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CDDA2WAV(1)							   CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav	- dumps	CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi-

       cdda2wav	[ options ][ dev=device	] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav	can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio	data digitally via SCSI	(CDDA).

       As  cdda2wav  implements	 strategies  to	work around typical defects on
       audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read  by  other  software.
       As  cdda2wav can	use libparanoia	(see -paranoia option below) to	verify
       the data	that has been read from	the medium, it delivers	superior qual-
       ity  even if the	medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems	occur.

       As cdda2wav may be directed to write  the  audio	 data  to  stdout,  it
       writes	all  its  informational	 output	 to  stderr  by	 default.  See
       out-fd=descriptor option	below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav	defaults to read the first audio track from the	medium and the
       default	verbose	 level	is  set	 to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav	by default writes *.inf	files.	To extract  all	 audio	tracks
       with quality verification, it is	recommended to call:

       cdda2wav	-vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For  hints  on  how  to	specify	 better	 parameters  manually, see the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most users do not need to care about device naming.  If no dev=	option
       was  specified,	cdda2wav  implements auto target support and automagi-
       cally finds the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive	 is  available
       in  the system.	When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list of
       possible	device name parameters may be retrieved	with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or  from	 the target example from the output of cdda2wav	dev=help, then
       the dev=	parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The device parameter to the dev=	option explained below refers  to  the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       Recorder.  If a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the	 parameter  to
       the  dev= option	may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

	      display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider	divider
	      sets rate	to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible	values are listed with
	      the -R option.

	      The default divider value	is 1.



	      copies each track	into a separate	file.

	      The default is not to extract all	tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample	bits
	      sets bits	per sample per channel:	8, 12 or 16.

	      The default is 16	bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

	      1	     for mono recording

	      2	     for stereo	recording

	      s	     for stereo	recording with both channels swapped

	      The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess	endianess
	      sets   endianess	of  the	 input	samples	 to  'little',	'big',
	      'machine'	or 'guess' to override defaults.  The value  'machine'
	      or  'host' is evaluated as the actual byte order of the host CPU
	      in the current OS.

	      The default is to	detect cdrom endianess automatically.

	      Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
	      follows  the CDRWIN documentation	can only be used to create 1:1
	      copies if	there is a single file with audio data for  the	 whole
	      disk.   The  *.inf file format implements	more audio CD features
	      than the CDRWIN CUE format and it	allows to create 1:1 copies if
	      there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file	format
	      for meta data only if you	really need this format.

	      To allow cdda2wav	to create CUE files, you must also specify  -t
	      all  to  switch cdda2wav into a mode that	creates	a single audio
	      data file	for the	whole CD.


	      undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

	      The default is to	keep the audio data in the same	 state	as  on
	      the  medium  and	to  mark  the  pre-emphasis state in the *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
	      does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
	      The  parameter  cddb  mode defines how multiple entries shall be

	   |Parameter |	Description						  |
	   |	   -1 |	disable	cddb queries. This is the default.		  |
	   |	    0 |	interactive mode. The user selects the entry to	use.	  |
	   |	    1 |	first fit mode.	The first entry	is taken unconditionally. |
	      sets the server to be contacted for title	lookups.

	      sets the port number to be used for title	lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
	      sets recording time in seconds or	frames (sectors).  Frames  are
	      indicated	by a 'f' suffix	(e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
	      time for whole track.

	      The default is to	extract	the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
	      sets endianess of	the  output  samples  to  'little',  'big'  or
	      'machine'	 to override the default which is 'network byte	order'
	      (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated	as the
	      actual byte order	of the host CPU	in the current OS.


	      finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


	      finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats	the output for parsing by gui frontends.


	      does not write info file,	cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
	      selects the start	index.


	      does  not	 write	to a file, it just gives information about the


       -md5   enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for all  audio  bytes  from
	      the  beginning of	a track. The audio header is skipped when cal-
	      culating the MD-5	checksum to allow comparison of	MD-5 sums  for
	      files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

	      Ignore  hidden  tracks  on  the CD.  By default, cdda2wav	checks
	      whether there might be a hidden  track  before  track  1.	  This
	      check  may  take	a  few	seconds	 and thus can be disabled with


	      does not write to	a file,	it just	reads (e.g. for	debugging pur-
	      poses).  If this option is used together with the	-e option, the
	      CD is read and the audio content is played  back	to  the	 sound
	      device without creating output files with	audio data.

