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CA(1)				    OpenSSL				 CA(1)

       ca - sample minimal CA application

       openssl ca [-verbose] [-config filename]	[-name section]	[-gencrl]
       [-revoke	file] [-crl_reason reason] [-crl_hold instruction] [-crl_com-
       promise time] [-crl_CA_compromise time] [-subj arg] [-crldays days]
       [-crlhours hours] [-crlexts section] [-startdate	date] [-enddate	date]
       [-days arg] [-md	arg] [-policy arg] [-keyfile arg] [-key	arg] [-passin
       arg] [-cert file] [-in file] [-out file]	[-notext] [-outdir dir]	[-in-
       files] [-spkac file] [-ss_cert file] [-preserveDN] [-noemailDN]
       [-batch]	[-msie_hack] [-extensions section] [-extfile section] [-engine

       The ca command is a minimal CA application. It can be used to sign cer-
       tificate	requests in a variety of forms and generate CRLs it also main-
       tains a text database of	issued certificates and	their status.

       The options descriptions	will be	divided	into each purpose.

       -config filename
	   specifies the configuration file to use.

       -name section
	   specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides de-
	   fault_ca in the ca section).

       -in filename
	   an input filename containing	a single certificate request to	be
	   signed by the CA.

       -ss_cert	filename
	   a single self signed	certificate to be signed by the	CA.

       -spkac filename
	   a file containing a single Netscape signed public key and challenge
	   and additional field	values to be signed by the CA. See the SPKAC
	   FORMAT section for information on the required format.

	   if present this should be the last option, all subsequent arguments
	   are assumed to the the names	of files containing certificate	re-

       -out filename
	   the output file to output certificates to. The default is standard
	   output. The certificate details will	also be	printed	out to this

       -outdir directory
	   the directory to output certificates	to. The	certificate will be
	   written to a	filename consisting of the serial number in hex	with
	   ".pem" appended.

	   the CA certificate file.

       -keyfile	filename
	   the private key to sign requests with.

       -key password
	   the password	used to	encrypt	the private key. Since on some systems
	   the command line arguments are visible (e.g.	Unix with the 'ps'
	   utility) this option	should be used with caution.

       -passin arg
	   the key password source. For	more information about the format of
	   arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in	openssl(1).

	   this	prints extra details about the operations being	performed.

	   don't output	the text form of a certificate to the output file.

       -startdate date
	   this	allows the start date to be explicitly set. The	format of the
	   date	is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).

       -enddate	date
	   this	allows the expiry date to be explicitly	set. The format	of the
	   date	is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).

       -days arg
	   the number of days to certify the certificate for.

       -md alg
	   the message digest to use. Possible values include md5, sha1	and
	   mdc2.  This option also applies to CRLs.

       -policy arg
	   this	option defines the CA "policy" to use. This is a section in
	   the configuration file which	decides	which fields should be manda-
	   tory	or match the CA	certificate. Check out the POLICY FORMAT sec-
	   tion	for more information.

	   this	is a legacy option to make ca work with	very old versions of
	   the IE certificate enrollment control "certenr3". It	used Univer-
	   salStrings for almost everything. Since the old control has various
	   security bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer control
	   "Xenroll" does not need this	option.

	   Normally the	DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of
	   the fields in the relevant policy section. When this	option is set
	   the order is	the same as the	request. This is largely for compati-
	   bility with the older IE enrollment control which would only	accept
	   certificates	if their DNs match the order of	the request. This is
	   not needed for Xenroll.

	   The DN of a certificate can contain the EMAIL field if present in
	   the request DN, however it is good policy just having the e-mail
	   set into the	altName	extension of the certificate. When this	option
	   is set the EMAIL field is removed from the certificate' subject and
	   set only in the, eventually present,	extensions. The	email_in_dn
	   keyword can be used in the configuration file to enable this	behav-

	   this	sets the batch mode. In	this mode no questions will be asked
	   and all certificates	will be	certified automatically.

       -extensions section
	   the section of the configuration file containing certificate	exten-
	   sions to be added when a certificate	is issued (defaults to
	   x509_extensions unless the -extfile option is used).	If no exten-
	   sion	section	is present then, a V1 certificate is created. If the
	   extension section is	present	(even if it is empty), then a V3 cer-
	   tificate is created.

