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CDDA2WAV(1)		    General Commands Manual		   CDDA2WAV(1)

       cdda2wav	- dumps	CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi-

       cdda2wav	[ options ][ dev=device	] [file(s) or directories]

       cdda2wav	can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio	data digitally via SCSI	(CDDA).

       As cdda2wav implements strategies to work around	typical	defects	on au-
       dio CDs it reads	many disks that	cannot be read by other	software.   As
       cdda2wav	can use	libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify the
       data that has been read from the	medium,	it delivers  superior  quality
       even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.

       As  cdda2wav  may  be  directed	to  write the audio data to stdout, it
       writes  all  its	 informational	output	to  stderr  by	default.   See
       out-fd=descriptor option	below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav	defaults to read the first audio track from the	medium and the
       default	verbose	 level	is  set	 to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav	 by  default  writes *.inf files.  To extract all audio	tracks
       with quality verification, it is	recommended to call:

       cdda2wav	-vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For hints on  how  to  specify  better  parameters  manually,  see  the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most  users do not need to care about device naming.  If	no dev=	option
       was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target  support	and  automagi-
       cally  finds  the drive when exactly one	CD-ROM type drive is available
       in the system.  When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list  of
       possible	device name parameters may be retrieved	with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or from the target example from the output of cdda2wav  dev=help,  then
       the dev=	parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The  device  parameter to the dev= option explained below refers	to the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       Recorder.  If a file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter	to the
       dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES sec-

   Informative options

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

	      display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider	divider
	      sets rate	to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible	values are listed with
	      the -R option.

	      The default divider value	is 1.



	      copies each track	into a separate	file.

	      The default is not to extract all	tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample	bits
	      sets bits	per sample per channel:	8, 12 or 16.

	      The default is 16	bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels

	      1	     for mono recording

	      2	     for stereo	recording

	      s	     for stereo	recording with both channels swapped

	      The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess	endianess
	      sets endianess of	the input samples  to  'little',  'big',  'ma-
	      chine'  or 'guess' to override defaults.	The value 'machine' or
	      'host' is	evaluated as the actual	byte order of the host CPU  in
	      the current OS.

	      The default is to	detect cdrom endianess automatically.

	      Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
	      follows the CDRWIN documentation can only	be used	to create  1:1
	      copies  if  there	is a single file with audio data for the whole
	      disk.  The *.inf file format implements more audio  CD  features
	      than the CDRWIN CUE format and it	allows to create 1:1 copies if
	      there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file	format
	      for meta data only if you	really need this format.

	      To  allow	cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify -t
	      all to switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a	 single	 audio
	      data file	for the	whole CD.


	      undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

	      The  default  is	to keep	the audio data in the same state as on
	      the medium and to	mark  the  pre-emphasis	 state	in  the	 *.inf

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
	      does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
	      The parameter cddb mode defines how multiple  entries  shall  be

	   |Parameter |	Description						  |
	   |	   -1 |	disable	cddb queries. This is the default.		  |
	   |	    0 |	interactive mode. The user selects the entry to	use.	  |
	   |	    1 |	first fit mode.	The first entry	is taken unconditionally. |
	      sets the server to be contacted for title	lookups.

	      sets the port number to be used for title	lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
	      sets  recording time in seconds or frames	(sectors).  Frames are
	      indicated	by a 'f' suffix	(e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
	      time for whole track.

	      The default is to	extract	the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
	      sets  endianess of the output samples to 'little', 'big' or 'ma-
	      chine' to	override the default which  is	'network  byte	order'
	      (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated	as the
	      actual byte order	of the host CPU	in the current OS.


	      finds extreme amplitudes in samples.


	      finds if input samples are in mono.


       -gui   reformats	the output for parsing by gui frontends.


	      does not write info file,	cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
	      selects the start	index.


	      does not write to	a file,	it just	gives  information  about  the


       -md5   enables  calculation  of	MD-5 checksum for all audio bytes from
	      the beginning of a track.	The audio header is skipped when  cal-
	      culating	the MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums for
	      files with different header types.


       -mono  sets to mono recording.

	      Ignore hidden tracks on the CD.	By  default,  cdda2wav	checks
	      whether  there  might  be	 a  hidden track before	track 1.  This
	      check may	take a few seconds  and	 thus  can  be	disabled  with


	      does not write to	a file,	it just	reads (e.g. for	debugging pur-
	      poses).  If this option is used together with the	-e option, the
	      CD is read and the audio content is played back to the sound de-
	      vice without creating output files with audio data.

