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CDDA2WAV(1)		    General Commands Manual		   CDDA2WAV(1)

NAME
       cdda2wav	- dumps	CD audio data into sound files with extra data verifi-
       cation

SYNOPSIS
       cdda2wav	[ options ][ dev=device	] [file(s) or directories]

DESCRIPTION
       cdda2wav	can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are  capable
       of reading audio	data digitally via SCSI	(CDDA).

       As cdda2wav implements strategies to work around	typical	defects	on au-
       dio CDs it reads	many disks that	cannot be read by other	software.   As
       cdda2wav	can use	libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify the
       data that has been read from the	medium,	it delivers  superior  quality
       even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.

       As  cdda2wav  may  be  directed	to  write the audio data to stdout, it
       writes  all  its	 informational	output	to  stderr  by	default.   See
       out-fd=descriptor option	below.

   Default settings
       Cdda2wav	defaults to read the first audio track from the	medium and the
       default	verbose	 level	is  set	 to  -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles  and
       cdda2wav	 by  default  writes *.inf files.  To extract all audio	tracks
       with quality verification, it is	recommended to call:

       cdda2wav	-vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B

       For hints on  how  to  specify  better  parameters  manually,  see  the
       paraopts= description below.

   Device naming
       Most  users do not need to care about device naming.  If	no dev=	option
       was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target  support	and  automagi-
       cally  finds  the drive when exactly one	CD-ROM type drive is available
       in the system.  When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list  of
       possible	device name parameters may be retrieved	with cdda2wav -scanbus
       or from the target example from the output of cdda2wav  dev=help,  then
       the dev=	parameter may be set based on the device listing.

       The  device  parameter to the dev= option explained below refers	to the
       SCSI CAM	standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the	CD/DVD/BluRay-
       Recorder.   If  a file /usr/local/etc/cdrecord exists, the parameter to
       the dev=	option may also	be a drive name	label in said file (see	 FILES
       section).

OPTIONS
   Informative options
       -h

       -help  display version information for cdda2wav on standard output.

       -version
	      display version and Copyright information.

   Audio options
       -a divider

       -divider	divider
	      sets rate	to 44100Hz / divider.  Possible	values are listed with
	      the -R option.

	      The default divider value	is 1.

       -B

       -bulk

       -alltracks
	      copies each track	into a separate	file.

	      The default is not to extract all	tracks.

       -b bits

       -bits-per-sample	bits
	      sets bits	per sample per channel:	8, 12 or 16.

	      The default is 16	bits per sample.

       -c channels

       -channels channels
	      use:

	      1	     for mono recording

	      2	     for stereo	recording

	      s	     for stereo	recording with both channels swapped

	      The default is stereo recording.

       -C endianess

       -cdrom-endianess	endianess
	      sets endianess of	the input samples  to  'little',  'big',  'ma-
	      chine'  or 'guess' to override defaults.	The value 'machine' or
	      'host' is	evaluated as the actual	byte order of the host CPU  in
	      the current OS.

	      The default is to	detect cdrom endianess automatically.

       -cuefile
	      Create a CDRWIN compatible CUE file.  A CUE file that completely
	      follows the CDRWIN documentation can only	be used	to create  1:1
	      copies  if  there	is a single file with audio data for the whole
	      disk.  The *.inf file format implements more audio  CD  features
	      than the CDRWIN CUE format and it	allows to create 1:1 copies if
	      there is one audio data file per track.  Use the CUE file	format
	      for meta data only if you	really need this format.

	      To  allow	cdda2wav to create CUE files, you must also specify -t
	      all to switch cdda2wav into a mode that creates a	 single	 audio
	      data file	for the	whole CD.

       -T

       -deemphasize
	      undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the input samples.

	      The  default  is	to keep	the audio data in the same state as on
	      the medium and to	mark  the  pre-emphasis	 state	in  the	 *.inf
	      files.

       -L cddb mode

       -cddb cddb mode
	      does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on the cddb id.
	      The parameter cddb mode defines how multiple  entries  shall  be
	      handled.

	   +----------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
	   |Parameter |	Description						  |
	   +----------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
	   |	   -1 |	disable	cddb queries. This is the default.		  |
	   |	    0 |	interactive mode. The user selects the entry to	use.	  |
	   |	    1 |	first fit mode.	The first entry	is taken unconditionally. |
	   +----------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
       cddbp-server=servername
	      sets the server to be contacted for title	lookups.

       cddbp-port=portnumber
	      sets the port number to be used for title	lookups.

       -d duration

       -duration duration
	      sets  recording time in seconds or frames	(sectors).  Frames are
	      indicated	by a 'f' suffix	(e.g. 75f for 75 sectors).  0 sets the
	      time for whole track.

	      The default is to	extract	the whole track.

       -E endianess

       -output-endianess endianess
	      sets  endianess of the output samples to 'little', 'big' or 'ma-
	      chine' to	override the default which  is	'network  byte	order'
	      (big endian).  The value 'machine' or 'host' is evaluated	as the
	      actual byte order	of the host CPU	in the current OS.

       -F

       -find-extremes
	      finds extreme amplitudes in samples.

       -G

       -find-mono
	      finds if input samples are in mono.

       -g

       -gui   reformats	the output for parsing by gui frontends.

       -H

       -no-infofile
	      does not write info file,	cddb file or cdtext file.

       -i index

       -index index
	      selects the start	index.

       -J

       -info-only
	      does not write to	a file,	it just	gives  information  about  the
	      disc.

       -M

       -md5   enables  calculation  of	MD-5 checksum for all audio bytes from
	      the beginning of a track.	The audio header is skipped when  cal-
	      culating	the MD-5 checksum to allow comparison of MD-5 sums for
	      files with different header types.

