Album Title is	the name of the	disk  in  the  CD-Text
		     information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Tracktitle=
		     The  Track	 Title is the name of the current track	in the
		     CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumperformer=
		     The Album Performer is the	global name of the of the per-
		     former of the disk	in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Performer=
		     The  Performer is the name	of the of the performer	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumsongwriter=
		     The Album Songwriter is the global	name  of  the  of  the
		     songwriter	of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Songwriter=
		     The  Songwriter  is  the name of the of the songwriter of
		     the current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumcomposer=
		     The Album Composer	is the global name of the of the  com-
		     poser of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Composer=
		     The  Composer  is	the name of the	of the composer	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumarranger=
		     The Album Arranger	is the	global	name  of  the  of  the
		     arranger of the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Arranger=
		     The  Arranger  is	the name of the	of the arranger	of the
		     current track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albummessage=
		     The Album Message is the global message text of the  disk
		     in	the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Message=
		     The  Message  is the message text of the current track in
		     the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Albumclosed_info=
		     The Album Closed_info is the global closed	info  text  of
		     the disk in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Closed_info=
		     The  Closed_info  is  the closed info text	of the current
		     track in the CD-Text information.

		     This tag label uses a quoted string type parameter.

	      Track= The parameter contains the	relative number	of the current
		     track  on	the original disk.  The	first track always has
		     the track number 1, a hidden track	uses track number 0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This tag label is ignored by cdrecord except when	check-
		     ing the the Trackstart for	track #1.

	      Tracknumber=
		     The parameter contains the	absolute number	of the current
		     track, taken from the TOC	on  the	 original  disk.   The
		     first  track  on  the  original  disk  may	 have a	number
		     greater than 1, a hidden track always uses	 track	number
		     0.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This  tag	label  is  currently  ignored  by  cdrecord as
		     cdrecord assigns track numbers when  compiling  the  disk
		     information.

	      Trackstart=
		     The  parameter contains the track start offset in sectors
		     on	the original disk.  If the current track  becomes  the
		     first  track  on  the  new	 disk and if the track was the
		     first track on the	original  disk.	  cdrecord  uses  this
		     number to set up the offset for index 1 on	the new	disk.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      Tracklength=
		     The  parameter  is	used by	cdrecord to set	up the size of
		     the track on the new disk.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted string type parameter  in
		     the form "sectors,	samples".

		     This label	is mandatory for cdrecord.

	      Pre-emphasis=
		     The  pre-emphasis	parameter controls whether the related
		     pre-emphasis bit  in  the	sub-channel  data  is  set  by
		     cdrecord.	 Permitted  values  for	this parameter are yes
		     and no.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are yes and no.

	      Channels=
		     The  parameter  of	 this tag is the number	of channels on
		     the disk.	All CD-audio disks use	stereo	recording  and
		     thus a 2 is the correct parameter.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is currently ignored by	cdrecord.

	      Copy_permitted=
		     The  parameter  for  this	tag label contains information
		     about the copyright state of  a  track  on	 the  original
		     disk.

		     This  tag	label  uses an unquoted	string type parameter.
		     Valid values are:

		     yes    The	digital	copy permitted bit is set in  the  TOC
			    and	 in the	sub-channel data.  If this bit is set,
			    the	related	track is not copyright	protected  and
			    may	be copied infinitely.

		     no	    The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC.  The digital copy permitted bit in  the  sub-
			    channel data alters	with 9.375 Hz.	This is	called
			    Serial Copy	Management System (SCMS).   The	 sense
			    of this track state	is to flag that	the creator of
			    the	CD does	not have the copyright	permission  to
			    create  copies  of	the related track. The related
			    track is copyright protected and  the  creator  of
			    the	CD thus	is just	given the permission to	create
			    one	single copy from fair use rights and  no  fur-
			    ther copies	are permitted from this	source.

		     once   The	 digital  copy permitted bit is	not set	in the
			    TOC	and in the sub-channel	data.	The  sense  of
			    this track state is	to flag	that the related track
			    is copyright protected and thus may	not  be	 coped
			    infinitely.	  One single copy from fair use	rights
			    is permitted.