	      By  default,  cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields from	tracks
	      with the related CD-Text field (when defined) for	the whole  CD.
	      If  the  option  -no-textdefaults	 is  used, cdda2wav leaves the
	      track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

	      If cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information	on the CD,  it
	      writes  a	 .cdtext file.	The option -no-textfile	allows to sup-
	      press the	creation of the	.cdtext	file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
	      starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
	      1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
	      can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi	aiff files) or
	      aifc (for	apple/sgi aifc files) or au or sun (for	 sun  .au  PCM
	      files)  or  cdr  or  raw (for headerless files to	be used	for cd

	      The default output format	is now wav for all platforms as	it has
	      become  the  most	 common	 format.  Note that former versions of
	      cdda2wav made an exception and by	default	created	au type	 files
	      on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
	      changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
	      sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
	      in non-paranoia mode. Note that  overlapped  reads  are  handled
	      differently in paranoia mode.

	      The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

	      use  the	paranoia library as a filter on	top of cdda2wav's rou-
	      tines for	reading.  In paranoia mode, the	latency	time  for  the
	      -interactive  mode and with a read ahead buffer size of 150..300
	      sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds.	This is	due to
	      the  paranoia  code reading everything at	least twice and	having
	      to empty the cache RAM of	the CD-ROM drive.

	      The size of the read ahead area must be larger than the size  of
	      the  RAM of the drive in order to	allow libparanoia to empty the
	      cache RAM	in the drive.  As the size of the read ahead  area  in
	      former  times was	a constant compiled into the libparanoia code,
	      the extract quality with using libparanoia was no	longer	suffi-
	      cient  with drives built after year 2000.	See readahead= parame-
	      ter to the paraopts= option below.

	      If the paranoia mode is used,  cdda2wav  displays	 some  quality
	      statistics for each extracted track.  The	following items	appear
	      in the list:

	  |  Value | Description						  |
	  |  rderr | Number of hard read errors					  |
	  |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted	retries		  |
	  |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected	  |
	  |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected			  |
	  |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed				  |
	  |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed				  |
	  |  drift | Number of drifts detected					  |
	  |	c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors				  |
	  |  reads | Number of readahead blocks	read and percentage to track size |
	  |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises			  |
	      The quality indicators in	detail:

	      rderr  The number	of failed low level read requests.  Each  read
		     appears   for   sectors-per-request  sectors.   The  sec-
		     tors-per-request size is typically	 less  than  the  read
		     ahead size.

	      skip   The  number of sectors that have been skipped because the
		     read error	retry count was	exhausted  and	no  successful
		     read was possible.

	      atom   The number	of jitters that	have been detected inside sec-
		     tors.  This should	never happen, but whenever a  non-cor-
		     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
		     Increasing	the read ahead	buffer	size  may  reduce  the
		     results from atom errors.

	      edge   The  number  of  jitters  that  have been detected	at the
		     edges of sectors.	This could be caused by	 sector	 posi-
		     tioning  errors.	Increasing  the	read ahead buffer size
		     may reduce	the results from edge errors.

	      drop   The number	of dropped samples.  This could	be  caused  by
		     sector  positioning  errors.   Increasing	the read ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      dup    Duplicated	samples	could be caused	by sector  positioning
		     errors  like  dripped samples.  Increasing	the read ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      drift  This is the amount	of drifts detected when	 checking  the
		     overlap area.

	      c2     The  number  of  sectors with C2 errors seen when reading
		     the last track.  As the paranoia code tends to  read  bad
		     parts  of	the  disk  many	 times,	this number usually is
		     above the number that would appear	when the disk is  just
		     read  once	in a linear way.  Use paraopts=disable,c2check
		     to	see a number that represents the state of the  medium.

	      reads  The  number  of read ahead	blocks read for	the last track
		     by	the upper layer	and the	percentage of  the  amount  of
		     data  read	 compared to the size of the track.  This per-
		     centage is	typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
		     all data at least twice. If there is a lot	of overlap and
		     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

		     The number	the overlap size has been raised. This happens
		     when  the	overlap	size is	below the maximum overlap size
		     and errors	in the overlap area are	detected.