       -m

       -mono  sets to mono recording.

       -no-hidden-track
	      Ignore hidden tracks on the CD.	By  default,  cdda2wav	checks
	      whether  there  might  be	 a  hidden track before	track 1.  This
	      check may	take a few seconds  and	 thus  can  be	disabled  with
	      -no-hidden-track.

       -N

       -no-write
	      does not write to	a file,	it just	reads (e.g. for	debugging pur-
	      poses).  If this option is used together with the	-e option, the
	      CD is read and the audio content is played back to the sound de-
	      vice without creating output files with audio data.

       -no-textdefaults
	      By default, cdda2wav replaces empty CD-Text fields  from	tracks
	      with  the	related	CD-Text	field (when defined) for the whole CD.
	      If the option -no-textdefaults  is  used,	 cdda2wav  leaves  the
	      track related CD-Text fields empty in such a case.

       -no-textfile
	      If  cdda2wav encounters useful CD-Text information on the	CD, it
	      writes a .cdtext file.  The option -no-textfile allows  to  sup-
	      press the	creation of the	.cdtext	file.

       -o offset

       -offset offset
	      starts offset sectors behind start track (one sector equivalents
	      1/75 seconds).

       -O audiotype

       -output-format audiotype
	      can be wav (for wav files) or aiff (for apple/sgi	aiff files) or
	      aifc  (for  apple/sgi  aifc files) or au or sun (for sun .au PCM
	      files) or	cdr or raw (for	headerless files to  be	 used  for  cd
	      writers).

	      The default output format	is now wav for all platforms as	it has
	      become the most common format.  Note  that  former  versions  of
	      cdda2wav	made an	exception and by default created au type files
	      on Solaris.

       -p percentage

       -playback-realtime percentage
	      changes pitch of audio data copied to sound device.

       -P sectors

       -set-overlap sectors
	      sets the initial number of overlap sectors for jitter correction
	      in  non-paranoia	mode.  Note  that overlapped reads are handled
	      differently in paranoia mode.

	      The default overlap in non-paranoia mode is 1.

       -paranoia
	      use the paranoia library as a filter on top of  cdda2wav's  rou-
	      tines  for  reading.  In paranoia	mode, the latency time for the
	      -interactive mode	and with a read	ahead buffer size of  150..300
	      sectors, is increased to typically 5..10 seconds.	This is	due to
	      the paranoia code	reading	everything at least twice  and	having
	      to empty the cache RAM of	the CD-ROM drive.

	      The  size	of the read ahead area must be larger than the size of
	      the RAM of the drive in order to allow libparanoia to empty  the
	      cache  RAM  in the drive.	 As the	size of	the read ahead area in
	      former times was a constant compiled into	the libparanoia	 code,
	      the  extract quality with	using libparanoia was no longer	suffi-
	      cient with drives	built after year 2000. See readahead=  parame-
	      ter to the paraopts= option below.

	      If  the  paranoia	 mode  is used,	cdda2wav displays some quality
	      statistics for each extracted track.  The	following items	appear
	      in the list:

	  +--------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
	  |  Value | Description						  |
	  +--------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
	  |  rderr | Number of hard read errors					  |
	  |   skip | Number of sectors skipped due to exhausted	retries		  |
	  |   atom | Number of intra sector jitters (frame jitters) detected	  |
	  |   edge | Number of jitters between sectors detected			  |
	  |   drop | Number of dropped bytes fixed				  |
	  |    dup | Number of duplicate bytes fixed				  |
	  |  drift | Number of drifts detected					  |
	  |	c2 | Number of sectors with C2 errors				  |
	  |  reads | Number of readahead blocks	read and percentage to track size |
	  |overlap | Number of dynamic overlap size raises			  |
	  +--------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
	      The quality indicators in	detail:

	      rderr  The  number of failed low level read requests.  Each read
		     appears  for  sectors-per-request	sectors.    The	  sec-
		     tors-per-request  size  is	 typically  less than the read
		     ahead size.

	      skip   The number	of sectors that	have been skipped because  the
		     read  error  retry	 count was exhausted and no successful
		     read was possible.

	      atom   The number	of jitters that	have been detected inside sec-
		     tors.   This should never happen, but whenever a non-cor-
		     rectable C2 error occurs, the drive could lose streaming.
		     Increasing	 the read ahead	buffer size may	reduce the re-
		     sults from	atom errors.

	      edge   The number	of jitters that	 have  been  detected  at  the
		     edges  of	sectors.  This could be	caused by sector posi-
		     tioning errors.  Increasing the read  ahead  buffer  size
		     may reduce	the results from edge errors.

	      drop   The  number  of dropped samples.  This could be caused by
		     sector positioning	errors.	  Increasing  the  read	 ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      dup    Duplicated	 samples could be caused by sector positioning
		     errors like dripped samples.  Increasing the  read	 ahead
		     buffer size may reduce the	results	from edge errors.

	      drift  This  is  the amount of drifts detected when checking the
		     overlap area.

	      c2     The number	of sectors with	C2 errors  seen	 when  reading
		     the  last	track.	As the paranoia	code tends to read bad
		     parts of the disk many  times,  this  number  usually  is
		     above  the	number that would appear when the disk is just
		     read once in a linear way.	 Use  paraopts=disable,c2check
		     to	see a number that represents the state of the medium.

	      reads  The  number  of read ahead	blocks read for	the last track
		     by	the upper layer	and the	percentage of  the  amount  of
		     data  read	 compared to the size of the track.  This per-
		     centage is	typically 200% because the paranoia code reads
		     all data at least twice. If there is a lot	of overlap and
		     a lof of read problems, this percentage raises.

	      overlap
		     The number	the overlap size has been raised. This happens
		     when  the	overlap	size is	below the maximum overlap size
		     and errors	in the overlap area are	detected.