	      By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields  from	tracks
	      with  the	related	CD-Text	field (when defined) for the whole CD.
	      If the option -no-textdefaults  is  used,	 cdda2wav  leaves  the
	      track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

	      If  cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the	CD, it
	      writes a .cdtext file.  The option -no-textfile allows  to  sup-
	      press the	creation of the	.cdtext	file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
	      starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
	      1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
	      can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi	aiff files) or
	      aifc  (for  apple/sgi  aifc files) or au or sun (for sun .au PCM
	      files) or	cdr or raw (for	headerless files to  be	 used  for  cd

	      The default output format	is now wav for all platforms as	it has
	      become the most common format.  Note  that  former  versions  of
	      cdda2wav	made an	exception and by default created au type files
	      on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
	      changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
	      sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
	      in  non-paranoia	mode.  Note  that overlapped reads are handled
	      differently in paranoia mode.

	      The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

	      use the paranoia library as a filter on top of  cdda2wav's  rou-
	      tines  for  reading.  In paranoia	mode, the latency time for the
	      -interactive mode	and with a read	ahead buffer size of  150..300
	      sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds.	This is	due to
	      the paranoia code	reading	everything at least twice  and	having
	      to empty the cache RAM of	the CD-ROM drive.

	      The  size	of the read ahead area must be larger than the size of
	      the RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty  the
	      cache  RAM  in the drive.	 As the	size of	the read ahead area in
	      former times was a constant compiled into	the libparanoia	 code,
	      the  extract quality with	using libparanoia was no longer	suffi-
	      cient with drives	built after year 2000. See readahead=  parame-
	      ter to the paraopts= option below.

	      If  the  paranoia	 mode  is used,	cdda2wav displays some quality
	      statistics for each extracted track.  The	following items	appear
	      in the list:

	  |  Value | Description						  |
	  |  rderr | Number of hard read errors					  |
	  |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted	retries		  |
	  |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected	  |
	  |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected			  |
	  |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed				  |
	  |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed				  |
	  |  drift | Number of drifts detected					  |
	  |	c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors				  |
	  |  reads | Number of readahead blocks	read and percentage to track size |
	  |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises			  |
	      The quality indicators in	detail:

	      rderr  The  number of failed low level read requests.  Each read
		     appears  for  sectors-per-request	sectors.    The	  sec-
		     tors-per-request  size  is	 typically  less than the read
		     ahead size.

	      skip   The number	of sectors that	have been skipped because  the
		     read  error  retry	 count was exhausted and no successful
		     read was possible.

	      atom   The number	of jitters that	have been detected inside sec-
		     tors.   This should never happen, but whenever a non-cor-
		     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
		     Increasing	 the read ahead	buffer size may	reduce the re-
		     sults from	atom errors.

	      edge   The number	of jitters that	 have  been  detected  at  the
		     edges  of	sectors.  This could be	caused by sector posi-
		     tioning errors.  Increasing the read  ahead  buffer  size
		     may reduce	the results from edge errors.

	      drop   The  number  of dropped samples.  This could be caused by
		     sector positioning	errors.	  Increasing  the  read	 ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      dup    Duplicated	 samples could be caused by sector positioning
		     errors like dripped samples.  Increasing the  read	 ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      drift  This  is  the amount of drifts detected when checking the
		     overlap area.

	      c2     The number	of sectors with	C2 errors  seen	 when  reading
		     the  last	track.	As the paranoia	code tends to read bad
		     parts of the disk many  times,  this  number  usually  is
		     above  the	number that would appear when the disk is just
		     read once in a linear way.	 Use  paraopts=disable,c2check
		     to	see a number that represents the state of the medium.

	      reads  The  number  of read ahead	blocks read for	the last track
		     by	the upper layer	and the	percentage of  the  amount  of
		     data  read	 compared to the size of the track.  This per-
		     centage is	typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
		     all data at least twice. If there is a lot	of overlap and
		     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

		     The number	the overlap size has been raised. This happens
		     when  the	overlap	size is	below the maximum overlap size
		     and errors	in the overlap area are	detected.

	      List is a	comma separated	list of	suboptions passed to the para-
	      noia library.

       |	  Option | Description						      |
       |	    help | lists all paranoia options.				      |
       |	 disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still	being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off,	and static overlap on		      |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector		      |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to	use for	the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap	      |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |	 c2check | check C2 pointers from drive	to rate	quality		      |
       |	   proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check	      |
	      The paraopts= parameters in detail:

		     The  paranoia  corrections	 are disabled, but the data is
		     still directed through the	code from  libparanoia.	  This
		     allows  to	 switch	on C2 error detection and to check the
		     C2	error statistics for a CD.

