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CDDA2WAV(1)							   CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav	- dumps	CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi-

       cdda2wav	[ options ][ dev=device	] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav	can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio	data digitally via SCSI	(CDDA).

       As  cdda2wav  implements	 strategies  to	work around typical defects on
       audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read  by  other  software.
       As  cdda2wav can	use libparanoia	(see -paranoia option below) to	verify
       the data	that has been read from	the medium, it delivers	superior qual-
       ity  even if the	medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems	occur.

       As cdda2wav may be directed to write  the  audio	 data  to  stdout,  it
       writes	all  its  informational	 output	 to  stderr  by	 default.  See
       out-fd=descriptor option	below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav	defaults to read the first audio track from the	medium and the
       default	verbose	 level	is  set	 to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav	by default writes *.inf	files.	To extract  all	 audio	tracks
       with quality verification, it is	recommended to call:

       cdda2wav	-vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For  hints  on  how  to	specify	 better	 parameters  manually, see the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming.  If no dev=	option
       was  specified,	cdda2wav  implements auto target support and automagi-
       cally finds the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive	 is  available
       in  the system.	When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list of
       possible	device name parameters may be retrieved	with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or  from	 the target example from the output of cdda2wav	dev=help, then
       the dev=	parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev=	option explained below refers  to  the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       Recorder.  If a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the	 parameter  to
       the  dev= option	may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

	      display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider	divider
	      sets rate	to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible	values are listed with
	      the -R option.

	      The default divider value	is 1.



	      copies each track	into a separate	file.

	      The default is not to extract all	tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample	bits
	      sets bits	per sample per channel:	8, 12 or 16.

	      The default is 16	bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

	      1	     for mono recording

	      2	     for stereo	recording

	      s	     for stereo	recording with both channels swapped

	      The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess	endianess
	      sets   endianess	of  the	 input	samples	 to  'little',	'big',
	      'machine'	or 'guess' to override defaults.  The value  'machine'
	      or  'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU
	      in the current OS.

	      The default is to	detect cdrom endianess automatically.

	      Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
	      follows  the CDRWIN documentation	can only be used to create 1:1
	      copies if	there is a single file with audio data for  the	 whole
	      disk.   The  *.inf file format implements	more audio CD features
	      than the CDRWIN CUE format and it	allows to create 1:1 copies if
	      there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file	format
	      for meta data only if you	really need this format.

	      To allow cdda2wav	to create CUE files, you must also specify  -t
	      all  to  switch cdda2wav into a mode that	creates	a single audio
	      data file	for the	whole CD.


	      undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

	      The default is to	keep the audio data in the same	 state	as  on
	      the  medium  and	to  mark  the  pre-emphasis state in the *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
	      does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
	      The  parameter  cddb  mode defines how multiple entries shall be

	   |Parameter |	Description						  |
	   |	   -1 |	disable	cddb queries. This is the default.		  |
	   |	    0 |	interactive mode. The user selects the entry to	use.	  |
	   |	    1 |	first fit mode.	The first entry	is taken unconditionally. |
	      sets the server to be contacted for title	lookups.

	      sets the port number to be used for title	lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
	      sets recording time in seconds or	frames (sectors).  Frames  are
	      indicated	by a 'f' suffix	(e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
	      time for whole track.

	      The default is to	extract	the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
	      sets endianess of	the  output  samples  to  'little',  'big'  or
	      'machine'	 to override the default which is 'network byte	order'
	      (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated	as the
	      actual byte order	of the host CPU	in the current OS.


	      finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


	      finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats	the output for parsing by gui frontends.


	      does not write info file,	cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
	      selects the start	index.


	      does  not	 write	to a file, it just gives information about the


       -md5   enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for all  audio  bytes  from
	      the  beginning of	a track. The audio header is skipped when cal-
	      culating the MD-5	checksum to allow comparison of	MD-5 sums  for
	      files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

	      Ignore  hidden  tracks  on  the CD.  By default, cdda2wav	checks
	      whether there might be a hidden  track  before  track  1.	  This
	      check  may  take	a  few	seconds	 and thus can be disabled with


	      does not write to	a file,	it just	reads (e.g. for	debugging pur-
	      poses).  If this option is used together with the	-e option, the
	      CD is read and the audio content is played  back	to  the	 sound
	      device without creating output files with	audio data.