       -paraopts=list
	      List is a	comma separated	list of	suboptions passed to the para-
	      noia library.

       +-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
       |	  Option | Description						      |
       +-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
       |	    help | lists all paranoia options.				      |
       |	 disable | disables paranoia mode. Libparanoia is still	being used    |
       |       no-verify | switches verify off,	and static overlap on		      |
       |  retries=amount | set the number of maximum retries per sector		      |
       |readahead=amount | set the number of sectors to	use for	the read ahead buffer |
       |  overlap=amount | set the number of sectors used for static overlap	      |
       |  minoverlap=amt | set the min.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |  maxoverlap=amt | set the max.	number of sectors for dynamic overlap	      |
       |	 c2check | check C2 pointers from drive	to rate	quality		      |
       |	   proof | set minoverlap=20,retries=200,readahead=600,c2check	      |
       +-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
	      The paraopts= parameters in detail:

	      disable
		     The  paranoia  corrections	 are disabled, but the data is
		     still directed through the	code from  libparanoia.	  This
		     allows  to	 switch	on C2 error detection and to check the
		     C2	error statistics for a CD.

	      no-verify
		     This switches off the verification	of the data  integrity
		     in	the overlap area and turns off dynamic overlap control
		     in	favor of a static overlap value.

	      retries=amount
		     Set the maximum number of read retries per	sector in case
		     of	hard read errors. The default value for	this parameter
		     is	20.  This is the same value as used by the old cdpara-
		     noia(1) command.

	      readahead=amount
		     Set  the number of	sectors	to use for the read ahead buf-
		     fer.  Except when at the end of the  medium,  libparanoia
		     never requests less than this amount of data from the low
		     level I/O code.  The size of the  read  ahead  buffer  is
		     usually  bigger than the maximum size for a single	DMA in
		     the system. For this reason,  libparanoia	calls  several
		     read  operations  in order	to fill	the read ahead buffer.
		     The default value used by cdda2wav	is 400,	which is  more
		     than  the 150 sectors that	cdparanoia(1) uses but still a
		     compromise	for not	requiring too much memory.

		     It	is recommended to use a	read ahead buffer size that is
		     not  less	than  the RAM size in the CD-ROM drive.	If the
		     drive has more than 1MB of	RAM, use 425 sectors per MB of
		     RAM in the	drive.

		     Note  that	 as long as the	readahead= value is too	small,
		     the extract quality varies	a lot with the value  in  use.
		     The  value	 used  by  cdparanoia(1)  may cause an extract
		     quality below what	cdda2wav delivers without libparanoia.

	      overlap=amount
		     Set the number of sectors used for	static	overlap.  This
		     switches  dynamic	overlap	off.  It is recommended	not to
		     use static	overlapping. To	get a larger overlapping, bet-
		     ter use a higher minoverlap= value.

	      minoverlap=amount
		     Set  the  minimum	number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
		     The default value used by cdda2wav	is 0.5,	this  is  more
		     than the default used by cdparanoia(1) which is 0.1.

		     For old drives that do not	support	accurate streaming, it
		     is	not recommended	to specify a minoverlap= value greater
		     or	equal to the maximal DMA size.

		     For  best	results	 on other drives, it is	recommended to
		     use a minoverlap= value that is not less than half	of the
		     readahead size.

		     The  extract  quality  varies  a lot with the minoverlap=
		     value, but	increasing the value also  increases  the  ex-
		     tract time.

	      maxoverlap=amount
		     Set  the  maximum	number of sectors for dynamic overlap.
		     If	maxoverlap= was	not specified and a large  minoverlap=
		     value was specified, this results in a quasi static over-
		     lapping.  The default value used by cda2wav is 32.

	      c2check
		     Turn on C2	error checking.	 For now, this just results in
		     printing C2 error statistics.

		     Warning:  some  drives have been reported to fail reading
		     hidden tracks when	the c2check mode is in	effect.	  When
		     you  plan	to use c2check while extracting	hidden tracks,
		     first verify that your drive will	report	hidden	tracks
		     the same with and without the c2check option.

	      proof  This option is a macro for	better extract parameters than
		     used by default.  The macro proof expands to:

			 paraopts=minoverlap=sectors-per-request-1,\
			     retries=200,readahead=600

		     If	sectors-per-request1 is	more than 20, 20  is  used  as
		     minimal overlap value.

		     The  parameters  used by proof are	still not the best and
		     there is no best parameter	set for	all cases.   A	larger
		     value for the read	ahead buffer size may e.g be too large
		     for the available RAM in the system and  the  best	 value
		     for the minimal overlap depends on	whether	the drive sup-
		     ports exact streaming.  It	is recommended to run  experi-
		     ments  with  larger values	for the	parameters minoverlap=
		     and readahead= to get the best  results  for  a  specific
		     platform.

		     Note  that	previous versions did include c2check with the
		     proof macro, but this has been reported to	fail  on  some
		     drives.

       -q

       -quiet quiet operation, no screen output.

       -r rate

       -rate rate
	      sets  rate  in  samples  per second.  Possible values are	listed
	      with the -R option.

       -R

       -dump-rates
	      shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers.

       -S speed

       -speed speed
	      sets the cdrom device to one of the selectable speeds for	 read-
	      ing.   For  maximum extraction quality, it is recommended	to use
	      speed values of 8	or below.

	      The default is to	extract	at maximum speed.

       -s

       -stereo
	      sets to stereo recording.