		     This switches off the verification	of the data  integrity
		     in	the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
		     in	favor of a static overlap value.

		     Set the maximum number of read retries per	sector in case
		     of	hard read errors. The default value for	this parameter
		     is	20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara-
		     noia(1) command.

		     Set  the number of	sectors	to use for the read ahead buf-
		     fer.  Except when at the end of the  medium,  libparanoia
		     never requests less than this amount of data from the low
		     level I/O code.  The size of the  read  ahead  buffer  is
		     usually  bigger than the maximum size for a single	DMA in
		     the system. For this reason,  libparanoia	calls  several
		     read  operations  in order	to fill	the read ahead buffer.
		     The default value used by cdda2wav	is 400,	which is  more
		     than  the 150 sectors that	cdparanoia(1) uses but still a
		     compromise	for not	requiring too much memory.

		     It	is recommended to use a	read ahead buffer size that is
		     not  less	than  the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive.	If the
		     drive has more than 1MB of	RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
		     RAM in the	drive.

		     Note  that	 as long as the	readahead= value is too	small,
		     the extract quality varies	a lot with the value  in  use.
		     The  value	 used  by  cdparanoia(1)  may cause an extract
		     quality below what	cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

		     Set the number of sectors used for	static	overlap.  This
		     switches  dynamic	overlap	off.  It is recommended	not to
		     use static	overlapping. To	get a larger overlapping, bet-
		     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

		     Set  the  minimum	number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
		     The default value used by cdda2wav	is 0.5,	this  is  more
		     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

		     For old drives that do not	support	accurate streaming, it
		     is	not recommended	to specify a minoverlap= value greater
		     or	equal to the maximal DMA size.

		     For  best	results	 on other drives, it is	recommended to
		     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half	of the
		     readahead size.

		     The  extract  quality  varies  a lot with the minoverlap=
		     value, but	increasing the value also  increases  the  ex-
		     tract time.

		     Set  the  maximum	number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
		     If	maxoverlap= was	not specified and a large  minoverlap=
		     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over-
		     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

		     Turn on C2	error checking.	 For now, this just results in
		     printing C2 error statistics.

		     Warning:  some  drives have been reported to fail reading
		     hidden tracks when	the c2check mode is in effect.	If you
		     encounter	a drive	where cdda2wav is not able to auto-de-
		     tect whether c2check is usable, please report.

		     When you plan to  use  c2check  while  extracting	hidden
		     tracks,  first  verify that your drive will report	hidden
		     tracks the	same with and without the c2check option.

	      proof  This option is a macro for	better extract parameters than
		     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:


		     If	 sectors-per-request1  is  more	than 20, 20 is used as
		     minimal overlap value.

		     The parameters used by proof are still not	the  best  and
		     there  is	no best	parameter set for all cases.  A	larger
		     value for the read	ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
		     for  the  available  RAM in the system and	the best value
		     for the minimal overlap depends on	whether	the drive sup-
		     ports  exact streaming.  It is recommended	to run experi-
		     ments with	larger values for the  parameters  minoverlap=
		     and  readahead=  to  get  the best	results	for a specific

		     Note that previous	versions did include c2check with  the
		     proof  macro,  but	this has been reported to fail on some
		     drives and	thus c2check was disabled by default.  Current
		     versions of cdda2wav auto-detect whether the actual drive
		     supports the c2check feature and use it if	possible.


       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
	      sets rate	in samples per second.	 Possible  values  are	listed
	      with the -R option.


	      shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
	      sets  the	cdrom device to	one of the selectable speeds for read-
	      ing.  For	maximum	extraction quality, it is recommended  to  use
	      speed values of 8	or below.

	      The default is to	extract	at maximum speed.


	      sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
	      set  an absolute start sector. This option is mutually exclusive
	      to -track	and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
	      selects the start	track and optionally the end track.  If	-t all
	      is  used,	 all  audio tracks are selected.  If -t	2+max is used,
	      all audio	tracks starting	with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
	      Retrieves	and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
	      a	 list  of  comma separated suboptions. Each suboption controls
	      the type of information to be reported.

       |   Suboption | Description						      |
       |	   ! | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |	 not | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |     disable | no information is given,	warnings appear	however		      |
       |	 all | all information is given					      |
       |	 toc | show table of contents					      |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters		      |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets			      |
       |     catalog | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |	 mcn | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |     trackid | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |	isrc | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the	table of contents in start sector notation	      |
       |      titles | show the	table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the	audio tracks and their start sectors		      |
	      The default verbose-level	is toc,summary,sectors,titles .


