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CDDA2WAV(1)             FreeBSD General Commands Manual            CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav - dumps CD audio data into sound files with extra data

       cdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are capable
       of reading audio data digitally via SCSI (CDDA).

       As cdda2wav implements strategies to work around typical defects on
       audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read by other software.
       As cdda2wav can use libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify
       the data that has been read from the medium, it delivers superior
       quality even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems

       As cdda2wav may be directed to write the audio data to stdout, it
       writes all its informational output to stderr by default. See
       out-fd=descriptor option below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav defaults to read the first audio track from the medium and the
       default verbose level is set to -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles and
       cdda2wav by default writes *.inf files.  To extract all audio tracks
       with quality verification, it is recommended to call:

       cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For hints on how to specify better parameters manually, see the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming.  If no dev= option
       was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target support and
       automagically finds the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive is
       available in the system.  When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists,
       a list of possible device name parameters may be retrieved with
       cdda2wav -scanbus or from the target example from the output of
       cdda2wav dev=help, then the dev= parameter may be set based on the
       device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to the
       SCSI CAM standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-
       Recorder.  If a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the parameter to
       the dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

              display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider divider
              sets rate to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible values are listed with
              the -R option.

              The default divider value is 1.



              copies each track into a separate file.

              The default is not to extract all tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample bits
              sets bits per sample per channel: 8, 12 or 16.

              The default is 16 bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

              1      for mono recording

              2      for stereo recording

              s      for stereo recording with both channels swapped

              The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess endianess
              sets endianess of the input samples to 'little', 'big',
              'machine' or 'guess' to override defaults.  The value 'machine'
              or 'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU
              in the current OS.

              The default is to detect cdrom endianess automatically.

              Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
              follows the CDRWIN documentation can only be used to create 1:1
              copies if there is a single file with audio data for the whole
              disk.  The *.inf file format implements more audio CD features
              than the CDRWIN CUE format and it allows to create 1:1 copies if
              there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file format
              for meta data only if you really need this format.

              To allow cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify -t
              all to switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a single audio
              data file for the whole CD.


              undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

              The default is to keep the audio data in the same state as on
              the medium and to mark the pre-emphasis state in the *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
              does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
              The parameter cddb mode defines how multiple entries shall be

           |Parameter | Description                                               |
           |       -1 | disable cddb queries. This is the default.                |
           |        0 | interactive mode. The user selects the entry to use.      |
           |        1 | first fit mode. The first entry is taken unconditionally. |
              sets the server to be contacted for title lookups.

              sets the port number to be used for title lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
              sets recording time in seconds or frames (sectors).  Frames are
              indicated by a 'f' suffix (e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
              time for whole track.

              The default is to extract the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
              sets endianess of the output samples to 'little', 'big' or
              'machine' to override the default which is 'network byte order'
              (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated as the
              actual byte order of the host CPU in the current OS.


              finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


              finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats the output for parsing by gui frontends.


              does not write info file, cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
              selects the start index.


              does not write to a file, it just gives information about the


       -md5   enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for all audio bytes from
              the beginning of a track. The audio header is skipped when
              calculating the MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums
              for files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

              Ignore hidden tracks on the CD.  By default, cdda2wav checks
              whether there might be a hidden track before track 1.  This
              check may take a few seconds and thus can be disabled with


              does not write to a file, it just reads (e.g. for debugging
              purposes).  If this option is used together with the -e option,
              the CD is read and the audio content is played back to the sound
              device without creating output files with audio data.

              By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from tracks
              with the related CD-Text field (when defined) for the whole CD.
              If the option -no-textdefaults is used, cdda2wav leaves the
              track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

              If cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the CD, it
              writes a .cdtext file.  The option -no-textfile allows to
              suppress the creation of the .cdtext file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
              starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
              1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
              can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi aiff files) or
              aifc (for apple/sgi aifc files) or au or sun (for sun .au PCM
              files) or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd

              The default output format is now wav for all platforms as it has
              become the most common format. Note that former versions of
              cdda2wav made an exception and by default created au type files
              on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
              changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
              sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
              in non-paranoia mode. Note that overlapped reads are handled
              differently in paranoia mode.