	      List is a	comma separated	list of	suboptions passed to the para-
	      noia library.

       |	  Option | Description						      |
       |	    help | lists all paranoia options.				      |
       |	 disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still	being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off,	and static overlap on		      |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector		      |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to	use for	the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap	      |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |	 c2check | check C2 pointers from drive	to rate	quality		      |
       |	   proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check	      |
	      The paraopts= parameters in detail:

		     The  paranoia  corrections	 are disabled, but the data is
		     still directed through the	code from  libparanoia.	  This
		     allows  to	 switch	on C2 error detection and to check the
		     C2	error statistics for a CD.

		     This switches off the verification	of the data  integrity
		     in	the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
		     in	favor of a static overlap value.

		     Set the maximum number of read retries per	sector in case
		     of	hard read errors. The default value for	this parameter
		     is	20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara-
		     noia(1) command.

		     Set  the  number  of  sectors  to	use for	the read ahead
		     buffer.  Except when at the end of	the  medium,  libpara-
		     noia  never  requests  less than this amount of data from
		     the low level I/O code.   The  size  of  the  read	 ahead
		     buffer is usually bigger than the maximum size for	a sin-
		     gle DMA in	the system. For	this reason, libparanoia calls
		     several  read  operations in order	to fill	the read ahead
		     buffer.  The default value	used by	cdda2wav is 400, which
		     is	 more than the 150 sectors that	cdparanoia(1) uses but
		     still a compromise	for not	requiring too much memory.

		     It	is recommended to use a	read ahead buffer size that is
		     not  less	than  the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive.	If the
		     drive has more than 1MB of	RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
		     RAM in the	drive.

		     Note  that	 as long as the	readahead= value is too	small,
		     the extract quality varies	a lot with the value  in  use.
		     The  value	 used  by  cdparanoia(1)  may cause an extract
		     quality below what	cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

		     Set  the  number of sectors used for static overlap. This
		     switches dynamic overlap off.  It is recommended  not  to
		     use static	overlapping. To	get a larger overlapping, bet-
		     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

		     Set the minimum number of sectors	for  dynamic  overlap.
		     The  default  value used by cdda2wav is 0.5, this is more
		     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

		     For old drives that do not	support	accurate streaming, it
		     is	not recommended	to specify a minoverlap= value greater
		     or	equal to the maximal DMA size.

		     For best results on other drives, it  is  recommended  to
		     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half	of the
		     readahead size.

		     The extract quality varies	a  lot	with  the  minoverlap=
		     value,  but  increasing  the  value  also	increases  the
		     extract time.

		     Set the maximum number of sectors	for  dynamic  overlap.
		     If	 maxoverlap= was not specified and a large minoverlap=
		     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over-
		     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

		     Turn on C2	error checking.	 For now, this just results in
		     printing C2 error statistics.

		     Warning: some drives have been reported to	 fail  reading
		     hidden  tracks  when the c2check mode is in effect.  When
		     you plan to use c2check while extracting  hidden  tracks,
		     first  verify  that  your drive will report hidden	tracks
		     the same with and without the c2check option.

	      proof  This option is a macro for	better extract parameters than
		     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


		     If	 sectors-per-request1  is  more	than 20, 20 is used as
		     minimal overlap value.

		     The parameters used by proof are still not	the  best  and
		     there  is	no best	parameter set for all cases.  A	larger
		     value for the read	ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
		     for  the  available  RAM in the system and	the best value
		     for the minimal overlap depends on	whether	the drive sup-
		     ports  exact streaming.  It is recommended	to run experi-
		     ments with	larger values for the  parameters  minoverlap=
		     and  readahead=  to  get  the best	results	for a specific

		     Note that previous	versions did include c2check with  the
		     proof  macro,  but	this has been reported to fail on some


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
	      sets rate	in samples per second.	 Possible  values  are	listed
	      with the -R option.


	      shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
	      sets  the	cdrom device to	one of the selectable speeds for read-
	      ing.  For	maximum	extraction quality, it is recommended  to  use
	      speed values of 8	or below.

	      The default is to	extract	at maximum speed.


	      sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
	      set  an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive
	      to -track	and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
	      selects the start	track and optionally the end track.  If	-t all
	      is  used,	 all  audio tracks are selected.  If -t	2+max is used,
	      all audio	tracks starting	with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
	      Retrieves	and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
	      a	 list  of  comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls
	      the type of information to be reported.

       |   Suboption | Description						      |
       |	   ! | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |	 not | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |     disable | no information is given,	warnings appear	however		      |
       |	 all | all information is given					      |
       |	 toc | show table of contents					      |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters		      |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets			      |
       |     catalog | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |	 mcn | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |     trackid | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |	isrc | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the	table of contents in start sector notation	      |
       |      titles | show the	table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the	audio tracks and their start sectors		      |
	      The default verbose-level	is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for	signal,	then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD)	quality.