       -wait  waits for	signal,	then start recording.


       -max   sets maximum (CD)	quality.

   SCSI	options

       -D device

       -device device
	      uses device  as  the  source  for	 CDDA  reading.	  For  example
	      /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface	and Bus,ID,Lun for the
	      generic_scsi interface. The device has to	 correspond  with  the
	      interface	setting	if given (see -I and -interface	option below).

	      If  no -I	or -interface option has been specified, the interface
	      setting is derived from the device name syntax.  A  device  name
	      that  is	in  the	 form Bus,ID,Lun or contains a colon (':') de-
	      faults to	the generic_scsi interface.

	      Using the	cooked_ioctl is	not recommended	as this	makes cdda2wav
	      mainly  depend  on the audio extraction quality of the operating
	      system which is usually extremely	bad. For  this	reason,	 avoid
	      using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

	      The  setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is overrid-
	      den by this option.

	      If no dev= option	is present, or if the dev=  option  only  con-
	      tains  a	transport  specifier but no address, cdda2wav tries to
	      scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives.  If  exactly  one
	      is found,	this is	used by	default.

	      For  more	 information,  see  the	description of the dev=	option
	      from cdrecord(1).


	      Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.



       kd=#   Set the kernel debug level for the kernel	driver called  by  the
	      libscg  SCSI  OS abstraction layer. This option is not supported
	      on all platforms.

	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI	buses and  print  the  inquiry
	      strings.	This  option  may  be used to find SCSI	address	of the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder on a system.  The	numbers	printed	out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

	      A	 comma separated list of SCSI options that are handled by lib-
	      scg.  The	implemented options may	be uptated indepentendly  from
	      applications.   Currently, one option: ignore-resid is supported
	      to work around a Linux kernel bug.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for	a single SCSI  command	to  #.
	      The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts=	option has been	 specified,  cdda2wav  defaults	 to  a
	      transfer	size of	3 MB. If libscg	gets lower values from the op-
	      erating system, the value	is reduced to the maximum  value  that
	      is  possible  with  the current operating	system.	 Sometimes, it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to  enhance  it,
	      but  note	that it	may take a long	time to	find a better value by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

	      Some operating systems  return  wrong  values  for  the  maximum
	      transfer	size.	If the transfer	totally	hangs or resets	occur,
	      it may be	appropriate to reduce the transfer size	to  less  than
	      64 kB or even less than 32 kB.


	      enable  SCSI command logging to the console. This	is mainly used
	      for debugging.


	      suppress SCSI command error reports  to  the  console.  This  is
	      mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface	options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
	      uses  auxdevice  as CDROM	drive to allow to send the CDROMMULTI-
	      SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in

       -I interface

       -interface interface
	      specifies	the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

		     for sending SCSI commands directly	to the drive.

		     for  using	 the  programming interface supplied by	the OS

	      The latter is not	recommended as it gives	lower quality and only
	      works on a limited number	of platforms.

	      Go  into	interactive  mode  that	 reads commands	from stdin and
	      writes the textual replies to stderr,  or	 the  file  descriptor
	      specified	 by  the out-fd	option.	 This mode has been introduced
	      mainly to	allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

	      If cdda2wav was called with the option  -interactive,  it	 reads
	      the  TOC	from the medium	and then waits for command input as if
	      it has been issued a stop	command. If the	next command is	a cont
	      command,	then  cdda2wav	extracts  the  whole audio part	of the
	      medium.  If the next command is a	read  command,	then  cdda2wav
	      starts  extracting  from	the position that was indicated	by the
	      read command parameter.

	|Command | Parameters		 | Description				    |
	| cont	 |			 | continue processing at current position  |
	| exit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| help	 |			 | print command help and wait for input    |
	| quit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| read	 | sectors sector number | read	sectors	starting from sector number |
	| read	 | tracks track	number	 | read	sectors	starting from track number  |
	| stop	 |			 | stop	processing and wait for	new input   |
	      Redirect informational output to the file	 descriptor  named  by
	      descriptor.   The	parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX file de-
	      scriptor number.	By default, cdda2wav sends informational  out-
	      put  to  stderr.	Redirecting the	informational output to	a dif-
	      ferent file descriptor helps guis	and other programs  that  call
	      cdda2wav via pipes.

	      In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi-
	      rect audio output	to the file descriptor	named  by  descriptor.
	      The  parameter  descriptor specifies a UNIX file descriptor num-
	      ber.  By default,	cdda2wav sends audio data  to  stdout  if  the
	      output  is not directed into a file.  Redirecting	the audio out-
	      put to a different file descriptor helps guis and	other programs
	      that call	cdda2wav via pipes.