       -start-sector sector
	      set an absolute start sector. This option	is mutually  exclusive
	      to -track	and -offset.

       -t track[+endtrack]

       -track track[+endtrack]

       -track track+max

       -track all
	      selects the start	track and optionally the end track.  If	-t all
	      is used, all audio tracks	are selected.  If  -t 2+max  is	 used,
	      all audio	tracks starting	with track 2 are selected.

       -v itemlist

       -verbose-level itemlist
	      Retrieves	and prints verbose information about the CD.  Level is
	      a	list of	comma separated	suboptions.  Each  suboption  controls
	      the type of information to be reported.

       +-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |   Suboption | Description						      |
       +-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |	   ! | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |	 not | invert the meaning of the following string		      |
       |     disable | no information is given,	warnings appear	however		      |
       |	 all | all information is given					      |
       |	 toc | show table of contents					      |
       |     summary | show a summary of the recording parameters		      |
       |     indices | determine and display index offsets			      |
       |     catalog | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |	 mcn | retrieve	and display the	media catalog number MCN	      |
       |     trackid | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |	isrc | retrieve	and display all	Intern.	Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
       |     sectors | show the	table of contents in start sector notation	      |
       |      titles | show the	table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       |audio-tracks | list the	audio tracks and their start sectors		      |
       +-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
	      The default verbose-level	is toc,summary,sectors,titles .

       -w

       -wait  waits for	signal,	then start recording.

       -x

       -max   sets maximum (CD)	quality.

   SCSI	options
       dev=device

       -D device

       -device device
	      uses  device  as	the  source  for  CDDA	reading.   For example
	      /dev/cdrom for the cooked_ioctl interface	and Bus,ID,Lun for the
	      generic_scsi  interface.	The  device has	to correspond with the
	      interface	setting	if given (see -I and -interface	option below).

	      If no -I or -interface option has	been specified,	the  interface
	      setting  is  derived  from the device name syntax. A device name
	      that is in the form Bus,ID,Lun or	contains  a  colon  (':')  de-
	      faults to	the generic_scsi interface.

	      Using the	cooked_ioctl is	not recommended	as this	makes cdda2wav
	      mainly depend on the audio extraction quality of	the  operating
	      system  which  is	 usually extremely bad.	For this reason, avoid
	      using parameters like dev=/dev/cdrom for the device.

	      The setting of the environment variable CDDA_DEVICE is  overrid-
	      den by this option.

	      If  no  dev=  option is present, or if the dev= option only con-
	      tains a transport	specifier but no address,  cdda2wav  tries  to
	      scan  the	 SCSI address space for	CD-ROM drives.	If exactly one
	      is found,	this is	used by	default.

	      For more information, see	the description	 of  the  dev=	option
	      from cdrecord(1).

       debug=#

       debug-scsi=#
	      Set the debug level for the libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.

       kdebug=#

       kdebug-scsi=#

       kd=#   Set  the	kernel debug level for the kernel driver called	by the
	      libscg SCSI OS abstraction layer.	This option is	not  supported
	      on all platforms.

       -scanbus
	      Scan  all	 SCSI  devices on all SCSI buses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find	SCSI  address  of  the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder  on a system.  The numbers printed out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       scgopts=list
	      A	comma separated	list of	SCSI options that are handled by  lib-
	      scg.   The implemented options may be uptated indepentendly from
	      applications.  Currently,	one option: ignore-resid is  supported
	      to work around a Linux kernel bug.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum	 transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
	      The syntax for the ts= option is the same	as for	cdrecord  fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If  no  ts=  option  has	been specified,	cdda2wav defaults to a
	      transfer size of 3 MB. If	libscg gets lower values from the  op-
	      erating  system,	the value is reduced to	the maximum value that
	      is possible with the current operating  system.	Sometimes,  it
	      may  help	 to further reduce the transfer	size or	to enhance it,
	      but note that it may take	a long time to find a better value  by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

	      Some  operating  systems	return	wrong  values  for the maximum
	      transfer size.  If the transfer totally hangs or	resets	occur,
	      it  may  be appropriate to reduce	the transfer size to less than
	      64 kB or even less than 32 kB.

       -V

       -verbose-scsi
	      enable SCSI command logging to the console. This is mainly  used
	      for debugging.

       -Q

       -silent-scsi
	      suppress	SCSI  command  error  reports  to the console. This is
	      mainly used for guis.

   OS Interface	options
       -A auxdevice

       -auxdevice auxdevice
	      uses auxdevice as	CDROM drive to allow to	send  the  CDROMMULTI-
	      SESSION ioctl on Linux although the generic_scsi interface is in
	      use.

       -I interface

       -interface interface
	      specifies	the interface to use for accessing the CDROM:

	      generic_scsi
		     for sending SCSI commands directly	to the drive.

	      cooked_ioctl
		     for using the programming interface supplied  by  the  OS
		     kernel.

	      The latter is not	recommended as it gives	lower quality and only
	      works on a limited number	of platforms.

       -interactive
	      Go into interactive mode that  reads  commands  from  stdin  and
	      writes  the  textual  replies  to	stderr,	or the file descriptor
	      specified	by the out-fd option.  This mode has  been  introduced
	      mainly to	allow cdrecord to be called by gstreamer plugins.

	      If  cdda2wav  was	 called	with the option	-interactive, it reads
	      the TOC from the medium and then waits for command input	as  if
	      it has been issued a stop	command. If the	next command is	a cont
	      command, then cdda2wav extracts the  whole  audio	 part  of  the
	      medium.	If  the	 next command is a read	command, then cdda2wav
	      starts extracting	from the position that was  indicated  by  the
	      read command parameter.