		     Note that many CDs	sold by	the music industry  have  SCMS
		     flagged  for  one	or  more  tracks,  signalling that the
		     related content company does not  own  the	 copyright  to
		     make copies from this track.

	      Endianess=
		     The  parameter for	this tag is the	byte order used	in the
		     audio data	file that was created for this track.

		     This tag label uses an unquoted  string  type  parameter.
		     Valid values are little and big.

		     This  label  is  ignored  by cdrecord as the endianess is
		     retrieved from the	audio file format.

	      Index= The parameter list	for this tag is	a list of numbers that
		     are  sector  numbers  counting  relatively	to the logical
		     beginning of the track (which always is at	index #1).  As
		     any  track	needs to have an entry for index #1, the first
		     entry in the list is  always  0.	If  more  entries  are
		     present  for  this	tag, there are more offset values that
		     correspond	to index values	greater	than 1.

		     This tag label uses an  unquoted  string  type  parameter
		     that contains a list of space separated index offset num-
		     bers.

	      Index0=
		     The parameter for this tag	is a  number  that  represents
		     the  number of sectors relatively to the beginning	(index
		     #1) of this track.	 This number identifies	where index #0
		     of	 the next track	begins.	It the parameter is set	to -1,
		     the next track has	no index #0, resulting in pregap  size
		     0 for the next track.

		     Note  that	cdrecord strictly follows the CD-standard that
		     defines that the logical beginning	of a track is  at  the
		     location  where  index #1 starts in this track.  If index
		     #0	for track n contains audio  data,  the	related	 audio
		     data is a logical part of track n-1.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

	      MD5-offset=
		     The  parameter  for this tag is the byte offset where the
		     raw audio data begins in the related audio	file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-size=
		     The parameter for this tag	is the number of bytes of  raw
		     audio data	in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

	      MD5-sum=
		     The  parameter  for  this	tag is the md5 sum for the raw
		     audio data	in the related audio file.

		     This tag label uses a numerical parameter.

		     This label	is ignored by cdrecord.

       *.cue  The *.cue	files are CD-structure description files introduced by
	      CDRWIN.  They are	read and used by cdrecord in case cdrecord was
	      called with the cuefile=name.cue option.

	      The following commands are supported in CUE files:

	      ARRANGER arranger-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  arranger
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a arranger. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the ARRANGER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  arranger  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the ARRANGER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the arranger of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      CATALOG media-catalog-number
		     This command is used to specify the disc's	Media  Catalog
		     Number.   The  media-catalog-number  is a 13 digit	number
		     that follows UPC/EAN-13 rules.

		     This command can appear only once in the CUE SHEET	 file.
		     It	must appear before any TRACK command.

	      CDTEXTFILE filename
		     This  command  is used to specify the name	of a file that
		     contains binary encoded CD-Text information.  CDRWIN only
		     accepts  headerless  binary  encoded CD-Text information,
		     but cdrecord also accepts binary encoded CD-Text informa-
		     tion  with	an MMC-compliant header.  The CD-Text informa-
		     tion is ignored by	cdrecord unless	the  -text  option  is
		     used.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

	      COMPOSER composer-string
		     This command is used to specify the name  of  a  composer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the name of a composer. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	the COMPOSER command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as the  composer  of
		     the entire	disk.  If the COMPOSER command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the composer of the current track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      FILE filename filetype
		     This command is used to specify a data or audio file that
		     contains data to be written to the	medium.

		     If	 the  filename contains	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     The following values are allowed for the file type	param-
		     eter:

		     BINARY	 Intel binary file (LSB	first)

		     MOTOTOLA	 Motorola binary file (MSB first)

		     AIFF	 Audio AIFF file

		     WAVE	 Audio WAVE file

		     MP3	 Audio MP3 file

		     AU		 Audio AU file (only permitted if cdrecord CUE
				 extensions are	enabled)

		     OGG	 Audio OGG file	(only  permitted  if  cdrecord
				 CUE extensions	are enabled)

		     All  audio	files (WAVE, AIFF, MP3,	AU and OGG) must be in
		     44100 Hz 16 bit stereo format.  MP3 and OGG is  currently
		     unsupported.