	      Do  not  fork  for  extended  buffering. If -no-fork is used and
	      cdda2wav is used to play back audio CDs in  paranoia  mode,  the
	      playback	may  be	 interrupted due to lack of buffering.	On the
	      other hand, allowing cdda2wav to fork will increase the  latency
	      time for the -interactive	mode.


       -echo  copies  audio  data  to the operating system's sound device e.g.

	      set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
	      reads sectors per	request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring	buffers
	      uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       Some defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on	 the  Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

	      is  used to set the device name. The device naming is compatible
	      with cdrecord(1).

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If the RSH environment variable is present, the  remote  connec-
	      tion  will not be	created	via rcmd(3) but	by calling the program
	      pointed to by RSH.  Use e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to	create	a  se-
	      cure shell connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces cdda2wav	to create a pipe to the	rsh(1)
	      program and disallows cdda2wav to	directly  access  the  network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If  the  RSCSI  environment variable is present, the remote SCSI
	      server will not be the program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the
	      program  pointed	to by RSCSI.  Note that	the remote SCSI	server
	      program name will	be ignored if you log in using an account that
	      has  been	 created  with	a  remote SCSI server program as login

       cdda2wav	uses the following exit	codes to indicate various  degrees  of

   |Exitcode | Description							  |
   |	   0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.			  |
   |	   1 | usage or	syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent	arguments.	  |
   |	   2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.		  |
   |	   3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.		  |
   |	   4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.	  |
   |	   5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).		  |
   |	   6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |	   7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked	mode).		  |
   |	   8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.			  |
   |	   9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).		  |
   |	  10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.				  |
   |	  11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.			  |
   |	  12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.			  |
   |	  13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.		  |
   |	  14 | error in	ioctl()	operation encountered.				  |
   |	  15 | internal	error encountered. Please report back!!!		  |
   |	  16 | error in	semaphore operation encountered	(install / request).	  |
   |	  17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.				  |
   |	  18 | could not create	pipes for process communication	(in forked mode). |
       cdda2wav	is able	to read	parts of an audio CD or	multimedia CDROM (con-
       taining audio parts) directly digitally.	These parts can	be written  to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav	 stands	 for  CDDA  to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc
       digital audio and WAV is	a sound	sample format introduced  by  MS  Win-
       dows).	It  allows copying CDDA	audio data from	the CDROM drive	into a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some versions of	cdda2wav may try to get	 higher	 real-time  scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are available for super users and are higher  than  those  of  'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If  you	only have one CDROM and	it is loaded with an audio CD, you may
       simply invoke cdda2wav and it will  create  the	sound  file  audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with	track 1	in stereo at 16	bit at
       44100 Hz	sample rate, if	your file system has enough space free.	  Oth-
       erwise recording	time will be limited. For details see files README and

       If you have more	then one CD-ROM	type drive in the system, you need  to
       specify the dev=	option.

       Most  of	the options are	used to	control	the format of the WAV file. In
       the following text most of them are discussed in	a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be	used.	The  specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom	device descriptor.   The  SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are	addressed with
       their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id,	and SCSI-Lun instead of	the generic  SCSI  de-
       vice descriptor.	 One example for a SCSI	CDROM drive on bus 0 with SCSI
       ID 3 and	lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A auxdevice may	be needed in some rare cases  for  CD-Extra  handling.
       Cdda2wav	 usually  has  no problem to get the multi-session information
       for CD-Extra using raw SCSI commands.  For Non-SCSI-CDROM  drives  this
       is  the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM	drives
       it is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding  to
       the  SCSI  device  (i.e.	  0,3,0	). It has to match the device used for

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the	CDROM drive communication method.  This	inter-
       face  method  is	typically automatically	selected from the device name.
       For SCSI	drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for  all	devices).  Valid names are generic_scsi	and cooked_ioctl.  The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl	of the
       CDROM driver. The latter	variant	works only when	the kernel driver sup-
       ports CDDA reading. This	entry has to match the selected	 CDROM	device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e  copies audio	data to	the sound card while recording,	so you hear it
       nearly simultaneously.  The  soundcard  gets  the  same	data  that  is
       recorded.  This	is time	critical, so it	works best with	the -q option.
       To use cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a  file  you
       could use