              The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

              use the paranoia library as a filter on top of cdda2wav's
              routines for reading.  In paranoia mode, the latency time for
              the -interactive mode and with a read ahead buffer size of
              150..300 sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds. This
              is due to the paranoia code reading everything at least twice
              and having to empty the cache RAM of the CD-ROM drive.

              The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size of
              the RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty the
              cache RAM in the drive.  As the size of the read ahead area in
              former times was a constant compiled into the libparanoia code,
              the extract quality with using libparanoia was no longer
              sufficient with drives built after year 2000. See readahead=
              parameter to the paraopts= option below.

              If the paranoia mode is used, cdda2wav displays some quality
              statistics for each extracted track.  The following items appear
              in the list:

          |  Value | Description                                                  |
          |  rderr | Number of hard read errors                                   |
          |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted retries           |
          |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected      |
          |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected                   |
          |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed                                |
          |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed                              |
          |  drift | Number of drifts detected                                    |
          |     c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors                             |
          |  reads | Number of readahead blocks read and percentage to track size |
          |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises                        |
              The quality indicators in detail:

              rderr  The number of failed low level read requests.  Each read
                     appears for sectors-per-request sectors.  The
                     sectors-per-request size is typically less than the read
                     ahead size.

              skip   The number of sectors that have been skipped because the
                     read error retry count was exhausted and no successful
                     read was possible.

              atom   The number of jitters that have been detected inside
                     sectors.  This should never happen, but whenever a non-
                     correctable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose
                     streaming.  Increasing the read ahead buffer size may
                     reduce the results from atom errors.

              edge   The number of jitters that have been detected at the
                     edges of sectors.  This could be caused by sector
                     positioning errors.  Increasing the read ahead buffer
                     size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drop   The number of dropped samples.  This could be caused by
                     sector positioning errors.  Increasing the read ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              dup    Duplicated samples could be caused by sector positioning
                     errors like dripped samples.  Increasing the read ahead
                     buffer size may reduce the results from edge errors.

              drift  This is the amount of drifts detected when checking the
                     overlap area.

              c2     The number of sectors with C2 errors seen when reading
                     the last track.  As the paranoia code tends to read bad
                     parts of the disk many times, this number usually is
                     above the number that would appear when the disk is just
                     read once in a linear way.  Use paraopts=disable,c2check
                     to see a number that represents the state of the medium.

              reads  The number of read ahead blocks read for the last track
                     by the upper layer and the percentage of the amount of
                     data read compared to the size of the track.  This
                     percentage is typically 200% because the paranoia code
                     reads all data at least twice. If there is a lot of
                     overlap and a lof of read problems, this percentage

                     The number the overlap size has been raised. This happens
                     when the overlap size is below the maximum overlap size
                     and errors in the overlap area are detected.

              List is a comma separated list of suboptions passed to the
              paranoia library.

       |          Option | Description                                                |
       |            help | lists all paranoia options.                                |
       |         disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off, and static overlap on                 |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector               |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap          |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min. number of sectors for dynamic overlap         |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max. number of sectors for dynamic overlap         |
       |         c2check | check C2 pointers from drive to rate quality               |
       |           proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check        |
              The paraopts= parameters in detail:

                     The paranoia corrections are disabled, but the data is
                     still directed through the code from libparanoia.  This
                     allows to switch on C2 error detection and to check the
                     C2 error statistics for a CD.

                     This switches off the verification of the data integrity
                     in the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
                     in favor of a static overlap value.

                     Set the maximum number of read retries per sector in case
                     of hard read errors. The default value for this parameter
                     is 20.  This is the same value as used by the old
                     cdparanoia(1) command.