		     If	an audio file is not an	exact multiple of a CDROM sec-
		     tor (2352 bytes), then is is padded with zeroes  to  fill
		     up	to the needed size.

		     All  FILE commands	need to	be before a related TRACK com-
		     mand and after the	last INDEX command or POSTGAP  command
		     for the previous track.

		     If	the cdrecord specific CUE extensions are enabled, then
		     a FILE command may	also appear between an INDEX 00	and an
		     INDEX 01 command.	This allows to let the create one file
		     per track where the file starts at	INDEX 01 of the	 track
		     and  enda after INDEX 00 of the following track.  In this
		     case, no FILE command is allowed before the related TRACK
		     command.

	      FLAGS flags
		     This  command is used to set special subcode flags	within
		     a track.

		     The following flags are supported:

		     DCP	 Digital copy permitted

		     4CH	 Four channel audio

		     PRE	 Pre-emphasis enabled (audio tracks only)

		     SCMS	 Serial	copy management	system (not  supported
				 by all	recorders)

		     More  than	 one  flag  type argument may appear after the
		     FLAGS command (e.g	FLAGS DCP PRE).

		     The FLAGS command must appear after a TRACK  command  but
		     before  any  INDEX	 command.   Only  one FLAGS command is
		     allower per TRACK command.

		     The fourth	subcode	flag that marks	 data  tracks  is  set
		     automatically for data tracks.

	      INDEX number mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify indexes within a track.

		     The  first	 parameter  is	the  index number in the range
		     0-99.

		     The second	parameter is a relative	time in	minutes,  sec-
		     onds and frames (there are	75 frames/second).

		     All  index	 numbers  must	be between 0 and 99 inclusive.
		     The first index for a track must be either	0  or  1  with
		     all indexes being sequential to the first one.  The first
		     index for a file must start at 00:00.00.

		     INDEX 00  specifies the starting time of  the  pregap  of
			       the track.

		     INDEX 01  specifies the starting time of the track.  This
			       is the index that is stored  in	the  table  of
			       content for the disk as the track start.

		     INDEX > 1 specifies a subindex within a track.

	      ISRC recording code
		     This  command  is used to specify the International Stan-
		     dard Recording Code (ISRC)	of a track.  This  is  a  code
		     that should exist for all commercial audio	tracks.

		     The ISRC code must	be 12 characters in length.  The first
		     two characters are	characters that	are from the two char-
		     acter  country  code.   The  next	three  characters  are
		     alphanumeric and describe the studio code.	 The next  two
		     characters	 are  the  last	 two digits from the recording
		     year.  The	last 5	characters  are	 digits	 that  form  a
		     serial  number  that  is  unique  for the same studio and
		     year.

		     If	cdrecord specific CUE extensions  are  permitted,  the
		     four fields of the	ISRC may be separated by a minus sign.

		     If	the ISRC command is used, it must appear after a TRACK
		     command but before	any INDEX command.

	      MESSAGE message-string
		     This command is used to specify the test of a message for
		     a disk that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter  is	 the  test of a	message. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	 the MESSAGE command appears before any	TRACK command,
		     the string	parameter will be encoded as  the  message  of
		     the  entire disk.	If the MESSAGE command appears after a
		     TRACK command, the	string parameter will be  encoded  the
		     the message of the	current	track.

		     This  command  is	only accepted if the cdrecord specific
		     CUE extensions are	permitted.

	      PERFORMER	performer-string
		     This command is used to specify the name of  a  performer
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the name of the performer. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	 the  PERFORMER	 command appears before	any TRACK com-
		     mand, the string parameter	will be	encoded	 as  the  per-
		     former  of	 the  entire  disk.   If the PERFORMER command
		     appears after a TRACK command, the	string parameter  will
		     be	encoded	the the	performer of the current track.

	      POSTGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This  command  is used to specify the length of a postgap
		     at	the end	of a track.  The  postgap  data	 is  generated
		     internally	 by  cdrecord.	 No  data is consumed from the
		     current data file.

		     The parameter specifies the postgap  length  in  minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The  POSTGAP command must appear after all	INDEX commands
		     for the current  track.   Only  one  POSTGAP  command  is
		     allowed per track.