       cdda2wav	-q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second	track or

       cdda2wav	-q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.	This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch	of echoed audio
       -p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed to  a  sound	 card.
       Only  the copy to the soundcard is affected, the	recorded audio samples
       in a file remain	the same.  Normal pitch,  which	 is  the  default,  is
       given  by 100.  Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e.  -p
       50 transposes the audio output one octave lower.	 See also  the	script
       pitchplay as an example.	This option was	contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m  or -c 1 selects mono	recording (both	stereo channels	are mixed), -s
       or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s  will  swap  both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x  will	 set stereo, 16	bits per sample	at 44.1	kHz (full CD quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b 8 specifies 8	bit (1 Byte) for each sample in	each  channel;	-b  12
       specifies 12 bit	(2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16	speci-
       fies 16 bit (2 Byte) for	each sample in each channel (Ensure that  your
       sample player or	sound card is capable of playing 12-bit	or 16-bit sam-
       ples). Selecting	12 or 16 bits doubles file size.  12-bit  samples  are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste	some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r  samplerate selects a	sample rate.  samplerate can be	in a range be-
       tween 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all	available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a divider selects a sample rate	divider.  divider can  be  from	 1  to
       50.5 in steps of	0.5.  Option -R	lists all available rates.

       To  make	the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over
       n samples (where	n is the specific dividend). So	for 22050 Hertz	output
       we  have	 to  sum  over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz	we have	to sum over 49
       samples.	 This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size	of  an
       audio  CD  (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to
       finish summing for an output sample  at	sector	boundaries  the	 rates
       above  have  to	be  chosen.   Arbitrary	sampling rates in high quality
       would require some interpolation	scheme,	which needs much more  sophis-
       ticated programming.

   List	a table	of all sampling	rates
       -R  shows  a  list of all sample	rates and their	dividers. Dividers can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of	0.5.

   Select start	track and optionally end track
       -t n+m selects n	as the start track and optionally m as the last	 track
       of a range to be	recorded.  These tracks	must be	from the table of con-
       tents.  This sets the track where recording begins. Recording  can  ad-
       vance through the following tracks as well (limited by the optional end
       track or	otherwise depending on recording time).	Whether	 one  file  or
       different files are then	created	depends	on the -B option (see below).

   Select start	index
       -i  n  selects the index	to start recording with.  Indices other	than 1
       will invoke the index scanner, which will take some time	 to  find  the
       correct	start  position.  An offset may	be given additionally (see be-

   Set recording duration
       -d  n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for	 whole
       track  if  n  is	zero. In order to specify the duration in frames (sec-
       tors) also, the argument	can have an appended 'f'. Then	the  numerical
       argument	 is  to	 be  taken  as	frames	(sectors) rather than seconds.
       Please note that	if track ranges	are being used they define the record-
       ing time	as well	thus overriding	any -d option specified	times.

       Recording  time	is  defined as the time	the generated sample will play
       (at the defined sample rate). Since it's	related	to the amount of  gen-
       erated samples, it's not	the time of the	sampling process itself	(which
       can be less or more).  It's neither strictly coupled with the time  in-
       formation  on the audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player).  Differences
       can occur by the	usage of  the  -o  option  (see	 below).  Notice  that
       recording  time	will  be  shortened,  unless enough disk space exists.
       Recording can be	aborted	at anytime by  pressing	 the  break  character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of	a complete audio CD in separate	files
       -B  copies  each	 track into a separate file. A base name can be	given.
       File names have an appended track number	and an extension corresponding
       to  the	audio format. To record	all audio tracks of a CD, use a	suffi-
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o sectors increments start sector of the track by  sectors.   By  this
       option  you  are	 able  to  skip	a certain amount at the	beginning of a
       track so	you can	pick exactly the part you want.	Each sector  runs  for
       1/75  seconds, so you have very fine control. If	your offset is so high
       that it would not fit into the current track, a warning message is  is-
       sued  and  the  offset is ignored.  Recording time is not reduced.  (To
       skip introductory quiet passages	automagically, use the -w  option  see

   Wait	for signal option
       -w  Turning  on this option will	suppress all silent output at startup,
       reducing	possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal	in the
       output signal and switches on writing to	file.

   Find	extreme	samples
       -F  Turning  on this option will	display	the most negative and the most
       positive	sample value found during recording for	 both  channels.  This
       can  be useful for readjusting the volume. The values shown are not re-
       set at track boundaries,	they cover the complete	sampling process. They
       are taken from the original samples and have the	same format (i.e. they
       are independent of the selected output format).

   Find	if input samples are in	mono
       -G If this option is given, input samples for  both  channels  will  be
       compared.  At the end of	the program the	result is printed. Differences
       in the channels indicate	stereo,	otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate	mono.