	      By  default,  cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from	tracks
	      with the related CD-Text field (when defined) for	the whole  CD.
	      If  the  option  -no-textdefaults	 is  used, cdda2wav leaves the
	      track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

	      If cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information	on the CD,  it
	      writes  a	 .cdtext file.	The option -no-textfile	allows to sup-
	      press the	creation of the	.cdtext	file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
	      starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
	      1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
	      can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi	aiff files) or
	      aifc (for	apple/sgi aifc files) or au or sun (for	 sun  .au  PCM
	      files)  or  cdr  or  raw (for headerless files to	be used	for cd

	      The default output format	is now wav for all platforms as	it has
	      become  the  most	 common	 format.  Note that former versions of
	      cdda2wav made an exception and by	default	created	au type	 files
	      on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
	      changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
	      sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
	      in non-paranoia mode. Note that  overlapped  reads  are  handled
	      differently in paranoia mode.

	      The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

	      use  the	paranoia library as a filter on	top of cdda2wav's rou-
	      tines for	reading.  In paranoia mode, the	latency	time  for  the
	      -interactive  mode and with a read ahead buffer size of 150..300
	      sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds.	This is	due to
	      the  paranoia  code reading everything at	least twice and	having
	      to empty the cache RAM of	the CD-ROM drive.

	      The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size  of
	      the  RAM of the drive in order to	allow libparanoia to empty the
	      cache RAM	in the drive.  As the size of the read ahead  area  in
	      former  times was	a constant compiled into the libparanoia code,
	      the extract quality with using libparanoia was no	longer	suffi-
	      cient  with drives built after year 2000.	See readahead= parame-
	      ter to the paraopts= option below.

	      If the paranoia mode is used,  cdda2wav  displays	 some  quality
	      statistics for each extracted track.  The	following items	appear
	      in the list:

	  |  Value | Description						  |
	  |  rderr | Number of hard read errors					  |
	  |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted	retries		  |
	  |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected	  |
	  |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected			  |
	  |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed				  |
	  |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed				  |
	  |  drift | Number of drifts detected					  |
	  |	c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors				  |
	  |  reads | Number of readahead blocks	read and percentage to track size |
	  |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises			  |
	      The quality indicators in	detail:

	      rderr  The number	of failed low level read requests.  Each  read
		     appears   for   sectors-per-request  sectors.   The  sec-
		     tors-per-request size is typically	 less  than  the  read
		     ahead size.

	      skip   The  number of sectors that have been skipped because the
		     read error	retry count was	exhausted  and	no  successful
		     read was possible.

	      atom   The number	of jitters that	have been detected inside sec-
		     tors.  This should	never happen, but whenever a  non-cor-
		     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
		     Increasing	the read ahead	buffer	size  may  reduce  the
		     results from atom errors.

	      edge   The  number  of  jitters  that  have been detected	at the
		     edges of sectors.	This could be caused by	 sector	 posi-
		     tioning  errors.	Increasing  the	read ahead buffer size
		     may reduce	the results from edge errors.

	      drop   The number	of dropped samples.  This could	be  caused  by
		     sector  positioning  errors.   Increasing	the read ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      dup    Duplicated	samples	could be caused	by sector  positioning
		     errors  like  dripped samples.  Increasing	the read ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      drift  This is the amount	of drifts detected when	 checking  the
		     overlap area.

	      c2     The  number  of  sectors with C2 errors seen when reading
		     the last track.  As the paranoia code tends to  read  bad
		     parts  of	the  disk  many	 times,	this number usually is
		     above the number that would appear	when the disk is  just
		     read  once	in a linear way.  Use paraopts=disable,c2check
		     to	see a number that represents the state of the  medium.

	      reads  The  number  of read ahead	blocks read for	the last track
		     by	the upper layer	and the	percentage of  the  amount  of
		     data  read	 compared to the size of the track.  This per-
		     centage is	typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
		     all data at least twice. If there is a lot	of overlap and
		     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

		     The number	the overlap size has been raised. This happens
		     when  the	overlap	size is	below the maximum overlap size
		     and errors	in the overlap area are	detected.