	      PREGAP mm:ss:ff
		     This command is used to specify the length	of a pregap at
		     the beginning of a	track.	The pregap data	 is  generated
		     internally	 by  cdrecord.	 No  data is consumed from the
		     current data file.

		     The parameter specifies the postgap  length  in  minutes,
		     seconds and frames.

		     The  PREGAP command must appear after a TRACK command but
		     before any	INDEX command.	Only  one  PREGAP  command  is
		     allowed per track.

	      REM comment
		     This command is used to put comments into a CUE file.

		     The  text that appears in the line	after a	REM command is
		     usually ignored. There is an exception: The special  com-
		     ment REM CDRTOOLS is used to enable cdrecord specific CUE
		     extensions	in the parser.

	      SONGWRITER songwriter-string
		     This command is used to specify the name of a  songwriter
		     for a disk	that includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The  parameter is the name	of a songwriter. If the	string
		     contains any spaces, it must  be  enclosed	 in  quotation
		     marks.

		     If	 the  SONGWRITER command appears before	any TRACK com-
		     mand, the string parameter	will be	encoded	as  the	 song-
		     writer  of	 the  entire  disk.  If	the SONGWRITER command
		     appears after a TRACK command, the	string parameter  will
		     be	encoded	the the	songwriter of the current track.

	      TITLE title-string
		     This  command  is used to specify a title for a disk that
		     includes CD-Text enhancements.

		     The parameter is the title	for a track or for  the	 disk.
		     If	the string contains any	spaces,	it must	be enclosed in
		     quotation marks.

		     If	the TITLE command appears before  any  TRACK  command,
		     the  string parameter will	be encoded as the title	of the
		     entire disk.  If the TITLE	command	appears	after a	 TRACK
		     command,  the  string  parameter  will be encoded the the
		     title of the current track.

	      TRACK number datatype
		     This command is used to start a new TRACK.

		     The first parameter is a track number in the range	1-99.

		     The second	parameter specifies the	track data type.

		     The following datatypes are permitted:

		     AUDIO	 Audio/Music (2352)

		     CDG	 Karaoke CD+G (2448)

		     MODE1/2048	 CDROM Mode1 Data (cooked)

		     MODE1/2352	 CDROM Mode1 Data (raw)

		     MODE2/2336	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     MODE2/2352	 CDROM-XA Mode2	Data

		     CDI/2336	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     CDI/2352	 CDI Mode2 Data

		     All track numbers must be between	1  and	99  inclusive.
		     The  first	 track number can be greater than one, but all
		     track numbers after the first must	be sequential.	 There
		     must be at	least one track	per file.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not  all	options	described in this manual may be	supported by the Open-
       Source variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if	an attempt  is
       made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume man-
       agement if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume management is
       running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode	are  not  suitable  as	a  master  for
       direct  mass production by CD-manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At  Once	 will  normally	 be read in all	CD-players. Some old audio CD-
       players however may produce  a  two  second  click  between  two	 audio
       tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is	4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-recorder will add	dummy blocks. This is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	 has  been  tested  on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at
       single and double speed on a  SparcStation  20/502  with	 no  problems,
       slower  computer	 systems should	work also.  The	newer Philips/HP/Plas-
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and	CDR-102	work also. The
       Plasmon	RF-4100	 works,	 but  has not been tested in multi-session.  A
       Philips CDD-521 that has	not been upgraded will	not  work.   The  Sony
       CDU-924	has  been  tested,  but	does not support XA-mode2 in hardware.
       The Sony	therefore cannot create	conforming multi-session  disks.   The
       Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use them
       with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup-
       ported in single	and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned	on if you are using  cdrecord  on  an  unknown
       system.	Writing	 a  CD	is  a  real-time process.  NFS will not	always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use  cdrecord
       with  CD-images	that  are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the	FIFO size is big enough.  The author used cdrecord with	medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily loaded, but it is recommended to	leave the  system  as  lightly
       loaded  as  possible while writing a CD.	 If you	want to	make sure that
       buffer underruns	are not	caused by your source disk, you	 may  use  the
       command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m	/dev/null

       to  create  a disk that is entirely made	of dummy data.	Cdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and	to  be
       able to lock itself into	memory.

