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CACHECHARS(3)		   Library Functions Manual		 CACHECHARS(3)

       cachechars,  agefont,  loadchar,	Subfont, Fontchar, Font	 - font	utili-

       #include	<u.h>
       #include	<libc.h>
       #include	<draw.h>

       int  cachechars(Font *f,	char **s, Rune **r, ushort *c, int max,

		    int	*widp, char **sfname)

       int  loadchar(Font *f, Rune r, Cacheinfo	*c, int	h,

		    int	noclr, char **sfname)

       void agefont(Font *f)

       A Font may contain too many characters to  hold	in  memory  simultane-
       ously.  The graphics library and	draw device (see draw(3)) cooperate to
       solve this problem by maintaining a cache of  recently  used  character
       images.	The details of this cooperation	need not be known by most pro-
       grams: initdraw and its associated  font	 variable,  openfont,  string-
       width, string, and freefont are sufficient for most purposes.  The rou-
       tines described below are used internally by the	 graphics  library  to
       maintain	the font cache.

       A  Subfont  is  a  set  of images for a contiguous range	of characters,
       stored as a single image	with the characters placed side-by-side	 on  a
       common baseline.	 It is described by the	following data structures.

	      struct Fontchar {
		    int	     x;	       /* left edge of bits */
		    uchar    top;      /* first	non-zero scan-line */
		    uchar    bottom;   /* last non-zero	scan-line */
		    char     left;     /* offset of baseline */
		    uchar    width;    /* width	of baseline */
	      }	Fontchar;

	      struct Subfont {
		    char     *name;
		    short    n;	       /* number of chars in subfont */
		    uchar    height;   /* height of image */
		    char     ascent;   /* top of image to baseline */
		    Fontchar *info;    /* n+1 Fontchars	*/
		    Image    *bits;    /* of font */
	      }	Subfont;

       The  image fills	the rectangle (0, 0, w,	height), where w is the	sum of
       the horizontal extents (of non-zero pixels) for	all  characters.   The
       pixels  to  be  displayed  for  character c are in the rectangle	(i->x,
       i->top, (i+1)->x, i->bottom) where  i  is  &subfont->info[c].   When  a
       character  is displayed at Point	p in an	image, the character rectangle
       is placed at (p.x+i->left, p.y) and the next character of the string is
       displayed  at  (p.x+i->width,  p.y).  The baseline of the characters is
       rows down from the top of the subfont image.  The array	has  n+1  ele-
       ments, one each for characters 0	to n-1 plus an additional entry	so the
       size of the last	character can be calculated.  Thus the	width,	w,  of
       the Image associated with a Subfont s is	s->info[s->n].x.

       A  Font	consists  of  an overall height	and ascent and a collection of
       subfonts	together with the ranges of runes (see utf(7)) they represent.
       Fonts are described by the following structures.

	      struct Cachefont {
		    Rune      min;	/* value of 0th	char in	subfont	*/
		    Rune      max;	/* value+1 of last char	in subfont */
		    int	      offset;	/* posn	in subfont of char at min */
		    char      *name;	/* stored in font */
		    char      *subfontname;/* to access	subfont	*/
	      }	Cachefont;

	      struct Cacheinfo {
		    ushort    x;	/* left	edge of	bits */
		    uchar     width;	/* width of baseline */
		    schar     left;	/* offset of baseline */
		    Rune      value;	/* of char at this slot	in cache */
		    ushort    age;
	      }	Cacheinfo;

	      struct Cachesubf {
		    ulong     age;	/* for replacement */
		    Cachefont *cf;	/* font	info that owns us */
		    Subfont   *f;	/* attached subfont */
	      }	Cachesubf;

	      struct Font {
		    char      *name;
		    Display   *display;
		    short     height;	/* max ht of image;interline space*/
		    short     ascent;	/* top of image	to baseline */
		    short     width;	/* widest so far; used in caching */
		    short     nsub;	/* number of subfonts */
		    ulong     age;	/* increasing counter; for LRU */
		    int	      ncache;	/* size	of cache */
		    int	      nsubf;	/* size	of subfont list	*/
		    Cacheinfo *cache;
		    Cachesubf *subf;
		    Cachefont **sub;	/* as read from	file */
		    Image     *cacheimage;
	      }	Font;

       The and fields of Font are described in graphics(3).  contains pointers
       to Cachefonts.  A Cachefont connects runes through  inclusive,  to  the
       subfont	with file name it corresponds to a line	of the file describing
       the font.

       The characters are taken	from the subfont starting at character	number
       (usually	 zero)	in  the	subfont, permitting selection of parts of sub-
       fonts.  Thus the	image for rune r is found in position r-min+offset  of
       the subfont.

       For  each  font,	 the  library,	with support from the graphics server,
       maintains a cache of subfonts and a cache of  recently  used  character
       images.	 The subf and cache fields are used by the library to maintain
       these caches.  The of a font is the maximum of the  horizontal  extents
       of  the	characters in the cache.  String draws a string	by loading the
       cache and emitting a sequence of	cache  indices	to  draw.   Cachechars
       guarantees the images for the characters	pointed	to by *s or *r (one of
       these must be nil in each call) are in the cache	of f.  It calls	 load-
       char  to	 put missing characters	into the cache.	 Cachechars translates
       the character string into a set of cache	indices	which  it  loads  into
       the  array c, up	to a maximum of	n indices or the length	of the string.
       Cachechars returns in c the number of cache indices emitted, updates *s
       to  point  to the next character	to be processed, and sets *widp	to the
       total width of the characters processed.	 Cachechars may	return	before
       the  end	 of  the string	if it cannot proceed without destroying	active
       data in the caches.  If it needs	to load	a new subfont,	it  will  fill
       *sfname	with  the  name	of the subfont it needs	and return -1.	It can
       return zero if it is unable to make progress because it	cannot	resize
       the caches.

       Loadchar	 loads	a  character  image into the character cache.  Then it
       tells the graphics server to copy the character into position h in  the
       character  cache.   If  the current font	is smaller than	the horizontal
       extent of the character being loaded, loadfont clears the cache and re-
       sets  it	 to  accept  characters	with the bigger	width, unless noclr is
       set, in which case it just returns -1.  If the character	does not exist
       in  the	font  at  all, loadfont	returns	0; if it is unable to load the
       character without destroying cached information,	it returns -1,	updat-
       ing *sfname as described	above.	It returns 1 to	indicate success.

       The  fields  record  when  subfonts and characters have been used.  The
       font is increased every time the	font is	used (agefont does  this).   A
       character or subfont is set to the font age at each use.	 Thus, charac-
       ters or subfonts	with small ages	are the	best candidates	 for  replace-
       ment when the cache is full.


       graphics(3), allocimage(3), draw(3), subfont(3),	image(7), font(7)

       All of the functions use	the graphics error function (see graphics(3)).



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