                     Set the number of sectors to use for the read ahead
                     buffer.  Except when at the end of the medium,
                     libparanoia never requests less than this amount of data
                     from the low level I/O code.  The size of the read ahead
                     buffer is usually bigger than the maximum size for a
                     single DMA in the system. For this reason, libparanoia
                     calls several read operations in order to fill the read
                     ahead buffer.  The default value used by cdda2wav is 400,
                     which is more than the 150 sectors that cdparanoia(1)
                     uses but still a compromise for not requiring too much

                     It is recommended to use a read ahead buffer size that is
                     not less than the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive. If the
                     drive has more than 1MB of RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
                     RAM in the drive.

                     Note that as long as the readahead= value is too small,
                     the extract quality varies a lot with the value in use.
                     The value used by cdparanoia(1) may cause an extract
                     quality below what cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

                     Set the number of sectors used for static overlap. This
                     switches dynamic overlap off.  It is recommended not to
                     use static overlapping. To get a larger overlapping,
                     better use a higher minoverlap= value.

                     Set the minimum number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
                     The default value used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this is more
                     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

                     For old drives that do not support accurate streaming, it
                     is not recommended to specify a minoverlap= value greater
                     or equal to the maximal DMA size.

                     For best results on other drives, it is recommended to
                     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half of the
                     readahead size.

                     The extract quality varies a lot with the minoverlap=
                     value, but increasing the value also increases the
                     extract time.

                     Set the maximum number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
                     If maxoverlap= was not specified and a large minoverlap=
                     value was specified, this results in a quasi static
                     overlapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

                     Turn on C2 error checking.  For now, this just results in
                     printing C2 error statistics.

                     Warning: some drives have been reported to fail reading
                     hidden tracks when the c2check mode is in effect.  When
                     you plan to use c2check while extracting hidden tracks,
                     first verify that your drive will report hidden tracks
                     the same with and without the c2check option.

              proof  This option is a macro for better extract parameters than
                     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


                     If sectors-per-request-1 is more than 20, 20 is used as
                     minimal overlap value.

                     The parameters used by proof are still not the best and
                     there is no best parameter set for all cases.  A larger
                     value for the read ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
                     for the available RAM in the system and the best value
                     for the minimal overlap depends on whether the drive
                     supports exact streaming.  It is recommended to run
                     experiments with larger values for the parameters
                     minoverlap= and readahead= to get the best results for a
                     specific platform.

                     Note that previous versions did include c2check with the
                     proof macro, but this has been reported to fail on some


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
              sets rate in samples per second.  Possible values are listed
              with the -R option.


              shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
              sets the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for
              reading.  For maximum extraction quality, it is recommended to
              use speed values of 8 or below.

              The default is to extract at maximum speed.


              sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
              set an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive
              to -track and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
              selects the start track and optionally the end track.  If -t all
              is used, all audio tracks are selected.  If -t 2+max is used,
              all audio tracks starting with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
              Retrieves and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
              a list of comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls
              the type of information to be reported.

       |   Suboption | Description                                                    |
       |           ! | invert the meaning of the following string                     |
       |         not | invert the meaning of the following string                     |
       |     disable | no information is given, warnings appear however               |
       |         all | all information is given                                       |
       |         toc | show table of contents                                         |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters                     |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets                            |
       |     catalog | retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN              |
       |         mcn | retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN              |
       |     trackid | retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |        isrc | retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the table of contents in start sector notation            |
       |      titles | show the table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the audio tracks and their start sectors                  |
              The default verbose-level is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for signal, then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD) quality.

   SCSI options

       -D device

       -device device
              uses device as the source for CDDA reading.  For example
              /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface and Bus,ID,Lun for the
              generic_scsi interface. The device has to correspond with the
              interface setting if given (see -I and -interface option below).

              If no -I or -interface option has been specified, the interface
              setting is derived from the device name syntax. A device name
              that is in the form Bus,ID,Lun or contains a colon (':')
              defaults to the generic_scsi interface.