	+--------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------+
	|Command | Parameters		 | Description				    |
	+--------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------+
	| cont	 |			 | continue processing at current position  |
	| exit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| help	 |			 | print command help and wait for input    |
	| quit	 |			 | exit	processing			    |
	| read	 | sectors sector number | read	sectors	starting from sector number |
	| read	 | tracks track	number	 | read	sectors	starting from track number  |
	| stop	 |			 | stop	processing and wait for	new input   |
	+--------+-----------------------+------------------------------------------+
       out-fd=descriptor
	      Redirect	informational  output  to the file descriptor named by
	      descriptor.  The parameter descriptor specifies a	UNIX file  de-
	      scriptor	number.	 By default, cdda2wav sends informational out-
	      put to stderr.  Redirecting the informational output to  a  dif-
	      ferent  file  descriptor helps guis and other programs that call
	      cdda2wav via pipes.

       audio-fd=descriptor
	      In case that the file name for the audio data file is "-", redi-
	      rect  audio  output  to the file descriptor named	by descriptor.
	      The parameter descriptor specifies a UNIX	file  descriptor  num-
	      ber.   By	 default,  cdda2wav  sends audio data to stdout	if the
	      output is	not directed into a file.  Redirecting the audio  out-
	      put to a different file descriptor helps guis and	other programs
	      that call	cdda2wav via pipes.

       -no-fork
	      Do not fork for extended buffering.  If  -no-fork	 is  used  and
	      cdda2wav	is  used  to play back audio CDs in paranoia mode, the
	      playback may be interrupted due to lack of  buffering.   On  the
	      other  hand, allowing cdda2wav to	fork will increase the latency
	      time for the -interactive	mode.

       -e

       -echo  copies audio data	to the operating system's  sound  device  e.g.
	      /dev/dsp.

       sound-device=sounddevice
	      set an alternate sound device to use for -e.

       -n sectors

       -sectors-per-request sectors
	      reads sectors per	request.

       -l buffers

       -buffers-in-ring	buffers
	      uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Some  defaults  for cdda2wav are	compiled in and	depend on the Makefile
       others on the environment variable settings.

       CDDA_DEVICE
	      is used to set the device	name. The device naming	is  compatible
	      with cdrecord(1).

       CDDBP_SERVER
	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

       CDDBP_PORT
	      is used for cddbp	title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If  the  RSH environment variable	is present, the	remote connec-
	      tion will	not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the  program
	      pointed  to  by RSH.  Use	e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a se-
	      cure shell connection.

	      Note that	this forces cdda2wav to	create a pipe  to  the	rsh(1)
	      program  and  disallows  cdda2wav	to directly access the network
	      socket to	the remote server.  This makes it impossible to	set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the	connection compared to
	      a	root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment variable	is present,  the  remote  SCSI
	      server  will  not	 be  the program /usr/local/sbin/rscsi but the
	      program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote  SCSI	server
	      program name will	be ignored if you log in using an account that
	      has been created with a remote  SCSI  server  program  as	 login
	      shell.

EXIT STATUS
       cdda2wav	 uses  the following exit codes	to indicate various degrees of
       success:

   +---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Exitcode | Description							  |
   +---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |	   0 | no errors encountered, successful operation.			  |
   |	   1 | usage or	syntax error. cdda2wav got inconsistent	arguments.	  |
   |	   2 | permission (un)set errors. permission changes failed.		  |
   |	   3 | read errors on the cdrom/burner device encountered.		  |
   |	   4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.	  |
   |	   5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).		  |
   |	   6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
   |	   7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked	mode).		  |
   |	   8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.			  |
   |	   9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).		  |
   |	  10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.				  |
   |	  11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.			  |
   |	  12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.			  |
   |	  13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.		  |
   |	  14 | error in	ioctl()	operation encountered.				  |
   |	  15 | internal	error encountered. Please report back!!!		  |
   |	  16 | error in	semaphore operation encountered	(install / request).	  |
   |	  17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.				  |
   |	  18 | could not create	pipes for process communication	(in forked mode). |
   +---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
DISCUSSION
       cdda2wav	is able	to read	parts of an audio CD or	multimedia CDROM (con-
       taining	audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written to
       a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.

       cdda2wav	stands for CDDA	to WAV (where CDDA  stands  for	 compact  disc
       digital	audio  and  WAV	is a sound sample format introduced by MS Win-
       dows).  It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM	drive  into  a
       file in WAV or other formats.

       Some  versions  of  cdda2wav may	try to get higher real-time scheduling
       priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities
       are  available  for  super  users and are higher	than those of 'normal'
       processes. Thus delays are minimized.

       If you only have	one CDROM and it is loaded with	an audio CD,  you  may
       simply  invoke  cdda2wav	 and  it  will create the sound	file audio.wav
       recording the whole track beginning with	track 1	in stereo at 16	bit at
       44100  Hz sample	rate, if your file system has enough space free.  Oth-
       erwise recording	time will be limited. For details see files README and
       README.INSTALL.

       If  you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to
       specify the dev=	option.

HINTS ON OPTIONS
       Most of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file.  In
       the following text most of them are discussed in	a more verbose way.

   Select Device
       dev=device  selects  the	 CDROM drive device to be used.	 The specifier
       given should correspond to the selected interface (see below).  For the
       cooked_ioctl  interface	this is	the cdrom device descriptor.  The SCSI
       devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are	addressed with
       their  SCSI-Bus,	 SCSI-Id, and SCSI-Lun instead of the generic SCSI de-
       vice descriptor.	 One example for a SCSI	CDROM drive on bus 0 with SCSI
       ID 3 and	lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.

