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calc(1)			    General Commands Manual		       calc(1)

NAME
       calc - arbitrary	precision calculator

SYNOPSIS
       calc [-c] [-C] [-d]
	    [-D	calc_debug[:resource_debug[:user_debug]]]
	    [-e] [-h] [-i] [-m mode] [-O]
	    [-p] [-q] [-s] [-u]	[-v] [[--] calc_cmd ...]

       #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f

DESCRIPTION

       CALC OPTIONS

       -c     Continue reading command lines even after	a scan/parse error has
	      caused the abandonment of	a line.	 Note that  this  option  only
	      deals  with  scanning and	parsing	of the calc language.  It does
	      not deal with execution or run-time errors.

	      For example:

		   calc	read many_errors.cal

	      will cause calc to abort on the first syntax error, whereas:

		   calc	-c read	many_errors.cal

	      will cause calc to try to	process	each line being	 read  despite
	      the scan/parse errors that it encounters.

	      By  default, calc	startup	resource files are silently ignored if
	      not found.  This flag will report	missing	startup	resource files
	      unless -d	is also	given.

       -C     Permit  the execution of custom builtin functions.  Without this
	      flag, calling the	custom() builtin function will simply generate
	      an error.

	      Use  of  this  flag may cause calc to execute functions that are
	      non-standard and that are	not portable.	Custom	builtin	 func-
	      tions are	disabled by default for	this reason.

       -d     Disable  the printing of the opening title.  The printing	of re-
	      source file debug	and informational messages is also disabled as
	      if config("resource_debug", 0) had been executed.

	      For example:

		   calc	"read qtime; qtime(2)"

	      will output something like:

		   qtime(utc_hr_offset)	defined
		   It's	nearly ten past	six.

	      whereas:

		   calc	-d "read qtime;	qtime(2)"

	      will just	print:

		   It's	nearly ten past	six.

	      This  flag  disables  the	 reporting of missing calc startup re-
	      source files.

	      This flag	also disables the printing the leading tilde. For  ex-
	      ample:

		   calc	2/3

	      will print:

		   ~0.66666666666666666667

	      whereas:

		   calc	-d 2/3

	      will just	print:

		   0.66666666666666666667

       -D calc_debug[:resource_debug[:user_debug]]
	      Force  the  initial  value  of config("calc_debug"), config("re-
	      source_debug") and config("user_debug").

	      The : separated strings are interpreted as signed	32  bit	 inte-
	      gers.   After  an	optional leading sign a	leading	zero indicates
	      octal conversion,	and a leading  ``0x''  or  ``0X''  hexadecimal
	      conversion.  Otherwise, decimal conversion is assumed.

	      By  default, calc_debug is 0, resource_debug is 3	and user_debug
	      is 0.

	      For more information use the following calc command:

		   help	config

       -e     Ignore any  environment  variables  on  startup.	 The  getenv()
	      builtin will still return	values,	however.

       -f     This  flag is required when using	calc in	shell script mode.  It
	      must be at the end of the	initial	#!  line of the	script.

	      This flag	is normally only at the	end of a  calc	shell  script.
	      If  the  first line of an	executable file	begins #!  followed by
	      the absolute pathname of the calc	program	and the	flag -f	as in:

		   #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f

	      the rest of the file will	be processed  in  shell	 script	 mode.
	      See  SHELL  SCRIPT  MODE	section	of this	man page below for de-
	      tails.

	      The actual form of this flag is:

		   -f filename

	      On systems that treat an executable that begins with  #!	 as  a
	      script,  the path	of the executable is appended by the kernel as
	      the final	argument to the	exec() system call.  This is  why  the
	      -f flag at the very end of the #!	 line.

	      It is possible use -f filename on	the command line:

		   calc	[other_flags ...] -f filename

	      This  will  cause	 calc  to  process  lines in filename in shell
	      script mode.

	      Use of -f	implies	-s.  In	addition, -d and -p are	implied	if  -i
	      is not given.

       -h     Print  a help message.  This option implies -q.  This is equiva-
	      lent to the calc command help help.  The help facility  is  dis-
	      abled unless the mode is 5 or 7.	See -m.

       -i     Become  interactive  if  possible.  This flag will cause calc to
	      drop into	interactive mode after the calc_cmd arguments  on  the
	      command  line  are evaluated.  Without this flag,	calc will exit
	      after they are evaluated.