   SCSI	options

       -D device

       -device device
	      uses device  as  the  source  for	 CDDA  reading.	  For  example
	      /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface	and Bus,ID,Lun for the
	      generic_scsi interface. The device has to	 correspond  with  the
	      interface	setting	if given (see -I and -interface	option below).

	      If no -I or -interface option has	been specified,	the  interface
	      setting  is  derived  from the device name syntax. A device name
	      that is in  the  form  Bus,ID,Lun	 or  contains  a  colon	 (':')
	      defaults to the generic_scsi interface.

	      Using the	cooked_ioctl is	not recommended	as this	makes cdda2wav
	      mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of	the  operating
	      system  which  is	 usually extremely bad.	For this reason, avoid
	      using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

	      The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is  overrid-
	      den by this option.

	      If  no  dev=  option is present, or if the dev= option only con-
	      tains a transport	specifier but no address,  cdda2wav  tries  to
	      scan  the	 SCSI address space for	CD-ROM drives.	If exactly one
	      is found,	this is	used by	default.

	      For more information, see	the description	 of  the  dev=	option
	      from cdrecord(1).


	      Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set  the	kernel debug level for the kernel driver called	by the
	      libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.	This option is	not  supported
	      on all platforms.

	      Scan  all	 SCSI  devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

	      A	comma separated	list of	SCSI options that are handled by  lib-
	      scg.   The implemented options may be uptated indepentendly from
	      applications.  Currently,	one option: ignore-resid is  supported
	      to work around a Linux kernel bug.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum	 transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
	      The syntax for the ts= option is the same	as for	cdrecord  fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If  no  ts=  option  has	been specified,	cdda2wav defaults to a
	      transfer size of 3 MB. If	libscg	gets  lower  values  from  the
	      operating	system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is possible with the current operating  system.	Sometimes,  it
	      may  help	 to further reduce the transfer	size or	to enhance it,
	      but note that it may take	a long time to find a better value  by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

	      Some  operating  systems	return	wrong  values  for the maximum
	      transfer size.  If the transfer totally hangs or	resets	occur,
	      it  may  be appropriate to reduce	the transfer size to less than
	      64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


	      enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly  used
	      for debugging.


	      suppress	SCSI  command  error  reports  to the console. This is
	      mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface	options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
	      uses auxdevice as	CDROM drive to allow to	send  the  CDROMMULTI-
	      SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in

       -I interface

       -interface interface
	      specifies	the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

		     for sending SCSI commands directly	to the drive.

		     for using the programming interface supplied  by  the  OS

	      The latter is not	recommended as it gives	lower quality and only
	      works on a limited number	of platforms.

	      Go into interactive mode that  reads  commands  from  stdin  and
	      writes  the  textual  replies  to	stderr,	or the file descriptor
	      specified	by the out-fd option.  This mode has  been  introduced
	      mainly to	allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

	      If  cdda2wav  was	 called	with the option	-interactive, it reads
	      the TOC from the medium and then waits for command input	as  if
	      it has been issued a stop	command. If the	next command is	a cont
	      command, then cdda2wav extracts the  whole  audio	 part  of  the
	      medium.	If  the	 next command is a read	command, then cdda2wav
	      starts extracting	from the position that was  indicated  by  the
	      read command parameter.

	|Command | Parameters		 | Description				    |
	| cont	 |			 | continue processing at current position  |
	| exit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| help	 |			 | print command help and wait for input    |
	| quit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| read	 | sectors sector number | read	sectors	starting from sector number |
	| read	 | tracks track	number	 | read	sectors	starting from track number  |
	| stop	 |			 | stop	processing and wait for	new input   |
	      Redirect	informational  output  to the file descriptor named by
	      descriptor.  The parameter  descriptor  specifies	 a  UNIX  file
	      descriptor  number.   By	default,  cdda2wav sends informational
	      output to	stderr.	 Redirecting the  informational	 output	 to  a
	      different	 file  descriptor  helps  guis and other programs that
	      call cdda2wav via	pipes.