	      List is a	comma separated	list of	suboptions passed to the para-
	      noia library.

       |	  Option | Description						      |
       |	    help | lists all paranoia options.				      |
       |	 disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still	being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off,	and static overlap on		      |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector		      |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to	use for	the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap	      |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |	 c2check | check C2 pointers from drive	to rate	quality		      |
       |	   proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check	      |
	      The paraopts= parameters in detail:

		     The  paranoia  corrections	 are disabled, but the data is
		     still directed through the	code from  libparanoia.	  This
		     allows  to	 switch	on C2 error detection and to check the
		     C2	error statistics for a CD.

		     This switches off the verification	of the data  integrity
		     in	the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
		     in	favor of a static overlap value.

		     Set the maximum number of read retries per	sector in case
		     of	hard read errors. The default value for	this parameter
		     is	20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara-
		     noia(1) command.

		     Set  the  number  of  sectors  to	use for	the read ahead
		     buffer.  Except when at the end of	the  medium,  libpara-
		     noia  never  requests  less than this amount of data from
		     the low level I/O code.   The  size  of  the  read	 ahead
		     buffer is usually bigger than the maximum size for	a sin-
		     gle DMA in	the system. For	this reason, libparanoia calls
		     several  read  operations in order	to fill	the read ahead
		     buffer.  The default value	used by	cdda2wav is 400, which
		     is	 more than the 150 sectors that	cdparanoia(1) uses but
		     still a compromise	for not	requiring too much memory.

		     It	is recommended to use a	read ahead buffer size that is
		     not  less	than  the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive.	If the
		     drive has more than 1MB of	RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
		     RAM in the	drive.

		     Note  that	 as long as the	readahead= value is too	small,
		     the extract quality varies	a lot with the value  in  use.
		     The  value	 used  by  cdparanoia(1)  may cause an extract
		     quality below what	cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

		     Set  the  number of sectors used for static overlap. This
		     switches dynamic overlap off.  It is recommended  not  to
		     use static	overlapping. To	get a larger overlapping, bet-
		     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

		     Set the minimum number of sectors	for  dynamic  overlap.
		     The  default  value used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this is more
		     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

		     For old drives that do not	support	accurate streaming, it
		     is	not recommended	to specify a minoverlap= value greater
		     or	equal to the maximal DMA size.

		     For best results on other drives, it  is  recommended  to
		     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half	of the
		     readahead size.

		     The extract quality varies	a  lot	with  the  minoverlap=
		     value,  but  increasing  the  value  also	increases  the
		     extract time.

		     Set the maximum number of sectors	for  dynamic  overlap.
		     If	 maxoverlap= was not specified and a large minoverlap=
		     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over-
		     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

		     Turn on C2	error checking.	 For now, this just results in
		     printing C2 error statistics.

		     Warning: some drives have been reported to	 fail  reading
		     hidden  tracks  when the c2check mode is in effect.  When
		     you plan to use c2check while extracting  hidden  tracks,
		     first  verify  that  your drive will report hidden	tracks
		     the same with and without the c2check option.

	      proof  This option is a macro for	better extract parameters than
		     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


		     If	 sectors-per-request1  is  more	than 20, 20 is used as
		     minimal overlap value.

		     The parameters used by proof are still not	the  best  and
		     there  is	no best	parameter set for all cases.  A	larger
		     value for the read	ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
		     for  the  available  RAM in the system and	the best value
		     for the minimal overlap depends on	whether	the drive sup-
		     ports  exact streaming.  It is recommended	to run experi-
		     ments with	larger values for the  parameters  minoverlap=
		     and  readahead=  to  get  the best	results	for a specific

		     Note that previous	versions did include c2check with  the
		     proof  macro,  but	this has been reported to fail on some


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
	      sets rate	in samples per second.	 Possible  values  are	listed
	      with the -R option.


	      shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
	      sets  the	cdrom device to	one of the selectable speeds for read-
	      ing.  For	maximum	extraction quality, it is recommended  to  use
	      speed values of 8	or below.

	      The default is to	extract	at maximum speed.


	      sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
	      set  an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive
	      to -track	and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
	      selects the start	track and optionally the end track.  If	-t all
	      is  used,	 all  audio tracks are selected.  If -t	2+max is used,
	      all audio	tracks starting	with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
	      Retrieves	and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
	      a	 list  of  comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls
	      the type of information to be reported.

       |   Suboption | Description						      |
       |	   ! | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |	 not | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |     disable | no information is given,	warnings appear	however		      |
       |	 all | all information is given					      |
       |	 toc | show table of contents					      |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters		      |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets			      |
       |     catalog | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |	 mcn | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |     trackid | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |	isrc | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the	table of contents in start sector notation	      |
       |      titles | show the	table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the	audio tracks and their start sectors		      |
	      The default verbose-level	is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for	signal,	then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD)	quality.