	      For example:

		   calc	2+5

	      will print the value 7 and exit whereas:

		   calc	-i 2+5

	      will print the value 7 and prompt	the user for  more  calc  com-
	      mands.

       -m mode
	      This  flag  sets	the  permission	mode of	calc.  It controls the
	      ability for calc to open files and execute programs.   Mode  may
	      be a number from 0 to 7.

	      The  mode	 value	is interpreted in a way	similar	to that	of the
	      chmod(1) octal mode:

		   0  do not open any file, do not execute progs
		   1  do not open any file
		   2  do not open files	for reading, do	not execute progs
		   3  do not open files	for reading
		   4  do not open files	for writing, do	not execute progs
		   5  do not open files	for writing
		   6  do not execute any program
		   7  allow everything (default	mode)

	      If one wished to run calc	from a privileged user,	one might want
	      to use -m	0 in an	effort to make calc somewhat more secure.

	      Mode  bits for reading and writing apply only on an open.	 Files
	      already open are not effected.  Thus if one wanted to use	the -m
	      0	 in  an	 effort	 to  make calc somewhat	more secure, but still
	      wanted to	read and write a specific file,	one might want	to  do
	      in sh(1),	ksh(1),	bash(1)-like shells:

		   calc	-m 0 3<a.file

	      Files  presented	to  calc  in this way are opened in an unknown
	      mode.  Calc will attempt to read or write	them if	directed.

	      If the mode disables opening of  files  for  reading,  then  the
	      startup  resource	 files	are  disabled as if -q was given.  The
	      reading of key bindings is also disabled when the	mode  disables
	      opening of files for reading.

       -O     Use  the	old classic defaults instead of	the default configura-
	      tion.  This flag as the same effect as  executing	 config("all",
	      "oldcfg")	at startup time.

	      NOTE: Older versions of calc used	-n to setup a modified form of
	      the default calc configuration.	The  -n	 flag  currently  does
	      nothing.	 Use  of the -n	flag is	now deprecated and may be used
	      for something else in the	future.

       -p     Pipe processing is enabled by use	of -p.	For example:

		   calc	-p "2^21701-1" | fizzbin

	      In pipe mode, calc does not prompt, does not print leading  tabs
	      and  does	 not  print the	initial	header.	 The -p	flag overrides
	      -i.

       -q     Disable the reading of the startup scripts.

       -s     By default, all calc_cmd args are	evaluated and executed.	  This
	      flag  will disable their evaluation and instead make them	avail-
	      able as strings for the argv() builtin function.

       -u     Disable buffering	of stdin and stdout.

       -v     Print the	calc version number and	exit.

       --     The double dash indicates	to calc	that no	 more  option  follow.
	      Thus  calc will ignore a later argument on the command line even
	      if it starts with	a dash.	 This is useful	when entering negative
	      values on	the command line as in:

		   calc	-p -- -1 - -7

       CALC COMMAND LINE

       With  no	 calc_cmd  arguments,  calc operates interactively.  If	one or
       more arguments are given	on the command line and	-s is NOT given,  then
       calc  will  read	 and execute them and either attempt to	go interactive
       according as the	-i flag	was present or absent.

       If -s is	given, calc will not evaluate any calc_cmd arguments  but  in-
       stead make them available as strings to the argv() builtin function.

       Sufficiently  simple  commands  with no no characters like parentheses,
       brackets, semicolons, '*', which	have special interpretations  in  UNIX
       shells may be entered, possibly with spaces, until the terminating new-
       line.  For example:

	    calc 23 + 47

       will print 70.  However,	command	lines will have	problems:

	    calc 23 * 47

	    calc -23 + 47

       The first example above fails because the shell interprets the '*' as a
       file  glob.  The	second example fails because '-23' is viewed as	a calc
       option (which it	is not)	and do calc objects to that it thinks of as an
       unknown option.	These cases can	usually	be made	to work	as expected by
       enclosing the command between quotes:

	    calc '23 * 47'

	    calc "print	sqrt(2), exp(1)"

       or in parentheses and quotes to avoid leading -'s as in:

	    calc '(-23 + 47)'