       -extfile	file
	   an additional configuration file to read certificate	extensions
	   from	(using the default section unless the -extensions option is
	   also	used).

       -engine id
	   specifying an engine	(by it's unique	id string) will	cause req to
	   attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
	   thus	initialising it	if needed. The engine will then	be set as the
	   default for all available algorithms.

	   this	option generates a CRL based on	information in the index file.

       -crldays	num
	   the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is the days
	   from	now to place in	the CRL	nextUpdate field.

       -crlhours num
	   the number of hours before the next CRL is due.

       -revoke filename
	   a filename containing a certificate to revoke.

       -crl_reason reason
	   revocation reason, where reason is one of: unspecified, keyCompro-
	   mise, CACompromise, affiliationChanged, superseded, cessationOfOp-
	   eration, certificateHold or removeFromCRL. The matching of reason
	   is case insensitive.	Setting	any revocation reason will make	the
	   CRL v2.

	   In practive removeFromCRL is	not particularly useful	because	it is
	   only	used in	delta CRLs which are not currently implemented.

       -crl_hold instruction
	   This	sets the CRL revocation	reason code to certificateHold and the
	   hold	instruction to instruction which must be an OID. Although any
	   OID can be used only	holdInstructionNone (the use of	which is dis-
	   couraged by RFC2459)	holdInstructionCallIssuer or holdInstruction-
	   Reject will normally	be used.

       -crl_compromise time
	   This	sets the revocation reason to keyCompromise and	the compromise
	   time	to time. time should be	in GeneralizedTime format that is

       -crl_CA_compromise time
	   This	is the same as crl_compromise except the revocation reason is
	   set to CACompromise.

       -subj arg
	   supersedes subject name given in the	request.  The arg must be for-
	   matted as /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be
	   escaped by \	(backslash), no	spaces are skipped.

       -crlexts	section
	   the section of the configuration file containing CRL	extensions to
	   include. If no CRL extension	section	is present then	a V1 CRL is
	   created, if the CRL extension section is present (even if it	is
	   empty) then a V2 CRL	is created. The	CRL extensions specified are
	   CRL extensions and not CRL entry extensions.	 It should be noted
	   that	some software (for example Netscape) can't handle V2 CRLs.

       The section of the configuration	file containing	options	for ca is
       found as	follows: If the	-name command line option is used, then	it
       names the section to be used. Otherwise the section to be used must be
       named in	the default_ca option of the ca	section	of the configuration
       file (or	in the default section of the configuration file). Besides de-
       fault_ca, the following options are read	directly from the ca section:
	msie_hack With the exception of	RANDFILE, this is probably a bug and
       may change in future releases.

       Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line
       options.	Where the option is present in the configuration file and the
       command line the	command	line value is used. Where an option is de-
       scribed as mandatory then it must be present in the configuration file
       or the command line equivalent (if any) used.

	   This	specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS.
	   Each	line of	the file should	consist	of the numerical form of the
	   object identifier followed by white space then the short name fol-
	   lowed by white space	and finally the	long name.

	   This	specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra
	   object identifiers. Each line should	consist	of the short name of
	   the object identifier followed by = and the numerical form. The
	   short and long names	are the	same when this option is used.

	   the same as the -outdir command line	option.	It specifies the di-
	   rectory where new certificates will be placed. Mandatory.

	   the same as -cert. It gives the file	containing the CA certificate.

	   same	as the -keyfile	option.	The file containing the	CA private
	   key.	Mandatory.

	   a file used to read and write random	number seed information, or an
	   EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).

	   the same as the -days option. The number of days to certify a cer-
	   tificate for.

	   the same as the -startdate option. The start	date to	certify	a cer-
	   tificate for. If not	set the	current	time is	used.

	   the same as the -enddate option. Either this	option or default_days
	   (or the command line	equivalents) must be present.

       default_crl_hours default_crl_days
	   the same as the -crlhours and the -crldays options. These will only
	   be used if neither command line option is present. At least one of
	   these must be present to generate a CRL.

	   the same as the -md option. The message digest to use. Mandatory.