   SCSI	options

       -D device

       -device device
	      uses device  as  the  source  for	 CDDA  reading.	  For  example
	      /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface	and Bus,ID,Lun for the
	      generic_scsi interface. The device has to	 correspond  with  the
	      interface	setting	if given (see -I and -interface	option below).

	      If no -I or -interface option has	been specified,	the  interface
	      setting  is  derived  from the device name syntax. A device name
	      that is in  the  form  Bus,ID,Lun	 or  contains  a  colon	 (':')
	      defaults to the generic_scsi interface.

	      Using the	cooked_ioctl is	not recommended	as this	makes cdda2wav
	      mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of	the  operating
	      system  which  is	 usually extremely bad.	For this reason, avoid
	      using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

	      The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is  overrid-
	      den by this option.

	      If  no  dev=  option is present, or if the dev= option only con-
	      tains a transport	specifier but no address,  cdda2wav  tries  to
	      scan  the	 SCSI address space for	CD-ROM drives.	If exactly one
	      is found,	this is	used by	default.

	      For more information, see	the description	 of  the  dev=	option
	      from cdrecord(1).


	      Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set  the	kernel debug level for the kernel driver called	by the
	      libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.	This option is	not  supported
	      on all platforms.

	      Scan  all	 SCSI  devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for	a single SCSI  command	to  #.
	      The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts=	option has been	 specified,  cdda2wav  defaults	 to  a
	      transfer	size  of  3 MB.	 If  libscg gets lower values from the
	      operating	system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is  possible  with  the current operating	system.	 Sometimes, it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
	      but  note	that it	may take a long	time to	find a better value by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

	      Some operating systems  return  wrong  values  for  the  maximum
	      transfer	size.	If the transfer	totally	hangs or resets	occur,
	      it may be	appropriate to reduce the transfer size	to  less  than
	      64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


	      enable  SCSI command logging to the console. This	is mainly used
	      for debugging.


	      suppress SCSI command error reports  to  the  console.  This  is
	      mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface	options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
	      uses  auxdevice  as CDROM	drive to allow to send the CDROMMULTI-
	      SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in

       -I interface

       -interface interface
	      specifies	the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

		     for sending SCSI commands directly	to the drive.

		     for  using	 the  programming interface supplied by	the OS

	      The latter is not	recommended as it gives	lower quality and only
	      works on a limited number	of platforms.

	      Go  into	interactive  mode  that	 reads commands	from stdin and
	      writes the textual replies to stderr,  or	 the  file  descriptor
	      specified	 by  the out-fd	option.	 This mode has been introduced
	      mainly to	allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

	      If cdda2wav was called with the option  -interactive,  it	 reads
	      the  TOC	from the medium	and then waits for command input as if
	      it has been issued a stop	command. If the	next command is	a cont
	      command,	then  cdda2wav	extracts  the  whole audio part	of the
	      medium.  If the next command is a	read  command,	then  cdda2wav
	      starts  extracting  from	the position that was indicated	by the
	      read command parameter.

	|Command | Parameters		 | Description				    |
	| cont	 |			 | continue processing at current position  |
	| exit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| help	 |			 | print command help and wait for input    |
	| quit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| read	 | sectors sector number | read	sectors	starting from sector number |
	| read	 | tracks track	number	 | read	sectors	starting from track number  |
	| stop	 |			 | stop	processing and wait for	new input   |
	      Redirect informational output to the file	 descriptor  named  by
	      descriptor.   The	 parameter  descriptor	specifies  a UNIX file
	      descriptor number.  By  default,	cdda2wav  sends	 informational
	      output  to  stderr.   Redirecting	 the informational output to a
	      different	file descriptor	helps guis  and	 other	programs  that
	      call cdda2wav via	pipes.

	      In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi-
	      rect audio output	to the file descriptor	named  by  descriptor.
	      The  parameter  descriptor specifies a UNIX file descriptor num-
	      ber.  By default,	cdda2wav sends audio data  to  stdout  if  the
	      output  is not directed into a file.  Redirecting	the audio out-
	      put to a different file descriptor helps guis and	other programs
	      that call	cdda2wav via pipes.