       One may also use	a double dash to denote	that calc options  have	 ended
       as in:

	    calc -- -23	+ 47

	    calc -q -- -23 + 47

       If  '!'	is  to	be used	to indicate the	factorial function, for	shells
       like csh(1) for which '!' followed by a non-space character is used for
       history	substitution,  it may be necessary to include a	space or use a
       backslash to escape the special meaning of '!'.	For example, the  com-
       mand:

	    print 27!^2

       may have	to be replaced by:

	    print 27! ^2   or	print 27^2

       Reading	from  standard input when calc is part of a pipe works as long
       as the -p flag is given to calc.	 For example, this will	 print	chongo
       was here:

	    echo chongo	was here | calc	-p 'print fgetline(files(0));'

       while this does not:

	    echo chongo	was here | calc	'print fgetline(files(0));'

       nor will	this print chongo was here:

	    echo chongo	was here | calc	-i 'print fgetline(files(0));'

       This  is	 because  without  -p, the interactive parser, in an effort to
       parse interactive commands, flushes data	on standard input.

       CALC STARTUP FILES

       Normally	on startup, if the environment variable	$CALCRC	 is  undefined
       and  calc  is invoked without the -q flag, or if	$CALCRC	is defined and
       calc is invoked with -e,	calc looks for a file "startup"	 in  the  calc
       resource	 directory .calcrc in the user's home directory, and .calcinit
       in the current directory.  If one or more of these are found, they  are
       read  in	 succession as calc scripts and	their commands executed.  When
       defined,	$CALCRC	is to contain a	':' separated list of names of	files,
       and  if	calc  is then invoked without either the -q or -e flags, these
       files are read in succession and	their  commands	 executed.   No	 error
       condition is produced if	a listed file is not found.

       If the mode specified by	-m disables opening of files for reading, then
       the reading of startup files is also disabled as	if -q was given.

       CALC FILE SEARCH	PATH

       If the environment variable $CALCPATH is	undefined, or if it is defined
       and  calc  is  invoked with the -e flag,	when a file name not beginning
       with /, ~ or ./,	is specified as	in:

	    calc read myfile

       calc searches in	succession:

	    ./myfile
	    ./myfile.cal
	    /usr/local/lib/myfile
	    /usr/local/lib/myfile.cal
	    /usr/local/share/calc/custom/myfile
	    /usr/local/share/calc/custom/myfile.cal

       If the file is found, the search	stops and the commands in the file are
       executed.   It  is an error if no readable file with the	specified name
       is found.  An alternative search	path  can  be  specified  by  defining
       $CALCPATH  in  the same way as PATH is defined, as a ':'	separated list
       of directories, and then	invoking calc without the -e flag.

       Calc treats all open files, other than  stdin,  stdout  and  stderr  as
       files  available	for reading and	writing.  One may present calc with an
       already open file using sh(1), ksh(1), bash(1)-like shells is to:

	    calc 3<open_file 4<open_file2

       For more	information use	the following calc commands:

	    help help
	    help overview
	    help usage
	    help environment
	    help config

       SHELL SCRIPT MODE

       If the first line of an executable file begins #!  followed by the  ab-
       solute pathname of the calc program and the flag	-f as in:

	    #!/usr/local/bin/calc [other_flags ...] -f

       the rest	of the file will be processed in shell script mode.  Note that
       -f must at the end of the initial  ``#!''  line.	  Any  other  optional
       other_flags must	come before the	-f.

       In  shell script	mode the contents of the file are read and executed as
       if they were in a file being processed by a read	command, except	that a
       "command"  beginning  with '#' followed by whitespace and ending	at the
       next newline is treated as a comment.  Any optional other_flags will be
       parsed first followed by	the later lines	within the script itself.

       In shell	script mode, -s	is always assumed.  In addition, -d and	-p are
       automatically set if -i is not given.

       For example, if the file	/tmp/mersenne:

	    #!/usr/local/bin/calc -q -f
	    #
	    # mersenne - an example of a calc shell script file

	    /* parse args */
	    if (argv() != 1) {
		fprintf(files(2), "usage: %s exp\n", config("program"));
		abort "must give one exponent arg";
	    }

	    /* print the mersenne number */
	    print "2^":	argv(0)	: "-1 =", 2^eval(argv(0))-1;

       is made an executable file by:

	    chmod +x /tmp/mersenne

       then the	command	line:

	    /tmp/mersenne 127

       will print:

	    2^127-1 = 170141183460469231731687303715884105727

       Note that because -s is assumed in shell	 script	 mode  and  non-dashed
       args  are  made	available  as strings via the argv() builtin function.
       Therefore:

	    2^eval(argv(0))-1

       will print the decimal value of 2^n-1 but

	    2^argv(0)-1

       will not.