	      In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi-
	      rect  audio  output  to the file descriptor named	by descriptor.
	      The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX	file  descriptor  num-
	      ber.   By	 default,  cdda2wav  sends audio data to stdout	if the
	      output is	not directed into a file.  Redirecting the audio  out-
	      put to a different file descriptor helps guis and	other programs
	      that call	cdda2wav via pipes.

	      Do not fork for extended buffering.  If  -no-fork	 is  used  and
	      cdda2wav	is  used  to play back audio CDs in paranoia mode, the
	      playback may be interrupted due to lack of  buffering.   On  the
	      other  hand, allowing cdda2wav to	fork will increase the latency
	      time for the -interactive	mode.


       -echo  copies audio data	to the operating system's  sound  device  e.g.

	      set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
	      reads sectors per	request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring	buffers
	      uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some  defaults  for cdda2wav are	compiled in and	depend on the Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

	      is used to set the device	name. The device naming	is  compatible
	      with cdrecord(1).

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If  the  RSH environment variable	is present, the	remote connec-
	      tion will	not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the  program
	      pointed  to  by  RSH.   Use  e.g.	  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a
	      secure shell connection.

	      Note that	this forces cdda2wav to	create a pipe  to  the	rsh(1)
	      program  and  disallows  cdda2wav	to directly access the network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment variable	is present,  the  remote  SCSI
	      server  will  not	 be  the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the
	      program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote  SCSI	server
	      program name will	be ignored if you log in using an account that
	      has been created with a remote  SCSI  server  program  as	 login

       cdda2wav	 uses  the following exit codes	to indicate various degrees of

   |Exitcode | Description							  |
   |	   0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.			  |
   |	   1 | usage or	syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent	arguments.	  |
   |	   2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.		  |
   |	   3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.		  |
   |	   4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.	  |
   |	   5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).		  |
   |	   6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |	   7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked	mode).		  |
   |	   8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.			  |
   |	   9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).		  |
   |	  10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.				  |
   |	  11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.			  |
   |	  12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.			  |
   |	  13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.		  |
   |	  14 | error in	ioctl()	operation encountered.				  |
   |	  15 | internal	error encountered. Please report back!!!		  |
   |	  16 | error in	semaphore operation encountered	(install / request).	  |
   |	  17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.				  |
   |	  18 | could not create	pipes for process communication	(in forked mode). |
       cdda2wav	is able	to read	parts of an audio CD or	multimedia CDROM (con-
       taining	audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav	stands for CDDA	to WAV (where CDDA  stands  for	 compact  disc
       digital	audio  and  WAV	is a sound sample format introduced by MS Win-
       dows).  It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM	drive  into  a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some  versions  of  cdda2wav may	try to get higher real-time scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are  available  for  super  users and are higher	than those of 'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If you only have	one CDROM and it is loaded with	an audio CD,  you  may
       simply  invoke  cdda2wav	 and  it  will create the sound	file audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with	track 1	in stereo at 16	bit at
       44100  Hz sample	rate, if your file system has enough space free.  Oth-
       erwise recording	time will be limited. For details see files README and

       If  you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to
       specify the dev=	option.

       Most of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file.  In
       the following text most of them are discussed in	a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device  selects  the	 CDROM drive device to be used.	 The specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl  interface	this is	the cdrom device descriptor.  The SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are	addressed with
       their  SCSI-Bus,	 SCSI-Id,  and	SCSI-Lun  instead  of the generic SCSI
       device descriptor.  One example for a SCSI CDROM	drive on  bus  0  with
       SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A  auxdevice  may  be needed in	some rare cases	for CD-Extra handling.
       Cdda2wav	usually	has no problem to get  the  multi-session  information
       for  CD-Extra  using raw	SCSI commands.	For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this
       is the same device as given by dev= (see	above).	For SCSI-CDROM	drives
       it  is the CDROM	drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to
       the SCSI	device (i.e.  0,3,0 ). It has to match	the  device  used  for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the	CDROM drive communication method.  This	inter-
       face method is typically	automatically selected from the	 device	 name.
       For SCSI	drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for all devices).  Valid	names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl.   The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl	of the
       CDROM driver. The latter	variant	works only when	the kernel driver sup-
       ports  CDDA  reading. This entry	has to match the selected CDROM	device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear  it
       nearly  simultaneously.	The  soundcard	gets  the  same	 data  that is
       recorded. This is time critical,	so it works best with the  -q  option.
       To  use	cdda2wav as a pseudo CD	player without recording in a file you
       could use