   Select Auxiliary device
       -A  auxdevice  may  be needed in	some rare cases	for CD-Extra handling.
       Cdda2wav	usually	has no problem to get  the  multi-session  information
       for  CD-Extra  using raw	SCSI commands.	For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this
       is the same device as given by dev= (see	above).	For SCSI-CDROM	drives
       it  is the CDROM	drive (SCSI) device (i.e.  /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to
       the SCSI	device (i.e.  0,3,0 ). It has to match	the  device  used  for
       sampling.

   Select Interface
       -I interface selects the	CDROM drive communication method.  This	inter-
       face method is typically	automatically selected from the	 device	 name.
       For SCSI	drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available
       for all devices).  Valid	names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl.   The
       first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl	of the
       CDROM driver. The latter	variant	works only when	the kernel driver sup-
       ports  CDDA  reading. This entry	has to match the selected CDROM	device
       (see above).

   Enable echo to soundcard
       -e copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear  it
       nearly  simultaneously.	The  soundcard	gets  the  same	 data  that is
       recorded. This is time critical,	so it works best with the  -q  option.
       To  use	cdda2wav as a pseudo CD	player without recording in a file you
       could use

       cdda2wav	-q -e -t2 -d0 -N

       to play the whole second	track or

       cdda2wav	-q -e -B -N

       to play the whole disk.	This feature reduces the recording speed to at
       most onefold speed.

   Change pitch	of echoed audio
       -p  percentage  changes	the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card.
       Only the	copy to	the soundcard is affected, the recorded	audio  samples
       in  a  file  remain  the	 same.	Normal pitch, which is the default, is
       given by	100.  Lower percentages	correspond to lower pitches, i.e.   -p
       50  transposes  the audio output	one octave lower.  See also the	script
       pitchplay as an example.	This option was	contributed by Raul Sobon.

   Select mono or stereo recording
       -m or -c	1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed),  -s
       or  -c  2  or -c	s selects stereo recording. Parameter s	will swap both
       sound channels.

   Select maximum quality
       -x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full	 CD  quality).
       Note that other format options given later can change this setting.

   Select sample quality
       -b  8  specifies	 8 bit (1 Byte)	for each sample	in each	channel; -b 12
       specifies 12 bit	(2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16	speci-
       fies  16	bit (2 Byte) for each sample in	each channel (Ensure that your
       sample player or	sound card is capable of playing 12-bit	or 16-bit sam-
       ples).  Selecting  12 or	16 bits	doubles	file size.  12-bit samples are
       aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste	some disk space.

   Select sample rate
       -r samplerate selects a sample rate.  samplerate	can be in a range  be-
       tween 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all	available rates.

   Select sample rate divider
       -a  divider  selects  a	sample rate divider.  divider can be from 1 to
       50.5 in steps of	0.5.  Option -R	lists all available rates.

       To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums  over
       n samples (where	n is the specific dividend). So	for 22050 Hertz	output
       we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have  to	 sum  over  49
       samples.	  This	cancels	higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an
       audio CD	(ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In  order  to
       finish  summing	for  an	 output	 sample	at sector boundaries the rates
       above have to be	chosen.	 Arbitrary  sampling  rates  in	 high  quality
       would  require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophis-
       ticated programming.

   List	a table	of all sampling	rates
       -R shows	a list of all sample rates and their  dividers.	 Dividers  can
       range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of	0.5.

   Select start	track and optionally end track
       -t  n+m selects n as the	start track and	optionally m as	the last track
       of a range to be	recorded.  These tracks	must be	from the table of con-
       tents.	This  sets the track where recording begins. Recording can ad-
       vance through the following tracks as well (limited by the optional end
       track  or  otherwise  depending on recording time). Whether one file or
       different files are then	created	depends	on the -B option (see below).

   Select start	index
       -i n selects the	index to start recording with.	Indices	other  than  1
       will  invoke  the  index	scanner, which will take some time to find the
       correct start position. An offset may be	given  additionally  (see  be-
       low).

   Set recording duration
       -d   n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording	time for whole
       track if	n is zero. In order to specify the duration  in	 frames	 (sec-
       tors)  also,  the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the numerical
       argument	is to be  taken	 as  frames  (sectors)	rather	than  seconds.
       Please note that	if track ranges	are being used they define the record-
       ing time	as well	thus overriding	any -d option specified	times.

       Recording time is defined as the	time the generated  sample  will  play
       (at  the	defined	sample rate). Since it's related to the	amount of gen-
       erated samples, it's not	the time of the	sampling process itself	(which
       can  be less or more).  It's neither strictly coupled with the time in-
       formation on the	audio CD (shown	by your	hifi CD	player).   Differences
       can  occur  by  the  usage  of  the  -o option (see below). Notice that
       recording time will be shortened,  unless  enough  disk	space  exists.
       Recording  can  be  aborted  at anytime by pressing the break character
       (signal SIGQUIT).

   Record all tracks of	a complete audio CD in separate	files
       -B copies each track into a separate file. A base name  can  be	given.
       File names have an appended track number	and an extension corresponding
       to the audio format. To record all audio	tracks of a CD,	use  a	suffi-
       cient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

   Set start sector offset
       -o  sectors  increments	start sector of	the track by sectors.  By this
       option you are able to skip a certain amount  at	 the  beginning	 of  a
       track  so  you can pick exactly the part	you want. Each sector runs for
       1/75 seconds, so	you have very fine control. If your offset is so  high
       that  it	would not fit into the current track, a	warning	message	is is-
       sued and	the offset is ignored.	Recording time is  not	reduced.   (To
       skip  introductory  quiet passages automagically, use the -w option see
       below.)

