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cd(1)				 User Commands				 cd(1)

NAME
       cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/cd [directory]

   sh
       cd [argument]

       chdir [argument]

   csh
       cd [dir]

       chdir [dir]

       pushd [+n | dir]

       popd [+ n]

       dirs [-l]

   ksh
       cd [-L] [-P] [arg]

       cd old new

DESCRIPTION
   /usr/bin/cd
       The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in	the context of
       the cd utility only. This is in contrast	to the version built into  the
       shell.  /usr/bin/cd  has	 no  effect on the invoking process but	can be
       used to determine whether or not	a given	directory can be  set  as  the
       current directory.

   sh
       The Bourne shell	built-in cd changes the	current	directory to argument.
       The shell parameter HOME	is the default argument. The  shell  parameter
       CDPATH  defines	the search path	for the	directory containing argument.
       Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:).  The  default
       path  is	 <null>	(specifying the	current	directory). The	current	direc-
       tory is specified by a null path	name, which can	appear immediately af-
       ter the equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else	in the
       path list. If argument begins with `/', `.', or `.. ', the search  path
       is  not used. Otherwise,	each directory in the path is searched for ar-
       gument. cd must have execute (search) permission	in argument. Because a
       new process is created to execute each command, cd would	be ineffective
       if it were written as a normal command; therefore, it is	recognized  by
       and is internal to the shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

       chdir is	just another way to call cd.

   csh
       If  dir	is  not	 specified,  the C shell built-in cd uses the value of
       shell parameter HOME as the new working directory. If dir  specifies  a
       complete	 path  starting	 with `	/ ', ` . ', or ` .. ', dir becomes the
       new working directory. If neither case applies, cd tries	 to  find  the
       designated  directory relative to one of	the paths specified by the CD-
       PATH shell variable. CDPATH has the same	syntax as, and similar	seman-
       tics to,	the PATH shell variable. cd must have execute (search) permis-
       sion in dir. Because a new process is created to	execute	each  command,
       cd  would be ineffective	if it were written as a	normal command;	there-
       fore, it	is recognized by and is	internal to the	C-shell. (See  pwd(1),
       sh(1), and chdir(2)).

       chdir changes the shell's working directory to directory	dir. If	no ar-
       gument is given,	change to the home directory of	the user. If dir is  a
       relative	 pathname  not found in	the current directory, check for it in
       those directories listed	in the cdpath variable.	If dir is the name  of
       a  shell	 variable whose	value starts with a /, change to the directory
       named by	that value.

       pushd pushes a directory	onto the directory stack. With	no  arguments,
       exchange	the top	two elements.

       +n	Rotate the n'th	entry to the top of the	stack and cd to	it.

       dir	Push  the  current working directory onto the stack and	change
		to dir.

       popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The ele-
       ments of	the directory stack are	numbered from 0	starting at the	top.

       +n	Discard	the n'th entry in the stack.

       dirs prints the directory stack,	most recent to the left; the first di-
       rectory shown is	the current directory. With the	-l  argument,  produce
       an unabbreviated	printout; use of the ~ notation	is suppressed.

   ksh
       The  Korn  shell	 built-in cd command can be in either of two forms. In
       the first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg is - the
       directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME
       is the default arg. The environment variable PWD	is set to the  current
       directory. If the PWD is	changed, the OLDPWD environment	variable shall
       also be changed to the value of the old working directory, that is, the
       current	working	 directory immediately prior to	the call to change di-
       rectory (cd). The shell variable	CDPATH defines the search path for the
       directory  containing arg. Alternative directory	names are separated by
       a colon (:). The	default	path is	null (specifying  the  current	direc-
       tory).  The  current  directory is specified by a null path name, which
       can appear immediately after the	equal sign or between the colon	delim-
       iters  anywhere	else in	the path list. If arg begins with a ` /	', ` .
       ', or ` .. ', then the search path is not used. Otherwise, each	direc-
       tory  in	 the path is searched for arg. If unsuccessful,	cd attempts to
       change directories to the pathname formed by the	concatenation  of  the
       value of	PWD, a slash character,	and arg.

       -L	Handles	 the  operation	 dot-dot (..) logically. Symbolic link
		components are not resolved before dot-dot components are pro-
		cessed.

       -P	Handles	 the  operand dot-dot physically. Symbolic link	compo-
		nents are resolved before dot-dot components are processed.

       If both -L and -P options are specified,	the last option	to be  invoked
       is  used	 and  the other	is ignored. If neither -L nor -P is specified,
       the operand is handled dot-dot logically.

       The second form of cd substitutes the string new	for the	string old  in
       the  current directory name, PWD	and tries to change to this new	direc-
       tory.

       The cd command cannot be	executed by rksh. Because  a  new  process  is
       created	to  execute  each  command, cd would be	ineffective if it were
       written as a normal command; therefore, it is recognized	by and is  in-
       ternal to the Korn shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory       An  absolute or relative	pathname of the	directory that
		       becomes the new working directory.  The	interpretation
		       of  a relative pathname by cd depends on	the CDPATH en-
		       vironment variable.

OUTPUT
       If a non-empty directory	name from CDPATH is used, an absolute pathname
       of  the new working directory is	written	to the standard	output as fol-
       lows:

	      "%s\n", <new directory>

       Otherwise, there	is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of cd: LANG,	LC_ALL,	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       CDPATH	       A colon-separated list of pathnames that	refer  to  di-
		       rectories. If the directory operand does	not begin with
		       a slash ( / ) character,	and the	first component	is not
		       dot  or	dot-dot, cd searches for directory relative to
		       each directory named in the CDPATH variable, in the or-
		       der listed. The new working directory sets to the first
		       matching	directory found. An empty string in place of a
		       directory pathname represents the current directory. If
		       CDPATH is not set, it is	treated	as if it were an empty
		       string.

       HOME	       The  name of the	home directory,	used when no directory
		       operand is specified.

       OLDPWD	       A pathname of the previous working directory,  used  by
		       cd-.

       PWD	       A  pathname of the current working directory, set by cd
		       after it	has changed to that directory.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned by cd:

       0	The directory was successfully changed.

       >0	An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       csh(1), ksh(1), pwd(1),	sh(1),	chdir(2),  attributes(5),  environ(5),
       standards(5)

SunOS 5.10			  13 Jul 2004				 cd(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPERANDS | OUTPUT | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO

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