              Using the cooked_ioctl is not recommended as this makes cdda2wav
              mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of the operating
              system which is usually extremely bad. For this reason, avoid
              using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

              The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is
              overridden by this option.

              If no dev= option is present, or if the dev= option only
              contains a transport specifier but no address, cdda2wav tries to
              scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives.  If exactly one
              is found, this is used by default.

              For more information, see the description of the dev= option
              from cdrecord(1).


              Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set the kernel debug level for the kernel driver called by the
              libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer. This option is not supported
              on all platforms.

              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry
              strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD-Recorder on a system.  The numbers printed out as labels
              are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
              The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
              or sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been specified, cdda2wav defaults to a
              transfer size of 3 MB. If libscg gets lower values from the
              operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
              is possible with the current operating system.  Sometimes, it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it,
              but note that it may take a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

              Some operating systems return wrong values for the maximum
              transfer size.  If the transfer totally hangs or resets occur,
              it may be appropriate to reduce the transfer size to less than
              64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


              enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly used
              for debugging.


              suppress SCSI command error reports to the console. This is
              mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
              uses auxdevice as CDROM drive to allow to send the
              CDROMMULTISESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi
              interface is in use.

       -I interface

       -interface interface
              specifies the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

                     for sending SCSI commands directly to the drive.

                     for using the programming interface supplied by the OS

              The latter is not recommended as it gives lower quality and only
              works on a limited number of platforms.

              Go into interactive mode that reads commands from stdin and
              writes the textual replies to stderr, or the file descriptor
              specified by the out-fd option.  This mode has been introduced
              mainly to allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

              If cdda2wav was called with the option -interactive, it reads
              the TOC from the medium and then waits for command input as if
              it has been issued a stop command. If the next command is a cont
              command, then cdda2wav extracts the whole audio part of the
              medium.  If the next command is a read command, then cdda2wav
              starts extracting from the position that was indicated by the
              read command parameter.

        |Command | Parameters            | Description                              |
        | cont   |                       | continue processing at current position  |
        | exit   |                       | exit processing                          |
        | help   |                       | print command help and wait for input    |
        | quit   |                       | exit processing                          |
        | read   | sectors sector number | read sectors starting from sector number |
        | read   | tracks track number   | read sectors starting from track number  |
        | stop   |                       | stop processing and wait for new input   |
              Redirect informational output to the file descriptor named by
              descriptor.  The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file
              descriptor number.  By default, cdda2wav sends informational
              output to stderr.  Redirecting the informational output to a
              different file descriptor helps guis and other programs that
              call cdda2wav via pipes.

              In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-",
              redirect audio output to the file descriptor named by
              descriptor.  The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file
              descriptor number.  By default, cdda2wav sends audio data to
              stdout if the output is not directed into a file.  Redirecting
              the audio output to a different file descriptor helps guis and
              other programs that call cdda2wav via pipes.

              Do not fork for extended buffering. If -no-fork is used and
              cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in paranoia mode, the
              playback may be interrupted due to lack of buffering.  On the
              other hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the latency
              time for the -interactive mode.


       -echo  copies audio data to the operating system's sound device e.g.

              set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
              reads sectors per request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring buffers
              uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on the Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

              is used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible
              with cdrecord(1).

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If the RSH environment variable is present, the remote
              connection will not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the
              program pointed to by RSH.  Use e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create
              a secure shell connection.

              Note that this forces cdda2wav to create a pipe to the rsh(1)
              program and disallows cdda2wav to directly access the network
              socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
              performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
              a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment variable is present, the remote SCSI
              server will not be the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the
              program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server
              program name will be ignored if you log in using an account that
              has been created with a remote SCSI server program as login