       DATA TYPES

       Fundamental builtin data	types include integers,	real numbers, rational
       numbers,	complex	numbers	and strings.

       By  use of an object, one may define an arbitrarily complex data	types.
       One may define how such objects behave a	wide range of operations  such
       as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, negation, squaring,
       modulus,	rounding, exponentiation, equality, comparison,	 printing  and
       so on.

       For more	information use	the following calc commands:

	  help types
	  help obj
	  show objfuncs

       VARIABLES

       Variables  in  calc are typeless.  In other words, the fundamental type
       of a variable is	determined by its content.  Before a variable  is  as-
       signed a	value it has the value of zero.

       The  scope  of a	variable may be	global,	local to a file, or local to a
       procedure.  Values may be grouped together in a matrix,	or  into  a  a
       list that permits stack and queue style operations.

       For more	information use	the following calc commands:

	  help variable
	  help mat
	  help list
	  show globals

       INPUT/OUTPUT

       A  leading ``0x'' implies a hexadecimal value, a	leading	``0b'' implies
       a binary	value, and a ``0'' followed by a digit implies an octal	value.
       Complex	numbers	are indicated by a trailing ``i'' such as in ``3+4i''.
       Strings may be delimited	by either a pair of single or  double  quotes.
       By  default, calc prints	values as if they were floating	point numbers.
       One may change the default to print values in a number of modes includ-
       ing fractions, integers and exponentials.

       A number	of stdio-like file I/O operations are provided.	 One may open,
       read, write, seek and close files.  Filenames are subject to `` ''  ex-
       pansion	to home	directories in a way similar to	that of	the Korn or C-
       Shell.

       For example:

	  ~/.calcrc
	  ~chongo/lib/fft_multiply.cal

       For more	information use	the following calc command:

	  help file

       CALC LANGUAGE

       The calc	language is a C-like language.	The language includes commands
       such  as	variable declarations, expressions, tests, labels, loops, file
       operations, function calls.  These commands are very similar  to	 their
       counterparts in C.

       The  language  also include a number of commands	particular to calc it-
       self.  These include commands such as function definition, help,	 read-
       ing  in	resource files,	dump files to a	file, error notification, con-
       figuration control and status.

       For more	information use	the following calc command:

	  help command
	  help statement
	  help expression
	  help operator
	  help config

FILES

       /usr/local/bin/calc
	    calc binary

       /usr/local/libexec/cscript/*
	    calc shell scripts

       /usr/local/lib/*.cal
	    calc standard resource files

       /usr/local/lib/help/*
	    help files

       /usr/local/lib/bindings
	    non-GNU-readline command line editor bindings

       /usr/local/include/calc/*.h
	    include files for C	interface use

       /usr/local/lib/libcalc.a
	    calc binary	link library

       /usr/local/lib/libcustcalc.a
	    custom binary link library

       /usr/local/share/calc/custom/*.cal
	    custom resource files

       /usr/local/share/calc/custhelp/*
	    custom help	files

ENVIRONMENT

       CALCPATH
	    A :-separated list of directories used to search for calc resource
	    filenames that do not begin	with /,	./ or ~.

	    Default    value:	 .:./cal:~/.cal:/usr/local/share/calc:/usr/lo-
	    cal/share/calc/custom

       CALCRC
	    On startup (unless -h or -q	was given on the command  line),  calc
	    searches for files along this :-separated environment variable.

	    Default value: /usr/local/share/calc/startup:~/.calcrc:./.calcinit

       CALCBINDINGS
	    On	startup	 (unless -h or -q was given on the command line, or -m
	    disallows opening files for	reading), calc reads key bindings from
	    the	 filename  specified  by  this	environment variable.  The key
	    binding file is searched for along the $CALCPATH list of  directo-
	    ries.

	    Default value: binding

	    This  variable  is not used	if calc	was compiled with GNU-readline
	    support.  In that case,  the  standard  readline  mechanisms  (see
	    readline(3)) are used.

CREDIT

       The main	chunk of calc was written by David I. Bell.

       The calc	primary	mirror,	calc mailing list and calc bug report process-
       ing is performed	by Landon Curt Noll.

       Landon Curt Noll	maintains the master reference	source,	 performs  re-
       lease control functions as well as other	calc maintenance functions.

       Thanks  for  suggestions	and encouragement from Peter Miller, Neil Jus-
       tusson, and Landon Noll.