       cdda2wav	-q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second	track or

       cdda2wav	-q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.	This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch	of echoed audio
       -p  percentage  changes	the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card.
       Only the	copy to	the soundcard is affected, the recorded	audio  samples
       in  a  file  remain  the	 same.	Normal pitch, which is the default, is
       given by	100.  Lower percentages	correspond to lower pitches, i.e.   -p
       50  transposes  the audio output	one octave lower.  See also the	script
       pitchplay as an example.	This option was	contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m or -c	1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed),  -s
       or  -c  2  or -c	s selects stereo recording. Parameter s	will swap both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full	 CD  quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b  8  specifies	 8 bit (1 Byte)	for each sample	in each	channel; -b 12
       specifies 12 bit	(2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16	speci-
       fies  16	bit (2 Byte) for each sample in	each channel (Ensure that your
       sample player or	sound card is capable of playing 12-bit	or 16-bit sam-
       ples).  Selecting  12 or	16 bits	doubles	file size.  12-bit samples are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste	some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r samplerate selects a sample rate.  samplerate	 can  be  in  a	 range
       between 900 and 44100. Option -R	lists all available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a  divider  selects  a	sample rate divider.  divider can be from 1 to
       50.5 in steps of	0.5.  Option -R	lists all available rates.

       To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums  over
       n samples (where	n is the specific dividend). So	for 22050 Hertz	output
       we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have  to	 sum  over  49
       samples.	  This	cancels	higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an
       audio CD	(ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In  order  to
       finish  summing	for  an	 output	 sample	at sector boundaries the rates
       above have to be	chosen.	 Arbitrary  sampling  rates  in	 high  quality
       would  require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophis-
       ticated programming.

   List	a table	of all sampling	rates
       -R shows	a list of all sample rates and their  dividers.	 Dividers  can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of	0.5.

   Select start	track and optionally end track
       -t  n+m selects n as the	start track and	optionally m as	the last track
       of a range to be	recorded.  These tracks	must be	from the table of con-
       tents.	This  sets  the	 track	where  recording begins. Recording can
       advance through the following tracks as well (limited by	 the  optional
       end  track  or otherwise	depending on recording time). Whether one file
       or different files are then created  depends  on	 the  -B  option  (see

   Select start	index
       -i  n  selects the index	to start recording with.  Indices other	than 1
       will invoke the index scanner, which will take some time	 to  find  the
       correct	start  position.  An  offset  may  be  given additionally (see

   Set recording duration
       -d  n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for	 whole
       track  if  n  is	zero. In order to specify the duration in frames (sec-
       tors) also, the argument	can have an appended 'f'. Then	the  numerical
       argument	 is  to	 be  taken  as	frames	(sectors) rather than seconds.
       Please note that	if track ranges	are being used they define the record-
       ing time	as well	thus overriding	any -d option specified	times.

       Recording  time	is  defined as the time	the generated sample will play
       (at the defined sample rate). Since it's	related	to the amount of  gen-
       erated samples, it's not	the time of the	sampling process itself	(which
       can be less or more).  It's neither  strictly  coupled  with  the  time
       information  on	the  audio CD (shown by	your hifi CD player).  Differ-
       ences can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice  that
       recording  time	will  be  shortened,  unless enough disk space exists.
       Recording can be	aborted	at anytime by  pressing	 the  break  character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of	a complete audio CD in separate	files
       -B  copies  each	 track into a separate file. A base name can be	given.
       File names have an appended track number	and an extension corresponding
       to  the	audio format. To record	all audio tracks of a CD, use a	suffi-
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o sectors increments start sector of the track by  sectors.   By  this
       option  you  are	 able  to  skip	a certain amount at the	beginning of a
       track so	you can	pick exactly the part you want.	Each sector  runs  for
       1/75  seconds, so you have very fine control. If	your offset is so high
       that it would not fit into the current  track,  a  warning  message  is
       issued  and the offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.  (To
       skip introductory quiet passages	automagically, use the -w  option  see

   Wait	for signal option
       -w  Turning  on this option will	suppress all silent output at startup,
       reducing	possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal	in the
       output signal and switches on writing to	file.

   Find	extreme	samples
       -F  Turning  on this option will	display	the most negative and the most
       positive	sample value found during recording for	 both  channels.  This
       can  be	useful	for  readjusting  the volume. The values shown are not
       reset at	track boundaries, they cover the  complete  sampling  process.
       They are	taken from the original	samples	and have the same format (i.e.
       they are	independent of the selected output format).