       cdda2wav uses the following exit codes to indicate various degrees of

   |Exitcode | Description                                                        |
   |       0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.                       |
   |       1 | usage or syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent arguments.        |
   |       2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.              |
   |       3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.                |
   |       4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.    |
   |       5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).             |
   |       6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |       7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).            |
   |       8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.                    |
   |       9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).               |
   |      10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.                             |
   |      11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.                         |
   |      12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.                      |
   |      13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.               |
   |      14 | error in ioctl() operation encountered.                            |
   |      15 | internal error encountered. Please report back!!!                  |
   |      16 | error in semaphore operation encountered (install / request).      |
   |      17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.                            |
   |      18 | could not create pipes for process communication (in forked mode). |
       cdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or multimedia CDROM
       (containing audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written
       to a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav stands for CDDA to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc
       digital audio and WAV is a sound sample format introduced by MS
       Windows).  It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM drive into
       a file in WAV or other formats.

       Some versions of cdda2wav may try to get higher real-time scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are available for super users and are higher than those of 'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If you only have one CDROM and it is loaded with an audio CD, you may
       simply invoke cdda2wav and it will create the sound file audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at
       44100 Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free.
       Otherwise recording time will be limited. For details see files README
       and README.INSTALL.

       If you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to
       specify the dev= option.

       Most of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file. In
       the following text most of them are discussed in a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be used.  The specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom device descriptor.  The SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are addressed with
       their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id, and SCSI-Lun instead of the generic SCSI
       device descriptor.  One example for a SCSI CDROM drive on bus 0 with
       SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A auxdevice may be needed in some rare cases for CD-Extra handling.
       Cdda2wav usually has no problem to get the multi-session information
       for CD-Extra using raw SCSI commands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this
       is the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM drives
       it is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to
       the SCSI device (i.e.  0,3,0 ). It has to match the device used for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the CDROM drive communication method.  This
       interface method is typically automatically selected from the device
       name.  For SCSI drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be
       available for all devices).  Valid names are generic_scsi and
       cooked_ioctl.  The first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter
       uses the ioctl of the CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when
       the kernel driver supports CDDA reading. This entry has to match the
       selected CDROM device (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear it
       nearly simultaneously. The soundcard gets the same data that is
       recorded. This is time critical, so it works best with the -q option.
       To use cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a file you
       could use

       cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second track or

       cdda2wav -q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.  This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch of echoed audio
       -p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card.
       Only the copy to the soundcard is affected, the recorded audio samples
       in a file remain the same.  Normal pitch, which is the default, is
       given by 100.  Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.  -p
       50 transposes the audio output one octave lower.  See also the script
       pitchplay as an example. This option was contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m or -c 1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed), -s
       or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s will swap both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full CD quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b 8 specifies 8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 12
       specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16
       specifies 16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel (Ensure that
       your sample player or sound card is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit
       samples). Selecting 12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit samples
       are aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r samplerate selects a sample rate.  samplerate can be in a range
       between 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a divider selects a sample rate divider.  divider can be from 1 to
       50.5 in steps of 0.5.  Option -R lists all available rates.

       To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over
       n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output
       we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum over 49
       samples.  This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an
       audio CD (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to
       finish summing for an output sample at sector boundaries the rates
       above have to be chosen.  Arbitrary sampling rates in high quality
       would require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more
       sophisticated programming.

   List a table of all sampling rates
       -R shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers. Dividers can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.

   Select start track and optionally end track
       -t n+m selects n as the start track and optionally m as the last track
       of a range to be recorded.  These tracks must be from the table of
       contents.  This sets the track where recording begins. Recording can
       advance through the following tracks as well (limited by the optional
       end track or otherwise depending on recording time). Whether one file
       or different files are then created depends on the -B option (see

   Select start index
       -i n selects the index to start recording with.  Indices other than 1
       will invoke the index scanner, which will take some time to find the
       correct start position. An offset may be given additionally (see

   Set recording duration
       -d  n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for whole
       track if n is zero. In order to specify the duration in frames
       (sectors) also, the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the
       numerical argument is to be taken as frames (sectors) rather than
       seconds.  Please note that if track ranges are being used they define
       the recording time as well thus overriding any -d option specified