       Thanks to Stephen Rothwell for writing the original version  of	hist.c
       which is	used to	do the command line editing.

       Thanks  to  Ernest W. Bowen for supplying many improvements in accuracy
       and generality for some numeric functions.  Much	of this	was  in	 terms
       of  actual  code	which I	gratefully accepted.  Ernest also supplied the
       original	text for many of the help files.

       Portions	of this	program	are derived from an earlier set	of public  do-
       main  arbitrarily precision routines which was posted to	the net	around
       1984.  By now, there is almost no  recognizable	code  left  from  that
       original	source.

COPYING	/ CALC GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

       Calc  is	 open  software,  and  is covered under	version	2.1 of the GNU
       Lesser General Public License.  You are welcome	to  change  it	and/or
       distribute copies of it under certain conditions.  The calc commands:

	    help copyright
	    help copying
	    help copying-lgpl

       should  display	the  contents  of  the COPYING and COPYING-LGPL	files.
       Those files contain information about the  calc's  GNU  Lesser  General
       Public  License,	 and  in particular the	conditions under which you are
       allowed to change it and/or distribute copies of	it.

       You should have received	a copy of the version 2.1 of  the  GNU	Lesser
       General Public License.	If you do not have these files,	write to:

	    Free Software Foundation, Inc.
	    51 Franklin	Street
	    Fifth Floor
	    Boston, MA	02110-1301
	    USA

       Calc is copyrighted in several different	ways.  These ways include:

	    Copyright (C) year	David I. Bell
	    Copyright (C) year	David I. Bell and Landon Curt Noll
	    Copyright (C) year	David I. Bell and Ernest Bowen
	    Copyright (C) year	David I. Bell, Landon Curt Noll	and Ernest Bowen
	    Copyright (C) year	Landon Curt Noll
	    Copyright (C) year	Ernest Bowen and Landon	Curt Noll
	    Copyright (C) year	Ernest Bowen

       This man	page is:

	    Copyright (C) 1999	Landon Curt Noll

       and is covered under version 2.1	GNU Lesser General Public License.

CALC MAILING LIST / CALC UPDATES / ENHANCEMENTS

       To  contribute comments,	suggestions, enhancements and interesting calc
       resource	files, and shell scripts please	join the calc-tester low  vol-
       ume moderated calc mailing list.

       To the calc-tester mailing list,	visit the following URL:

	    https://www.listbox.com/subscribe/?list_id=239342

       To  help	determine you are a human and not just a spam bot, you will be
       required	to provide the following additional information:

	    Your Name

	    Calc Version
	       For example, the	current	version	is: 2.12.7.2

	    Operating System
	       If you don't know your operating	system,	enter: unknown

	    The	date 7 days ago
	       Consult a calendar :-)

       If you need a human to help you with your mailing list subscription, or
       if you have problems with the above procedure, please send EMail	to our
       special address:

	    calc-tester-maillist-help at asthe dot com

	    NOTE: Remove spaces	and replace 'at' with @, 'dot' with .

	    NOTE: Yes, the EMail address uses 'asthe',
		  while	the web	site uses 'isthe'.

       To be sure we see your EMail asking for help  with  your	 mailing  list
       subscription, please use	the following phase in your EMail Subject line
       your subject must contain the words:

	    calc tester	mailing	list help

       You may have additional words in	your subject line.

BUG REPORTS / BUG FIXES

       Send bug	reports	and bug	fixes to:

	    calc-bug-report at asthe dot com

	    NOTE: Remove spaces	and replace 'at' with @, 'dot' with .

	    NOTE: Yes, the EMail address uses 'asthe',
		  while	the web	site uses 'isthe'.

       Your subject must contain the words:

	    calc bug report

       You may have additional words in	your subject line.
	    However, you may find it more helpful to simply subscribe  to  the
	    calc-tester	 mailing list (see above) and then to send your	report
	    to that mailing list as a wider set	calc testers may  be  able  to
	    help you.

	    See	the BUGS source	file or	use the	calc command:

		 help bugs

	    for	more information about bug reporting.

CALC WEB SITE

       Landon Noll maintains the calc web site is located at:

	    www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/calc/

       Share and Enjoy!	:-)

2007-02-06			     ^..^			       calc(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | CREDIT | COPYING / CALC GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE | CALC MAILING LIST / CALC UPDATES / ENHANCEMENTS | BUG REPORTS / BUG FIXES | CALC WEB SITE

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