	      Do  not  fork  for  extended  buffering. If -no-fork is used and
	      cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in  paranoia  mode,  the
	      playback	may  be	 interrupted due to lack of buffering.	On the
	      other hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the  latency
	      time for the -interactive	mode.


       -echo  copies  audio  data  to the operating system's sound device e.g.

	      set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
	      reads sectors per	request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring	buffers
	      uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on	 the  Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

	      is  used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible
	      with cdrecord(1).

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If the RSH environment variable is present, the  remote  connec-
	      tion  will not be	created	via rcmd(3) but	by calling the program
	      pointed to by RSH.   Use	e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh	 to  create  a
	      secure shell connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces cdda2wav	to create a pipe to the	rsh(1)
	      program and disallows cdda2wav to	directly  access  the  network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If  the  RSCSI  environment variable is present, the remote SCSI
	      server will not be the  program  /usr/local/sbin/rscsi  but  the
	      program  pointed	to by RSCSI.  Note that	the remote SCSI	server
	      program name will	be ignored if you log in using an account that
	      has  been	 created  with	a  remote SCSI server program as login

       cdda2wav	uses the following exit	codes to indicate various  degrees  of

   |Exitcode | Description							  |
   |	   0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.			  |
   |	   1 | usage or	syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent	arguments.	  |
   |	   2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.		  |
   |	   3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.		  |
   |	   4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.	  |
   |	   5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).		  |
   |	   6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |	   7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked	mode).		  |
   |	   8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.			  |
   |	   9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).		  |
   |	  10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.				  |
   |	  11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.			  |
   |	  12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.			  |
   |	  13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.		  |
   |	  14 | error in	ioctl()	operation encountered.				  |
   |	  15 | internal	error encountered. Please report back!!!		  |
   |	  16 | error in	semaphore operation encountered	(install / request).	  |
   |	  17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.				  |
   |	  18 | could not create	pipes for process communication	(in forked mode). |
       cdda2wav	is able	to read	parts of an audio CD or	multimedia CDROM (con-
       taining audio parts) directly digitally.	These parts can	be written  to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav	 stands	 for  CDDA  to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc
       digital audio and WAV is	a sound	sample format introduced  by  MS  Win-
       dows).	It  allows copying CDDA	audio data from	the CDROM drive	into a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some versions of	cdda2wav may try to get	 higher	 real-time  scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are available for super users and are higher  than  those  of  'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If  you	only have one CDROM and	it is loaded with an audio CD, you may
       simply invoke cdda2wav and it will  create  the	sound  file  audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with	track 1	in stereo at 16	bit at
       44100 Hz	sample rate, if	your file system has enough space free.	  Oth-
       erwise recording	time will be limited. For details see files README and

       If you have more	then one CD-ROM	type drive in the system, you need  to
       specify the dev=	option.

       Most  of	the options are	used to	control	the format of the WAV file. In
       the following text most of them are discussed in	a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be	used.	The  specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom	device descriptor.   The  SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are	addressed with
       their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id,	and  SCSI-Lun  instead	of  the	 generic  SCSI
       device  descriptor.   One  example for a	SCSI CDROM drive on bus	0 with
       SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A auxdevice may	be needed in some rare cases  for  CD-Extra  handling.
       Cdda2wav	 usually  has  no problem to get the multi-session information
       for CD-Extra using raw SCSI commands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM  drives  this
       is  the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM	drives
       it is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding  to
       the  SCSI  device  (i.e.	  0,3,0	). It has to match the device used for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the	CDROM drive communication method.  This	inter-
       face  method  is	typically automatically	selected from the device name.
       For SCSI	drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for  all	devices).  Valid names are generic_scsi	and cooked_ioctl.  The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl	of the
       CDROM driver. The latter	variant	works only when	the kernel driver sup-
       ports CDDA reading. This	entry has to match the selected	 CDROM	device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e  copies audio	data to	the sound card while recording,	so you hear it
       nearly simultaneously.  The  soundcard  gets  the  same	data  that  is
       recorded.  This	is time	critical, so it	works best with	the -q option.
       To use cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a  file  you
       could use

