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CCD(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			CCD(4)

     ccd -- Concatenated Disk driver

     device ccd

     The ccd driver provides the capability of combining one or	more
     disks/partitions into one virtual disk.

     This document assumes that	you are	familiar with how to generate kernels,
     how to properly configure disks and devices in a kernel configuration
     file, and how to partition	disks.

     Note that the "raw" partitions of the disks should	not be combined.  The
     kernel will only allow component partitions of type FS_BSDFFS (type
     "4.2BSD" as shown by disklabel(8)).

     In	order to compile in support for	the ccd, you must add a	line similar
     to	the following to your kernel configuration file:

	   device    ccd       # concatenated disk devices

     As	of the FreeBSD 3.0 release, you	do not need to configure your kernel
     with ccd but may instead use it as	a kernel loadable module.  Simply run-
     ning ccdconfig(8) will load the module into the kernel.

     A ccd may be either serially concatenated or interleaved.	To serially
     concatenate the partitions, specify the interleave	factor of 0.  Note
     that mirroring may	not be used with an interleave factor of 0.

     There is a	run-time utility that is used for configuring ccds.  See
     ccdconfig(8) for more information.

   The Interleave Factor
     If	a ccd is interleaved correctly,	a "striping" effect is achieved, which
     can increase sequential read/write	performance.  The interleave factor is
     expressed in units	of DEV_BSIZE (usually 512 bytes).  For large writes,
     the optimum interleave factor is typically	the size of a track, while for
     large reads, it is	about a	quarter	of a track.  (Note that	this changes
     greatly depending on the number and speed of disks.)  For instance, with
     eight 7,200 RPM drives on two Fast-Wide SCSI buses, this translates to
     about 128 for writes and 32 for reads.  A larger interleave tends to work
     better when the disk is taking a multitasking load	by localizing the file
     I/O from any given	process	onto a single disk.  You lose sequential per-
     formance when you do this,	but sequential performance is not usually an
     issue with	a multitasking load.

     An	interleave factor must be specified when using a mirroring configura-
     tion, even	when you have only two disks (i.e. the layout winds up being
     the same no matter	what the interleave factor).  The interleave factor
     will determine how	I/O is broken up, however, and a value 128 or greater
     is	recommended.

     ccd has an	option for a parity disk, but does not currently implement it.

     The best performance is achieved if all component disks have the same ge-
     ometry and	size.  Optimum striping	cannot occur with different disk

     For random-access oriented	workloads, such	as news	servers, a larger in-
     terleave factor (e.g., 65,536) is more desirable.	Note that there	is not
     much ccd can do to	speed up applications that are seek-time limited.
     Larger interleave factors will at least reduce the	chance of having to
     seek two disk-heads to read one directory or a file.

   Disk	Mirroring
     You can configure the ccd to "mirror" any even number of disks.  See
     ccdconfig(8) for how to specify the necessary flags.  For example,	if you
     have a ccd	configuration specifying four disks, the first two disks will
     be	mirrored with the second two disks.  A write will be run to both sides
     of	the mirror.  A read will be run	to either side of the mirror depending
     on	what the driver	believes to be most optimal.  If the read fails, the
     driver will automatically attempt to read the same	sector from the	other
     side of the mirror.  Currently ccd	uses a dual seek zone model to opti-
     mize reads	for a multi-tasking load rather	then a sequential load.

     In	an event of a disk failure, you	can use	dd(1) to recover the failed

     Note that a one-disk ccd is not the same as the original partition.  In
     particular, this means if you have	a file system on a two-disk mirrored
     ccd and one of the	disks fail, you	cannot mount and use the remaining
     partition as itself; you have to configure	it as a	one-disk ccd.  You
     cannot replace a disk in a	mirrored ccd partition without first backing
     up	the partition, then replacing the disk,	then restoring the partition.

     If	just one (or more) of the disks	in a ccd fails,	the entire file	system
     will be lost unless you are mirroring the disks.

     If	one of the disks in a mirror is	lost, you should still be able to back
     up	your data.  If a write error occurs, however, data read	from that sec-
     tor may be	non-deterministic.  It may return the data prior to the	write
     or	it may return the data that was	written.  When a write error occurs,
     you should	recover	and regenerate the data	as soon	as possible.

     Changing the interleave or	other parameters for a ccd disk	usually	de-
     stroys whatever data previously existed on	that disk.

     /dev/ccd*	ccd device special files

     The concatenated disk driver was originally written at the	University of

     dd(1), ccdconfig(8), config(8), disklabel(8), fsck(8), MAKEDEV(8),
     mount(8), newfs(8), vinum(8)

BSD				August 9, 1995				   BSD


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