   Wait	for signal option
       -w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output  at  startup,
       reducing	possibly file size.  cdda2wav will watch for any signal	in the
       output signal and switches on writing to	file.

   Find	extreme	samples
       -F Turning on this option will display the most negative	and  the  most
       positive	 sample	 value	found during recording for both	channels. This
       can be useful for readjusting the volume. The values shown are not  re-
       set at track boundaries,	they cover the complete	sampling process. They
       are taken from the original samples and have the	same format (i.e. they
       are independent of the selected output format).

   Find	if input samples are in	mono
       -G  If  this  option  is	given, input samples for both channels will be
       compared. At the	end of the program the result is printed.  Differences
       in the channels indicate	stereo,	otherwise when both channels are equal
       it will indicate	mono.

   Undo	the pre-emphasis in the	input samples
       -T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response
       called  pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The
       correction can be seen in the flags of the Table	Of Contents often. But
       there  are  recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels.
       If this option is given,	the index scanner will be started, which reads
       the  q-subchannel of each track.	If pre-emphasis	is indicated in	the q-
       subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed
       to  be  present,	 and subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this
       track before the	samples	are written into the audio file.

   Set audio format
       -O  audiotype can be wav	(for wav files)	or au  or  sun	(for  sun  PCM
       files)  or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd writers).
       All file	samples	are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done  in
       the  audio compact disc format).	This holds for all audio formats.  Wav
       files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte or-
       der  which  is the opposite byte	order to the one used on the audio cd.
       The default filename extension is '.wav'.  Sun type files are not  like
       the  older  common logarithmically coded	.au files, but instead as men-
       tioned above linear PCM is used.	The byte order is msb,lsb to  be  com-
       patible.	 The  default  filename	 extension is '.au'.  The AIFF and the
       newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world store their samples in  bi-
       gendian	format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression is used.  Finally the
       easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It is	done  per  default  in
       msb,lsb	byte  order  to	 satisfy  the order wanted by most cd writers.
       Since there is no header	information in this format, the	sample parame-
       ters  can  only	be identified by playing the samples on	a soundcard or
       similar.	The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

   Select cdrom	drive reading speed
       -S  speed allows	to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in	 order
       to  reduce  read	 errors.  The  argument	is transferred verbatim	to the
       drive.  Details depend very much	on the cdrom drives.  An argument of 0
       for example is often the	default	speed of the drive, a value of 1 often
       selects single speed.

   Enable MD5 checksums
       -M  count enables calculation of	MD-5 checksum for 'count'  bytes  from
       the  beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick	comparisons of
       tracks.

   Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
       -paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting	audio sectors. Monty's
       library is used with the	following default options:

       PARANOIA_MODE_FULL, but without PARANOIA_MODE_NEVERSKIP

       for  details  see  Monty's libparanoia documentation.  In this case the
       option -P has no	effect.

   Do linear or	overlapping reading of sectors
       (This applies unless option -paranoia is	used.)	-P  sectors  sets  the
       given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for	jitter correc-
       tion. Two cases are to be distinguished.	For nonzero values, some  sec-
       tors  are read twice to enable cdda2wav's jitter	correction.  If	an ar-
       gument of zero is given,	no overlap sampling will be used.  For nonzero
       overlap	sectors	 cdda2wav  dynamically adjusts the setting during sam-
       pling (like cdparanoia does).  If no match can be found,	 cdda2wav  re-
       tries  the  read	with an	increased overlap.  If the amount of jitter is
       lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap
       setting,	 resulting  in a higher	reading	speed.	The argument given has
       to be lower than	the total number of sectors per	request	(see option -n
       below).	 Cdda2wav  will	 check this setting and	issues a error message
       otherwise.  The case of zero sectors is nice on low load	situations  or
       errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives	and perfect (unscratched) audio	cds.

   Set the transfer size
       -n  sectors will	set the	transfer size to the specified sectors per re-
       quest.

   Set number of ring buffer elements
       -l  buffers will	allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.

   Set endianess of input samples
       -C  endianess will override the default settings	of the	input  format.
       Endianess  can  be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine" or to
       the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".

   Set endianess of output samples
       -E  endianess (endianess	can be	"little",  "big"  or  "machine")  will
       override	the default settings of	the output format.

   Verbose option
       -v   itemlist  prints more information. A list allows selection of dif-
       ferent information items.

       help	 Print a summary of possible members of	the diffopts list.

       !	 Invert	the meaning of	the  following	string.	 No  comma  is
		 needed	after the exclamation mark.

       not	 Invert	 the  meaning of all members in	the diffopts list i.e.
		 exclude all present options from an  initially	 complete  set
		 compare list.	When using csh(1) you might have problems with
		 !  due	to its strange parser.	This is	why the	not alias  ex-
		 ists.

       disable	 disables verbosity

       all	 all information is given

       toc	 displays the table of contents

       summary	 displays a summary of recording parameters

       indices	 invokes the index scanner and displays	start positions	of in-
		 dices

       catalog	 retrieves and displays	a media	catalog	number

       trackid	 retrieves and displays	international standard recording codes

       sectors	 displays track	start positions	in absolute sector notation

       To combine several requests just	list  the  suboptions  separated  with
       commas.

   The table of	contents
       The  display  will show the table of contents with number of tracks and
       total time  (displayed  in  mm:ss.hh  format,  mm=minutes,  ss=seconds,
       hh=rounded  1/100  seconds).   The following list displays track	number
       and track time for each entry.  The summary gives a line	per track  de-
       scribing	the type of the	track.

		   track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

       The  track  column  holds  the track number.  preemphasis shows if that
       track has been given a non linear frequency response.   NOTE:  You  can
       undo  this effect with the -T option.  copy-permitted indicates if this
       track is	allowed	to copy.  tracktype can	be data	or audio. On  multime-
       dia  CDs	 (except  hidden  track	 CDs)  both of them should be present.
       channels	is defined for audio tracks only. There	can  be	 two  or  four
       channels.