   Undo	the pre-emphasis in the	input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings.  The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table	Of Contents often. But
       there are recordings, that show this setting only in  the  subchannels.
       If this option is given,	the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the q-subchannel	of each	track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the  q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to be present, and subsequently a reverse filtering is  done  for  this
       track before the	samples	are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O   audiotype  can  be	wav  (for wav files) or	au or sun (for sun PCM
       files) or cdr or	raw (for headerless files to be	used for cd  writers).
       All  file samples are coded in linear pulse code	modulation (as done in
       the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio	formats.   Wav
       files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte or-
       der which is the	opposite byte order to the one used on the  audio  cd.
       The  default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not like
       the older common	logarithmically	coded .au files, but instead  as  men-
       tioned  above  linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to be com-
       patible.	The default filename extension is '.au'.   The	AIFF  and  the
       newer  variant AIFC from	the Apple/SGI world store their	samples	in bi-
       gendian format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression	is used.  Finally  the
       easiest	'format',  the	cdr  aka raw format. It	is done	per default in
       msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order	wanted	by  most  cd  writers.
       Since there is no header	information in this format, the	sample parame-
       ters can	only be	identified by playing the samples on  a	 soundcard  or
       similar.	The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom	drive reading speed
       -S   speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a	certain	speed in order
       to reduce read errors. The argument  is	transferred  verbatim  to  the
       drive.  Details depend very much	on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the	default	speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M   count  enables calculation of MD-5 checksum	for 'count' bytes from
       the beginning of	a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons  of

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting	audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the	following default options:


       for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In  this  case  the
       option -P has no	effect.

   Do linear or	overlapping reading of sectors
       (This  applies  unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P  sectors sets the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for	jitter correc-
       tion.  Two cases	are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some sec-
       tors are	read twice to enable cdda2wav's	jitter correction.  If an  ar-
       gument of zero is given,	no overlap sampling will be used.  For nonzero
       overlap sectors cdda2wav	dynamically adjusts the	 setting  during  sam-
       pling  (like  cdparanoia	does).	If no match can	be found, cdda2wav re-
       tries the read with an increased	overlap.  If the amount	of  jitter  is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting,	resulting in a higher reading speed.  The argument  given  has
       to be lower than	the total number of sectors per	request	(see option -n
       below).	Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues  a	error  message
       otherwise.   The	case of	zero sectors is	nice on	low load situations or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives	and perfect (unscratched) audio	cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n  sectors will	set the	transfer size to the specified sectors per re-

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will	allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C   endianess  will override the default settings of the input format.
       Endianess can be	set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine"	or  to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E   endianess  (endianess  can	be  "little", "big" or "machine") will
       override	the default settings of	the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v  itemlist prints more	information. A list allows selection  of  dif-
       ferent information items.

       help	 Print a summary of possible members of	the diffopts list.

       !	 Invert	 the  meaning  of  the	following  string. No comma is
		 needed	after the exclamation mark.

       not	 Invert	the meaning of all members in the diffopts  list  i.e.
		 exclude  all  present	options	from an	initially complete set
		 compare list.	When using csh(1) you might have problems with
		 !   due to its	strange	parser.	 This is why the not alias ex-

       disable	 disables verbosity

       all	 all information is given

       toc	 displays the table of contents

       summary	 displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices	 invokes the index scanner and displays	start positions	of in-

       catalog	 retrieves and displays	a media	catalog	number

       trackid	 retrieves and displays	international standard recording codes

       sectors	 displays track	start positions	in absolute sector notation

       To  combine  several  requests  just list the suboptions	separated with

   The table of	contents
       The display will	show the table of contents with	number of  tracks  and
       total  time  (displayed	in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes, ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded 1/100	seconds).  The following list  displays	 track	number
       and  track time for each	entry.	The summary gives a line per track de-
       scribing	the type of the	track.

		   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The track column	holds the track	number.	  preemphasis  shows  if  that
       track  has  been	 given a non linear frequency response.	 NOTE: You can
       undo this effect	with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if  this
       track  is allowed to copy.  tracktype can be data or audio. On multime-
       dia CDs (except hidden track CDs)  both	of  them  should  be  present.
       channels	 is  defined  for  audio tracks	only. There can	be two or four

   No file output
       -N this debugging option	switches off writing to	a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and	a cddb file.