       If  you	don't  want  to	 allow	users  to  become root on your system,
       cdrecord	may safely be installed	suid root. This	allows all users or  a
       group  of  users	 with no root privileges to use	cdrecord.  Cdrecord in
       this case checks	if the real user would have  been  able	 to  read  the
       specified files.	 To give all users access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions	for  non  root	users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would	allow anybody to  read/write/format  all  your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that	is connected to	the CD-recorder	or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both	audio and data tracks, the data	should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a  CDplus  disk  which	 is  a
       multi-session  disk  with the first session containing the audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the	data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more	 than  a  single  data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI	command	set of a HP CD-recorder	can be
       found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If you have more	information or	SCSI  command  manuals	for  currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BluRay-recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-recorder (even in	the upgraded version) has sev-
       eral firmware bugs. Some	of them	will force  you	 to  power  cycle  the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with	the Linux SCSI generic driver, you should note
       that cdrecord uses a layer, that	tries to emulate the functionality  of
       the  scg	 driver	 on  top  of the drives	of the local operating system.
       Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has several flaws:

       o      It cannot	see if a SCSI command could not	be sent	at all.

       o      It cannot	get the	SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord  for  that	reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It  cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell
	      you if there is a	DMA residual count.

       o      It cannot	 get  number  of  bytes	 valid	in  auto  sense	 data.
	      Cdrecord	cannot	tell  you if device transfers no sense data at
	      all.

       o      It fetches too few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The FIFO	percent	output is computed just	after a	block of data has been
       written to the CD/DVD/BluRay-recorder.  For  this  reason,  there  will
       never be	100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord	after you see the mes-
       sage:

       Starting	to write CD at speed %d	in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	like:

	      cdrecord:	I/O error. test	unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00	00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00	0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       The first line gives information	about the transport  of	 the  command.
       The text	after the first	colon gives the	error text for the system call
       from the	view of	the kernel. It usually	is:  I/O  error	 unless	 other
       problems	 happen.  The  next  words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails.	The rest of the	line tells you if  there  were
       any problems for	the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error means that	it was not possible to transport the command (i.e.  no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block	for the	failed
       command.

       The third line gives information	on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command,  if the transport of the command succeeds.	 This is error
       information from	the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex	dump of	the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The  fifth  line	is the error text for the sense	key if available, fol-
       lowed by	the segment number which is only valid if the  command	was  a
       copy  command. If the error message is not directly related to the cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is	appended.

       The sixth line is the error text	for the	sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if	available.  If the type	of the device is known,	the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text	 is  followed  by  the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints	the block number that is related to the	failed
       command and text	for several error flags. The block number may  not  be
       valid.

       The  eighth  line  reports  the timeout set up for this command and the
       time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is	not an error:

	      Track 01:	Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord:	I/O error. flush cache:	scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00	00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27	0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00	00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy	data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s	timeout	40s

       It simply notifies that a track that is smaller than the	 minimum  size
       has been	expanded to 300	sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord	has even more options than ls.

       There  should  be a recover option to make disks	usable,	that have been
       written during a	power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
		      the  first implementation	of CD-RW blanking support, the
		      first .wav file decoder and  many	 nice  discussions  on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P.	Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a	BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R.	Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry	(ken@kdm.org)
		      for providing the	CAM port  for  FreeBSD	together  with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING	LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the	development of	cdrecord,  you
       may join	the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.berlios.de/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them	to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de

       If you have definitely found a bug, send	a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The  interfaces provided	by cdrecord are	designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As	cdrecord depends on  interfaces	 provided  by  the  underlying
       operating  system,  the stability of the	interfaces offered by cdrecord
       depends on the interface	stability  of  the  OS	interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may	enforce	modified interfaces in cdrecord.

Joerg Schilling			  Version 3.0			   CDRECORD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL OPTIONS | TRACK OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | DIAGNOSTICS | BUGS | CREDITS | MAILING LISTS | AUTHOR | INTERFACE STABILITY

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