       cdda2wav	-q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second	track or

       cdda2wav	-q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.	This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch	of echoed audio
       -p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed to  a  sound	 card.
       Only  the copy to the soundcard is affected, the	recorded audio samples
       in a file remain	the same.  Normal pitch,  which	 is  the  default,  is
       given  by 100.  Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.  -p
       50 transposes the audio output one octave lower.	 See also  the	script
       pitchplay as an example.	This option was	contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m  or -c 1 selects mono	recording (both	stereo channels	are mixed), -s
       or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s  will  swap  both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x  will	 set stereo, 16	bits per sample	at 44.1	kHz (full CD quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b 8 specifies 8	bit (1 Byte) for each sample in	each  channel;	-b  12
       specifies 12 bit	(2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16	speci-
       fies 16 bit (2 Byte) for	each sample in each channel (Ensure that  your
       sample player or	sound card is capable of playing 12-bit	or 16-bit sam-
       ples). Selecting	12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit  samples  are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste	some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r  samplerate  selects	a  sample  rate.  samplerate can be in a range
       between 900 and 44100. Option -R	lists all available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a divider selects a sample rate	divider.  divider can  be  from	 1  to
       50.5 in steps of	0.5.  Option -R	lists all available rates.

       To  make	the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over
       n samples (where	n is the specific dividend). So	for 22050 Hertz	output
       we  have	 to  sum  over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz	we have	to sum over 49
       samples.	 This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size	of  an
       audio  CD  (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to
       finish summing for an output sample  at	sector	boundaries  the	 rates
       above  have  to	be  chosen.   Arbitrary	sampling rates in high quality
       would require some interpolation	scheme,	which needs much more  sophis-
       ticated programming.

   List	a table	of all sampling	rates
       -R  shows  a  list of all sample	rates and their	dividers. Dividers can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of	0.5.

   Select start	track and optionally end track
       -t n+m selects n	as the start track and optionally m as the last	 track
       of a range to be	recorded.  These tracks	must be	from the table of con-
       tents.  This sets the  track  where  recording  begins.	Recording  can
       advance	through	 the following tracks as well (limited by the optional
       end track or otherwise depending	on recording time). Whether  one  file
       or  different  files  are  then	created	 depends on the	-B option (see

   Select start	index
       -i n selects the	index to start recording with.	Indices	other  than  1
       will  invoke  the  index	scanner, which will take some time to find the
       correct start position.	An  offset  may	 be  given  additionally  (see

   Set recording duration
       -d   n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording	time for whole
       track if	n is zero. In order to specify the duration  in	 frames	 (sec-
       tors)  also,  the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the numerical
       argument	is to be  taken	 as  frames  (sectors)	rather	than  seconds.
       Please note that	if track ranges	are being used they define the record-
       ing time	as well	thus overriding	any -d option specified	times.

       Recording time is defined as the	time the generated  sample  will  play
       (at  the	defined	sample rate). Since it's related to the	amount of gen-
       erated samples, it's not	the time of the	sampling process itself	(which
       can  be	less  or  more).   It's	neither	strictly coupled with the time
       information on the audio	CD (shown by your hifi	CD  player).   Differ-
       ences  can occur	by the usage of	the -o option (see below). Notice that
       recording time will be shortened,  unless  enough  disk	space  exists.
       Recording  can  be  aborted  at anytime by pressing the break character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of	a complete audio CD in separate	files
       -B copies each track into a separate file. A base name  can  be	given.
       File names have an appended track number	and an extension corresponding
       to the audio format. To record all audio	tracks of a CD,	use  a	suffi-
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o  sectors  increments	start sector of	the track by sectors.  By this
       option you are able to skip a certain amount  at	 the  beginning	 of  a
       track  so  you can pick exactly the part	you want. Each sector runs for
       1/75 seconds, so	you have very fine control. If your offset is so  high
       that  it	 would	not  fit  into the current track, a warning message is
       issued and the offset is	ignored.  Recording time is not	reduced.   (To
       skip  introductory  quiet passages automagically, use the -w option see

   Wait	for signal option
       -w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output  at  startup,
       reducing	possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal	in the
       output signal and switches on writing to	file.

   Find	extreme	samples
       -F Turning on this option will display the most negative	and  the  most
       positive	 sample	 value	found during recording for both	channels. This
       can be useful for readjusting the volume.  The  values  shown  are  not
       reset  at  track	 boundaries, they cover	the complete sampling process.
       They are	taken from the original	samples	and have the same format (i.e.
       they are	independent of the selected output format).