   Generation of simple	output for gui frontends
       -g this option switches on simple line formatting, which	is  needed  to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI	logging
       -V  this	option switches	on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce
       a lot of	output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging  purposes.  The  format  is  the  same	as being used with the
       cdrecord	program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q suppresses all screen	output except error  messages.	 That  reduces
       cpu time	resources.

   Just	show information option
       -J  does	 not  write  a file, it	only prints information	about the disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album	and track titles option
       -L  cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to	retrieve performer, album-, and	 track
       titles	from   a  cddbp	 server.  The  default	server	right  now  is
       ''.  It	is planned  to	have  more  control  over  the
       server  handling	later.	The parameter defines how multiple entries are

       0      interactive mode,	the user chooses one of	the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title	lookups
       cddbp-server  servername	When using -L or -cddb,	the server being  con-
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port   portnumber	When  using -L or -cddb, the server port being
       contacted can be	set with this option.

       Don't create samples you	cannot read. First check  your	sample	player
       software	 and sound card	hardware. I experienced	problems with very low
       sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz,	mono <=	3675 Hz) when trying  to  play
       them  with  standard  WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not
       legal in	WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist on audio samples in	a  bi-
       gendian format.	Now cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess	option to con-
       trol the	endianess of the written samples.

       If your hardware	is fast	enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and  your
       CD drive	is one of the 'perfect'	ones, you will gain speed when switch-
       ing all overlap sampling	off with the -P	 0 option. Further fine	tuning
       can  be done with the -n	 sectors option. You can specify how much sec-
       tors should be requested	in one go.

       Cdda2wav	supports pipes.	 Use a filename	of - to	 let  cdda2wav	output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion  to  other  sound  formats is	possible using the sox program
       package (it should no longer be necessary to use	sox -x to  change  the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If  you	want to	sample more than one track into	different files	in one
       run, this is currently possible with the	-B option. When	recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

       Cdda2wav	can generate a lot of files for	various	purposes.

   Audio files:
       There  are audio	files containing samples with default extensions .wav,
       .au, .aifc, .aiff, and .cdr according to	 the  selected	sound  format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given.	Multiple files
       may be written when the bulk copy option	(-B) is	used. Individual  file
       names  can  be given as arguments. If the number	of file	names given is
       sufficient to cover all included	audio tracks, the file names  will  be
       used  verbatim.	 Otherwise,  if	 there	are less file names than files
       needed to write the included tracks, the	part of	the file  name	before
       the  extension  is  extended with '_dd' where dd	represents the current
       track number.

   Cddb	and Cdindex files:
       If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text	(album/track)  title  informa-
       tion,  then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated unless sup-
       pressed by the option -H.  They contain suitable	formatted entries  for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN-
       DEX and CDDB(tm)	systems	are currently supported. For more  information
       please visit	and

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was taken from. They are	a means	to transfer information	to a cd	 burn-
       ing  program  like  cdrecord. For example, if the original audio	cd had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove	the pre-emphasis, then
       the  inf	 file  has pre-emphasis	not set	(since the audio file does not
       have it anymore), while the .cddb and the  .cdindex  have  pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

       IMPORTANT:  it  is prohibited to	sell copies of copyrighted material by
       noncopyright holders. This program may not be used to circumvent	 copy-
       rights.	The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The  resampling	(rate  conversion code)	uses polynomial	interpolation,
       which is	not optimal.

       Cdda2wav	should use threads.

       Thanks go to Project MODE (	and Fraunhofer	Insti-
       tut fuer	integrierte Schaltungen	(FhG-IIS) ( for
       financial support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom  disk
       drives  and  cd	burners	 which	helped a lot to	develop	this software.
       Rammi has helped	a lot with the debugging and showed a lot  of  stamina
       when  hearing  100 times	the first 16 seconds of	the first track	of the
       Krupps CD.  Libparanoia contributed by Monty  (Christopher  Montgomery)

       Heiko Eissfeldt	(1993-2004,2015)


       Joerg Schilling
       D-13353 Berlin


       A  frequently  updated  source code for the cdrtools is included	in the
       schilytools project and may be retrieved	from the  schilytools  project
       at Sourceforge at:

       The download directory is:

       Check for the schily-*.tar.bz2 archives.

       Less frequently updated source code for the cdrtools is at:


       Separate	project	informations for the cdrtools project may be retrieved

       The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed	for long term  stabil-
       ity.   As cdda2wav depends on interfaces	provided by the	underlying op-
       erating system, the stability of	the interfaces offered by cdda2wav de-
       pends on	the interface stability	of the OS interfaces.  Modified	inter-
       faces in	the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

			    Version 3.02 2020/05/21		   CDDA2WAV(1)


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