       Recording time is defined as the time the generated sample will play
       (at the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of
       generated samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself
       (which can be less or more).  It's neither strictly coupled with the
       time information on the audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player).
       Differences can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice
       that recording time will be shortened, unless enough disk space exists.
       Recording can be aborted at anytime by pressing the break character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of a complete audio CD in separate files
       -B copies each track into a separate file. A base name can be given.
       File names have an appended track number and an extension corresponding
       to the audio format. To record all audio tracks of a CD, use a
       sufficient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o sectors increments start sector of the track by sectors.  By this
       option you are able to skip a certain amount at the beginning of a
       track so you can pick exactly the part you want. Each sector runs for
       1/75 seconds, so you have very fine control. If your offset is so high
       that it would not fit into the current track, a warning message is
       issued and the offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.  (To
       skip introductory quiet passages automagically, use the -w option see

   Wait for signal option
       -w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output at startup,
       reducing possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal in the
       output signal and switches on writing to file.

   Find extreme samples
       -F Turning on this option will display the most negative and the most
       positive sample value found during recording for both channels. This
       can be useful for readjusting the volume. The values shown are not
       reset at track boundaries, they cover the complete sampling process.
       They are taken from the original samples and have the same format (i.e.
       they are independent of the selected output format).

   Find if input samples are in mono
       -G If this option is given, input samples for both channels will be
       compared. At the end of the program the result is printed. Differences
       in the channels indicate stereo, otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate mono.

   Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table Of Contents often. But
       there are recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels.
       If this option is given, the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the q-subchannel of each track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to be present, and subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this
       track before the samples are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O  audiotype can be wav (for wav files) or au or sun (for sun PCM
       files) or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
       All file samples are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done in
       the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio formats.  Wav
       files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte
       order which is the opposite byte order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not like
       the older common logarithmically coded .au files, but instead as
       mentioned above linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to be
       compatible. The default filename extension is '.au'.  The AIFF and the
       newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world store their samples in
       bigendian format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression is used.  Finally
       the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It is done per default in
       msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order wanted by most cd writers.
       Since there is no header information in this format, the sample
       parameters can only be identified by playing the samples on a soundcard
       or similar. The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom drive reading speed
       -S  speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in order
       to reduce read errors. The argument is transferred verbatim to the
       drive.  Details depend very much on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the default speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M  count enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count' bytes from
       the beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the following default options:


       for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In this case the
       option -P has no effect.

   Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
       (This applies unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors sets the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for jitter
       correction. Two cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some
       sectors are read twice to enable cdda2wav's jitter correction.  If an
       argument of zero is given, no overlap sampling will be used.  For
       nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav dynamically adjusts the setting during
       sampling (like cdparanoia does).  If no match can be found, cdda2wav
       retries the read with an increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting, resulting in a higher reading speed.  The argument given has
       to be lower than the total number of sectors per request (see option -n
       below).  Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues a error message
       otherwise.  The case of zero sectors is nice on low load situations or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives and perfect (unscratched) audio cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n  sectors will set the transfer size to the specified sectors per

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C  endianess will override the default settings of the input format.
       Endianess can be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine" or to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E  endianess (endianess can be "little", "big" or "machine") will
       override the default settings of the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v  itemlist prints more information. A list allows selection of
       different information items.

       help      Print a summary of possible members of the diffopts list.

       !         Invert the meaning of the following string. No comma is
                 needed after the exclamation mark.

       not       Invert the meaning of all members in the diffopts list i.e.
                 exclude all present options from an initially complete set
                 compare list.  When using csh(1) you might have problems with
                 !  due to its strange parser.  This is why the not alias

       disable   disables verbosity

       all       all information is given

       toc       displays the table of contents

       summary   displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices   invokes the index scanner and displays start positions of

       catalog   retrieves and displays a media catalog number

       trackid   retrieves and displays international standard recording codes

       sectors   displays track start positions in absolute sector notation

       To combine several requests just list the suboptions separated with

   The table of contents
       The display will show the table of contents with number of tracks and
       total time (displayed in mm:ss.hh format, mm=minutes, ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded 1/100 seconds).  The following list displays track number
       and track time for each entry.  The summary gives a line per track
       describing the type of the track.

       track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The track column holds the track number.  preemphasis shows if that
       track has been given a non linear frequency response.  NOTE: You can
       undo this effect with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if this
       track is allowed to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On
       multimedia CDs (except hidden track CDs) both of them should be
       present.  channels is defined for audio tracks only. There can be two
       or four channels.