   Find	if input samples are in	mono
       -G If this option is given, input samples for  both  channels  will  be
       compared.  At the end of	the program the	result is printed. Differences
       in the channels indicate	stereo,	otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate	mono.

   Undo	the pre-emphasis in the	input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings.  The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table	Of Contents often. But
       there are recordings, that show this setting only in  the  subchannels.
       If this option is given,	the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the q-subchannel	of each	track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the  q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to be present, and subsequently a reverse filtering is  done  for  this
       track before the	samples	are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O   audiotype  can  be	wav  (for wav files) or	au or sun (for sun PCM
       files) or cdr or	raw (for headerless files to be	used for cd  writers).
       All  file samples are coded in linear pulse code	modulation (as done in
       the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio	formats.   Wav
       files  are  compatible  to  Wind*ws sound files,	they have lsb,msb byte
       order which is the opposite byte	order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The  default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not like
       the older common	logarithmically	coded .au files, but instead  as  men-
       tioned  above  linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to be com-
       patible.	The default filename extension is '.au'.   The	AIFF  and  the
       newer  variant  AIFC  from  the	Apple/SGI world	store their samples in
       bigendian format	(msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression  is  used.   Finally
       the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It	is done	per default in
       msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order	wanted	by  most  cd  writers.
       Since there is no header	information in this format, the	sample parame-
       ters can	only be	identified by playing the samples on  a	 soundcard  or
       similar.	The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom	drive reading speed
       -S   speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a	certain	speed in order
       to reduce read errors. The argument  is	transferred  verbatim  to  the
       drive.  Details depend very much	on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the	default	speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M   count  enables calculation of MD-5 checksum	for 'count' bytes from
       the beginning of	a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons  of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting	audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the	following default options:


       for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In  this  case  the
       option -P has no	effect.

   Do linear or	overlapping reading of sectors
       (This  applies  unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors sets the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for	jitter correc-
       tion.  Two cases	are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some sec-
       tors are	read twice to enable  cdda2wav's  jitter  correction.	If  an
       argument	 of  zero  is  given,  no  overlap sampling will be used.  For
       nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav	dynamically adjusts the	setting	during
       sampling	 (like	cdparanoia  does).  If no match	can be found, cdda2wav
       retries the read	with an	increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting,	resulting in a higher reading speed.  The argument  given  has
       to be lower than	the total number of sectors per	request	(see option -n
       below).	Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues  a	error  message
       otherwise.   The	case of	zero sectors is	nice on	low load situations or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives	and perfect (unscratched) audio	cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n  sectors will	set the	transfer size to  the  specified  sectors  per

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will	allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C  endianess will override the default settings	of the	input  format.
       Endianess  can  be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine" or to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E  endianess (endianess	can be	"little",  "big"  or  "machine")  will
       override	the default settings of	the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v   itemlist  prints more information. A list allows selection of dif-
       ferent information items.

       help	 Print a summary of possible members of	the diffopts list.

       !	 Invert	the meaning of	the  following	string.	 No  comma  is
		 needed	after the exclamation mark.

       not	 Invert	 the  meaning of all members in	the diffopts list i.e.
		 exclude all present options from an  initially	 complete  set
		 compare list.	When using csh(1) you might have problems with
		 !  due	to its strange parser.	This  is  why  the  not	 alias

       disable	 disables verbosity

       all	 all information is given

       toc	 displays the table of contents

       summary	 displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices	 invokes  the  index  scanner  and displays start positions of

       catalog	 retrieves and displays	a media	catalog	number

       trackid	 retrieves and displays	international standard recording codes

       sectors	 displays track	start positions	in absolute sector notation

       To  combine  several  requests  just list the suboptions	separated with

   The table of	contents
       The display will	show the table of contents with	number of  tracks  and
       total  time  (displayed	in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes, ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded 1/100	seconds).  The following list  displays	 track	number
       and  track  time	 for  each  entry.  The	summary	gives a	line per track
       describing the type of the track.

		   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The track column	holds the track	number.	  preemphasis  shows  if  that
       track  has  been	 given a non linear frequency response.	 NOTE: You can
       undo this effect	with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if  this
       track  is allowed to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On multime-
       dia CDs (except hidden track CDs)  both	of  them  should  be  present.
       channels	 is  defined  for  audio tracks	only. There can	be two or four

   No file output
       -N this debugging option	switches off writing to	a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and	a cddb file.