   No file output
       -N this debugging option	switches off writing to	a file.

   No infofile generation
       -H this option switches off creation of an info file and	a cddb file.

   Generation of simple	output for gui frontends
       -g  this	 option	switches on simple line	formatting, which is needed to
       support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).

   Verbose SCSI	logging
       -V this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will  produce
       a lot of	output (when SCSI devices are being used).  This is needed for
       debugging purposes. The format is the  same  as	being  used  with  the
       cdrecord	program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.

   Quiet option
       -q  suppresses  all  screen output except error messages.  That reduces
       cpu time	resources.

   Just	show information option
       -J does not write a file, it only prints	 information  about  the  disc
       (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support
   Lookup album	and track titles option
       -L   cddbp mode Cdda2wav	tries to retrieve performer, album-, and track
       titles  from  a	cddbp  server.	The  default  server  right   now   is
       'freedb.freedb.org'.   It  is  planned  to  have	 more control over the
       server handling later.  The parameter defines how multiple entries  are
       handled:

       0      interactive mode,	the user chooses one of	the entries.

       1      take the first entry without asking.

   Set server for title	lookups
       cddbp-server   servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being con-
       tacted can be set with this option.

   Set portnumber for title lookups
       cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or -cddb, the  server  port	 being
       contacted can be	set with this option.

HINTS ON USAGE
       Don't  create  samples  you cannot read.	First check your sample	player
       software	and sound card hardware. I experienced problems	with very  low
       sample  rates  (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when	trying to play
       them with standard WAV players for sound	blaster	(maybe	they  are  not
       legal  in WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist on	audio samples in a bi-
       gendian format.	Now cdda2wav supports the -E  endianess	option to con-
       trol the	endianess of the written samples.

       If  your	hardware is fast enough	to run cdda2wav	uninterrupted and your
       CD drive	is one of the 'perfect'	ones, you will gain speed when switch-
       ing all overlap sampling	off with the -P	 0 option. Further fine	tuning
       can be done with	the -n	sectors	option.	You can	specify	how much  sec-
       tors should be requested	in one go.

       Cdda2wav	 supports  pipes.   Use	a filename of -	to let cdda2wav	output
       its samples to standard output.

       Conversion to other sound formats is possible  using  the  sox  program
       package	(it  should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the
       byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If you want to sample more than one track into different	files  in  one
       run, this is currently possible with the	-B option. When	recording time
       exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.

FILES
       Cdda2wav	can generate a lot of files for	various	purposes.

   Audio files:
       There are audio files containing	samples	with default extensions	 .wav,
       .au,  .aifc,  .aiff,  and  .cdr according to the	selected sound format.
       These files are not generated when option (-N) is given.	Multiple files
       may  be written when the	bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file
       names can be given as arguments.	If the number of file names  given  is
       sufficient  to  cover all included audio	tracks,	the file names will be
       used verbatim.  Otherwise, if there are	less  file  names  than	 files
       needed  to  write the included tracks, the part of the file name	before
       the extension is	extended with '_dd' where dd  represents  the  current
       track number.

   Cddb	and Cdindex files:
       If  cdda2wav  detects  cd-extra or cd-text (album/track)	title informa-
       tion, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are	generated unless  sup-
       pressed	by the option -H.  They	contain	suitable formatted entries for
       submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDIN-
       DEX  and	CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For more information
       please visit www.musicbrainz.org	and www.freedb.com.

   Inf files:
       The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it
       was  taken from.	They are a means to transfer information to a cd burn-
       ing program like	cdrecord. For example, if the original	audio  cd  had
       pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove	the pre-emphasis, then
       the inf file has	pre-emphasis not set (since the	audio  file  does  not
       have  it	 anymore),  while the .cddb and	the .cdindex have pre-emphasis
       set as the original does.

WARNING
       IMPORTANT: it is	prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted  material  by
       noncopyright  holders. This program may not be used to circumvent copy-
       rights.	The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.

BUGS
       The index scanner may give timeouts.

       The resampling (rate conversion code)  uses  polynomial	interpolation,
       which is	not optimal.

       Cdda2wav	should use threads.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Thanks  go to Project MODE (http://www.mode.net/) and Fraunhofer	Insti-
       tut fuer	integrierte Schaltungen	(FhG-IIS) (http://www.iis.fhg.de/) for
       financial  support.  Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk
       drives and cd burners which helped a  lot  to  develop  this  software.
       Rammi  has  helped a lot	with the debugging and showed a	lot of stamina
       when hearing 100	times the first	16 seconds of the first	track  of  the
       Krupps  CD.   Libparanoia contributed by	Monty (Christopher Montgomery)
       xiphmont@mit.edu.

AUTHOR
       Heiko Eissfeldt heiko@colossus.escape.de	(1993-2004,2015)

       2004-today:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

DATE
       2016/01/26

INTERFACE STABILITY
       The interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed	for long term  stabil-
       ity.   As cdda2wav depends on interfaces	provided by the	underlying op-
       erating system, the stability of	the interfaces offered by cdda2wav de-
       pends on	the interface stability	of the OS interfaces.  Modified	inter-
       faces in	the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.

			    Version 3.02 2016/01/26		   CDDA2WAV(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | DISCUSSION | HINTS ON OPTIONS | CDDBP support | HINTS ON USAGE | FILES | WARNING | BUGS | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS | AUTHOR | DATE | INTERFACE STABILITY

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