   No file output
       -N this debugging option switches off writing to a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and a cddb file.

   Generation of simple output for gui frontends
       -g this option switches on simple line formatting, which is needed to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI logging
       -V this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce
       a lot of output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging purposes. The format is the same as being used with the
       cdrecord program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q suppresses all screen output except error messages.  That reduces
       cpu time resources.

   Just show information option
       -J does not write a file, it only prints information about the disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album and track titles option
       -L  cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to retrieve performer, album-, and track
       titles from a cddbp server. The default server right now is
       ''.  It is planned to have more control over the
       server handling later.  The parameter defines how multiple entries are

       0      interactive mode, the user chooses one of the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title lookups
       cddbp-server  servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being
       contacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or -cddb, the server port being
       contacted can be set with this option.

       Don't create samples you cannot read. First check your sample player
       software and sound card hardware. I experienced problems with very low
       sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when trying to play
       them with standard WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not
       legal in WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a
       bigendian format.  Now cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess option to
       control the endianess of the written samples.

       If your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and your
       CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will gain speed when
       switching all overlap sampling off with the -P  0 option. Further fine
       tuning can be done with the -n  sectors option. You can specify how
       much sectors should be requested in one go.

       Cdda2wav supports pipes.  Use a filename of - to let cdda2wav output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion to other sound formats is possible using the sox program
       package (it should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If you want to sample more than one track into different files in one
       run, this is currently possible with the -B option. When recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.

   Audio files:
       There are audio files containing samples with default extensions .wav,
       .au, .aifc, .aiff, and .cdr according to the selected sound format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given. Multiple files
       may be written when the bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file
       names can be given as arguments. If the number of file names given is
       sufficient to cover all included audio tracks, the file names will be
       used verbatim.  Otherwise, if there are less file names than files
       needed to write the included tracks, the part of the file name before
       the extension is extended with '_dd' where dd represents the current
       track number.

   Cddb and Cdindex files:
       If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text (album/track) title
       information, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated
       unless suppressed by the option -H.  They contain suitable formatted
       entries for submission to audio cd track title databases in the
       Internet. The CDINDEX and CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For
       more information please visit and

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was taken from. They are a means to transfer information to a cd
       burning program like cdrecord. For example, if the original audio cd
       had pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphasis,
       then the inf file has pre-emphasis not set (since the audio file does
       not have it anymore), while the .cddb and the .cdindex have pre-
       emphasis set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT: it is prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted material by
       noncopyright holders. This program may not be used to circumvent
       copyrights.  The user acknowledges this constraint when using the

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The resampling (rate conversion code) uses polynomial interpolation,
       which is not optimal.

       Cdda2wav should use threads.

       Thanks go to Project MODE ( and Fraunhofer
       Institut fuer integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS)
       ( for financial support.  Plextor Europe and
       Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk drives and cd burners which helped a
       lot to develop this software.  Rammi has helped a lot with the
       debugging and showed a lot of stamina when hearing 100 times the first
       16 seconds of the first track of the Krupps CD.  Libparanoia
       contributed by Monty (Christopher Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt (1993-2004,2015)


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed for long term
       stability.  As cdda2wav depends on interfaces provided by the
       underlying operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered by
       cdda2wav depends on the interface stability of the OS interfaces.
       Modified interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in

                            Version 3.02 2015/11/14                CDDA2WAV(1)


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