   Find	if input samples are in	mono
       -G  If  this  option  is	given, input samples for both channels will be
       compared. At the	end of the program the result is printed.  Differences
       in the channels indicate	stereo,	otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate	mono.

   Undo	the pre-emphasis in the	input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called  pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table	Of Contents often. But
       there  are  recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels.
       If this option is given,	the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the  q-subchannel of each track.	If pre-emphasis	is indicated in	the q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to  be  present,	 and subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this
       track before the	samples	are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O  audiotype can be wav	(for wav files)	or au  or  sun	(for  sun  PCM
       files)  or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
       All file	samples	are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done  in
       the  audio compact disc format).	This holds for all audio formats.  Wav
       files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files,  they  have	 lsb,msb  byte
       order which is the opposite byte	order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not  like
       the  older  common logarithmically coded	.au files, but instead as men-
       tioned above linear PCM is used.	The byte order is msb,lsb to  be  com-
       patible.	 The  default  filename	 extension is '.au'.  The AIFF and the
       newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI  world  store  their  samples  in
       bigendian  format  (msb,lsb).  In AIFC no compression is	used.  Finally
       the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It	is done	per default in
       msb,lsb	byte  order  to	 satisfy  the order wanted by most cd writers.
       Since there is no header	information in this format, the	sample parame-
       ters  can  only	be identified by playing the samples on	a soundcard or
       similar.	The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom	drive reading speed
       -S  speed allows	to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in	 order
       to  reduce  read	 errors.  The  argument	is transferred verbatim	to the
       drive.  Details depend very much	on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the	default	speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M  count enables calculation of	MD-5 checksum for 'count'  bytes  from
       the  beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick	comparisons of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting	audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the	following default options:


       for  details  see  Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In this case the
       option -P has no	effect.

   Do linear or	overlapping reading of sectors
       (This applies unless option -paranoia is	used.)	-P  sectors  sets  the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for	jitter correc-
       tion. Two cases are to be distinguished.	For nonzero values, some  sec-
       tors  are  read	twice  to  enable cdda2wav's jitter correction.	 If an
       argument	of zero	is given, no  overlap  sampling	 will  be  used.   For
       nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav	dynamically adjusts the	setting	during
       sampling	(like cdparanoia does).	 If no match can  be  found,  cdda2wav
       retries the read	with an	increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting,	 resulting  in a higher	reading	speed.	The argument given has
       to be lower than	the total number of sectors per	request	(see option -n
       below).	 Cdda2wav  will	 check this setting and	issues a error message
       otherwise.  The case of zero sectors is nice on low load	situations  or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives	and perfect (unscratched) audio	cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n   sectors  will  set	the transfer size to the specified sectors per

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will	allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C   endianess  will override the default settings of the input format.
       Endianess can be	set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine"	or  to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E   endianess  (endianess  can	be  "little", "big" or "machine") will
       override	the default settings of	the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v  itemlist prints more	information. A list allows selection  of  dif-
       ferent information items.

       help	 Print a summary of possible members of	the diffopts list.

       !	 Invert	 the  meaning  of  the	following  string. No comma is
		 needed	after the exclamation mark.

       not	 Invert	the meaning of all members in the diffopts  list  i.e.
		 exclude  all  present	options	from an	initially complete set
		 compare list.	When using csh(1) you might have problems with
		 !   due  to  its  strange  parser.  This is why the not alias

       disable	 disables verbosity

       all	 all information is given

       toc	 displays the table of contents

       summary	 displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices	 invokes the index scanner and	displays  start	 positions  of

       catalog	 retrieves and displays	a media	catalog	number

       trackid	 retrieves and displays	international standard recording codes

       sectors	 displays track	start positions	in absolute sector notation

       To combine several requests just	list  the  suboptions  separated  with

   The table of	contents
       The  display  will show the table of contents with number of tracks and
       total time  (displayed  in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes,  ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded  1/100  seconds).   The following list displays track	number
       and track time for each entry.  The summary  gives  a  line  per	 track
       describing the type of the track.

		   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The  track  column  holds  the track number.  preemphasis shows if that
       track has been given a non linear frequency response.   NOTE:  You  can
       undo  this effect with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if this
       track is	allowed	to copy.  tracktype can	be data	or audio. On  multime-
       dia  CDs	 (except  hidden  track	 CDs)  both of them should be present.
       channels	is defined for audio tracks only. There	can  be	 two  or  four

   No file output
       -N this debugging option	switches off writing to	a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and	a cddb file.