	   the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must be present
	   though initially it will be empty.

	   a text file containing the next serial number to use	in hex.	Manda-
	   tory.  This file must be present and	contain	a valid	serial number.

	   the same as -extensions.

	   the same as -crlexts.

	   the same as -preserveDN

	   the same as -noemailDN. If you want the EMAIL field to be removed
	   from	the DN of the certificate simply set this to 'no'. If not
	   present the default is to allow for the EMAIL filed in the certifi-
	   cate's DN.

	   the same as -msie_hack

	   the same as -policy.	Mandatory. See the POLICY FORMAT section for
	   more	information.

       nameopt,	certopt
	   these options allow the format used to display the certificate de-
	   tails when asking the user to confirm signing. All the options sup-
	   ported by the x509 utilities	-nameopt and -certopt switches can be
	   used	here, except the no_signame and	no_sigdump are permanently set
	   and cannot be disabled (this	is because the certificate signature
	   cannot be displayed because the certificate has not been signed at
	   this	point).

	   For convenience the values ca_default are accepted by both to pro-
	   duce	a reasonable output.

	   If neither option is	present	the format used	in earlier versions of
	   OpenSSL is used. Use	of the old format is strongly discouraged be-
	   cause it only displays fields mentioned in the policy section, mis-
	   handles multicharacter string types and does	not display exten-

	   determines how extensions in	certificate requests should be han-
	   dled.  If set to none or this option	is not present then extensions
	   are ignored and not copied to the certificate. If set to copy then
	   any extensions present in the request that are not already present
	   are copied to the certificate. If set to copyall then all exten-
	   sions in the	request	are copied to the certificate: if the exten-
	   sion	is already present in the certificate it is deleted first. See
	   the WARNINGS	section	before using this option.

	   The main use	of this	option is to allow a certificate request to
	   supply values for certain extensions	such as	subjectAltName.

       The policy section consists of a	set of variables corresponding to cer-
       tificate	DN fields. If the value	is "match" then	the field value	must
       match the same field in the CA certificate. If the value	is "supplied"
       then it must be present.	If the value is	"optional" then	it may be
       present.	Any fields not mentioned in the	policy section are silently
       deleted,	unless the -preserveDN option is set but this can be regarded
       more of a quirk than intended behaviour.

       The input to the	-spkac command line option is a	Netscape signed	public
       key and challenge. This will usually come from the KEYGEN tag in	an
       HTML form to create a new private key.  It is however possible to cre-
       ate SPKACs using	the spkac utility.

       The file	should contain the variable SPKAC set to the value of the SP-
       KAC and also the	required DN components as name value pairs.  If	you
       need to include the same	component twice	then it	can be preceded	by a
       number and a '.'.

       Note: these examples assume that	the ca directory structure is already
       set up and the relevant files already exist. This usually involves cre-
       ating a CA certificate and private key with req,	a serial number	file
       and an empty index file and placing them	in the relevant	directories.

       To use the sample configuration file below the directories demoCA, de-
       moCA/private and	demoCA/newcerts	would be created. The CA certificate
       would be	copied to demoCA/cacert.pem and	its private key	to demoCA/pri-
       vate/cakey.pem. A file demoCA/serial would be created containing	for
       example "01" and	the empty index	file demoCA/index.txt.

       Sign a certificate request:

	openssl	ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pem

       Sign a certificate request, using CA extensions:

	openssl	ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pem

       Generate	a CRL

	openssl	ca -gencrl -out	crl.pem

       Sign several requests:

	openssl	ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pem

       Certify a Netscape SPKAC:

	openssl	ca -spkac spkac.txt

       A sample	SPKAC file (the	SPKAC line has been truncated for clarity):

	CN=Steve Test
	0.OU=OpenSSL Group
	1.OU=Another Group

       A sample	configuration file with	the relevant sections for ca:

	[ ca ]
	default_ca	= CA_default		# The default ca section

	[ CA_default ]

	dir	       = ./demoCA	       # top dir
	database       = $dir/index.txt	       # index file.
	new_certs_dir  = $dir/newcerts	       # new certs dir

	certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem       # The CA	cert
	serial	       = $dir/serial	       # serial	no file
	private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key
	RANDFILE       = $dir/private/.rand    # random	number file

	default_days   = 365		       # how long to certify for
	default_crl_days= 30		       # how long before next CRL
	default_md     = md5		       # md to use

	policy	       = policy_any	       # default policy
	email_in_dn    = no		       # Don't add the email into cert DN

	nameopt	       = ca_default	       # Subject name display option
	certopt	       = ca_default	       # Certificate display option
	copy_extensions	= none		       # Don't copy extensions from request

	[ policy_any ]
	countryName	       = supplied
	stateOrProvinceName    = optional
	organizationName       = optional
	organizationalUnitName = optional
	commonName	       = supplied
	emailAddress	       = optional

       Note: the location of all files can change either by compile time op-
       tions, configuration file entries, environment variables	or command
       line options.  The values below reflect the default values.

	/usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master	configuration file
	./demoCA		       - main CA directory
	./demoCA/cacert.pem	       - CA certificate
	./demoCA/private/cakey.pem     - CA private key
	./demoCA/serial		       - CA serial number file
	./demoCA/serial.old	       - CA serial number backup file
	./demoCA/index.txt	       - CA text database file
	./demoCA/index.txt.old	       - CA text database backup file
	./demoCA/certs		       - certificate output file
	./demoCA/.rnd		       - CA random seed	information

       OPENSSL_CONF reflects the location of master configuration file it can
       be overridden by	the -config command line option.

       The text	database index file is a critical part of the process and if
       corrupted it can	be difficult to	fix. It	is theoretically possible to
       rebuild the index file from all the issued certificates and a current
       CRL: however there is no	option to do this.

       V2 CRL features like delta CRL support and CRL numbers are not cur-
       rently supported.

       Although	several	requests can be	input and handled at once it is	only
       possible	to include one SPKAC or	self signed certificate.

       The use of an in	memory text database can cause problems	when large
       numbers of certificates are present because, as the name	implies	the
       database	has to be kept in memory.

       It is not possible to certify two certificates with the same DN:	this
       is a side effect	of how the text	database is indexed and	it cannot eas-
       ily be fixed without introducing	other problems.	Some S/MIME clients
       can use two certificates	with the same DN for separate signing and en-
       cryption	keys.

       The ca command really needs rewriting or	the required functionality ex-
       posed at	either a command or interface level so a more friendly utility
       (perl script or GUI) can	handle things properly.	The scripts and help a little but not very	much.

       Any fields in a request that are	not present in a policy	are silently
       deleted.	This does not happen if	the -preserveDN	option is used.	To en-
       force the absence of the	EMAIL field within the DN, as suggested	by
       RFCs, regardless	the contents of	the request' subject the -noemailDN
       option can be used. The behaviour should	be more	friendly and config-

       Cancelling some commands	by refusing to certify a certificate can cre-
       ate an empty file.

       The ca command is quirky	and at times downright unfriendly.

       The ca utility was originally meant as an example of how	to do things
       in a CA.	It was not supposed to be used as a full blown CA itself: nev-
       ertheless some people are using it for this purpose.

       The ca command is effectively a single user command: no locking is done
       on the various files and	attempts to run	more than one ca command on
       the same	database can have unpredictable	results.

       The copy_extensions option should be used with caution. If care is not
       taken then it can be a security risk. For example if a certificate re-
       quest contains a	basicConstraints extension with	CA:TRUE	and the
       copy_extensions value is	set to copyall and the user does not spot this
       when the	certificate is displayed then this will	hand the requestor a
       valid CA	certificate.

       This situation can be avoided by	setting	copy_extensions	to copy	and
       including basicConstraints with CA:FALSE	in the configuration file.
       Then if the request contains a basicConstraints extension it will be

       It is advisable to also include values for other	extensions such	as
       keyUsage	to prevent a request supplying its own values.

       Additional restrictions can be placed on	the CA certificate itself.
       For example if the CA certificate has:

	basicConstraints = CA:TRUE, pathlen:0

       then even if a certificate is issued with CA:TRUE it will not be	valid.

       req(1), spkac(1), x509(1),, config(5)

0.9.7d				  2005-02-25				 CA(1)


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