   Generation of simple	output for gui frontends
       -g this option switches on simple line formatting, which	is  needed  to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI	logging
       -V  this	option switches	on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce
       a lot of	output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging  purposes.  The  format  is  the  same	as being used with the
       cdrecord	program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q suppresses all screen	output except error  messages.	 That  reduces
       cpu time	resources.

   Just	show information option
       -J  does	 not  write  a file, it	only prints information	about the disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album	and track titles option
       -L  cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to	retrieve performer, album-, and	 track
       titles	from   a  cddbp	 server.  The  default	server	right  now  is
       ''.  It	is planned  to	have  more  control  over  the
       server  handling	later.	The parameter defines how multiple entries are

       0      interactive mode,	the user chooses one of	the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title	lookups
       cddbp-server  servername	When using -L or -cddb,	the server being  con-
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port   portnumber	When  using -L or -cddb, the server port being
       contacted can be	set with this option.

       Don't create samples you	cannot read. First check  your	sample	player
       software	 and sound card	hardware. I experienced	problems with very low
       sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz,	mono <=	3675 Hz) when trying  to  play
       them  with  standard  WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not
       legal in	WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist  on	 audio	samples	 in  a
       bigendian  format.   Now	 cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess option to
       control the endianess of	the written samples.

       If your hardware	is fast	enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and  your
       CD drive	is one of the 'perfect'	ones, you will gain speed when switch-
       ing all overlap sampling	off with the -P	 0 option. Further fine	tuning
       can  be done with the -n	 sectors option. You can specify how much sec-
       tors should be requested	in one go.

       Cdda2wav	supports pipes.	 Use a filename	of - to	 let  cdda2wav	output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion  to  other  sound  formats is	possible using the sox program
       package (it should no longer be necessary to use	sox -x to  change  the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If  you	want to	sample more than one track into	different files	in one
       run, this is currently possible with the	-B option. When	recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav	can generate a lot of files for	various	purposes.

   Audio files:
       There  are audio	files containing samples with default extensions .wav,
       .au, .aifc, .aiff, and .cdr according to	 the  selected	sound  format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given.	Multiple files
       may be written when the bulk copy option	(-B) is	used. Individual  file
       names  can  be given as arguments. If the number	of file	names given is
       sufficient to cover all included	audio tracks, the file names  will  be
       used  verbatim.	 Otherwise,  if	 there	are less file names than files
       needed to write the included tracks, the	part of	the file  name	before
       the  extension  is  extended with '_dd' where dd	represents the current
       track number.

   Cddb	and Cdindex files:
       If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text	(album/track)  title  informa-
       tion,  then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated unless sup-
       pressed by the option -H.  They contain suitable	formatted entries  for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN-
       DEX and CDDB(tm)	systems	are currently supported. For more  information
       please visit	and

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was taken from. They are	a means	to transfer information	to a cd	 burn-
       ing  program  like  cdrecord. For example, if the original audio	cd had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove	the pre-emphasis, then
       the  inf	 file  has pre-emphasis	not set	(since the audio file does not
       have it anymore), while the .cddb and the  .cdindex  have  pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT:  it  is prohibited to	sell copies of copyrighted material by
       noncopyright holders. This program may not be used to circumvent	 copy-
       rights.	The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The resampling (rate conversion code)  uses  polynomial	interpolation,
       which is	not optimal.

       Cdda2wav	should use threads.

       Thanks  go to Project MODE ( and Fraunhofer	Insti-
       tut fuer	integrierte Schaltungen	(FhG-IIS) ( for
       financial  support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk
       drives and cd burners which helped a  lot  to  develop  this  software.
       Rammi  has  helped a lot	with the debugging and showed a	lot of stamina
       when hearing 100	times the first	16 seconds of the first	track  of  the
       Krupps  CD.   Libparanoia contributed by	Monty (Christopher Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt	(1993-2004,2015)


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin


       The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed	for long term  stabil-
       ity.   As  cdda2wav  depends  on	 interfaces provided by	the underlying
       operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered  by  cdda2wav
       depends	on  the	 interface  stability  of the OS interfaces.  Modified
       interfaces in the OS may	enforce	modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

			    Version 3.02 2016/01/26		   CDDA2WAV(1)


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