   Generation of simple	output for gui frontends
       -g  this	 option	switches on simple line	formatting, which is needed to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI	logging
       -V this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will  produce
       a lot of	output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging purposes. The format is the  same  as	being  used  with  the
       cdrecord	program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q  suppresses  all  screen output except error messages.  That reduces
       cpu time	resources.

   Just	show information option
       -J does not write a file, it only prints	 information  about  the  disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album	and track titles option
       -L   cddbp mode Cdda2wav	tries to retrieve performer, album-, and track
       titles  from  a	cddbp  server.	The  default  server  right   now   is
       ''.   It  is  planned  to  have	 more control over the
       server handling later.  The parameter defines how multiple entries  are

       0      interactive mode,	the user chooses one of	the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title	lookups
       cddbp-server   servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being con-
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or -cddb, the  server  port	 being
       contacted can be	set with this option.

       Don't  create  samples  you cannot read.	First check your sample	player
       software	and sound card hardware. I experienced problems	with very  low
       sample  rates  (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when	trying to play
       them with standard WAV players for sound	blaster	(maybe	they  are  not
       legal  in  WAV  format).	 Most  CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a
       bigendian format.  Now cdda2wav supports	the -E	 endianess  option  to
       control the endianess of	the written samples.

       If  your	hardware is fast enough	to run cdda2wav	uninterrupted and your
       CD drive	is one of the 'perfect'	ones, you will gain speed when switch-
       ing all overlap sampling	off with the -P	 0 option. Further fine	tuning
       can be done with	the -n	sectors	option.	You can	specify	how much  sec-
       tors should be requested	in one go.

       Cdda2wav	 supports  pipes.   Use	a filename of -	to let cdda2wav	output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion to other sound formats is possible  using  the  sox  program
       package	(it  should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If you want to sample more than one track into different	files  in  one
       run, this is currently possible with the	-B option. When	recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav	can generate a lot of files for	various	purposes.

   Audio files:
       There are audio files containing	samples	with default extensions	 .wav,
       .au,  .aifc,  .aiff,  and  .cdr according to the	selected sound format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given.	Multiple files
       may  be written when the	bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file
       names can be given as arguments.	If the number of file names  given  is
       sufficient  to  cover all included audio	tracks,	the file names will be
       used verbatim.  Otherwise, if there are	less  file  names  than	 files
       needed  to  write the included tracks, the part of the file name	before
       the extension is	extended with '_dd' where dd  represents  the  current
       track number.

   Cddb	and Cdindex files:
       If  cdda2wav  detects  cd-extra or cd-text (album/track)	title informa-
       tion, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are	generated unless  sup-
       pressed	by the option -H.  They	contain	suitable formatted entries for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN-
       DEX  and	CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For more information
       please visit	and

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was  taken from.	They are a means to transfer information to a cd burn-
       ing program like	cdrecord. For example, if the original	audio  cd  had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove	the pre-emphasis, then
       the inf file has	pre-emphasis not set (since the	audio  file  does  not
       have  it	 anymore),  while the .cddb and	the .cdindex have pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT: it is	prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted  material  by
       noncopyright  holders. This program may not be used to circumvent copy-
       rights.	The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The  resampling	(rate  conversion code)	uses polynomial	interpolation,
       which is	not optimal.

       Cdda2wav	should use threads.

       Thanks go to Project MODE (	and Fraunhofer	Insti-
       tut fuer	integrierte Schaltungen	(FhG-IIS) ( for
       financial support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom  disk
       drives  and  cd	burners	 which	helped a lot to	develop	this software.
       Rammi has helped	a lot with the debugging and showed a lot  of  stamina
       when  hearing  100 times	the first 16 seconds of	the first track	of the
       Krupps CD.  Libparanoia contributed by Monty  (Christopher  Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt	(1993-2004,2015)


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       The  interfaces provided	by cdda2wav are	designed for long term stabil-
       ity.  As	cdda2wav depends on  interfaces	 provided  by  the  underlying
       operating  system,  the stability of the	interfaces offered by cdda2wav
       depends on the interface	stability  of  the  OS	interfaces.   Modified
       interfaces in the OS may	enforce	modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

			    Version 3.02 2015/11/14		   CDDA2WAV(1)


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