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CA(1)                               OpenSSL                              CA(1)

       ca - sample minimal CA application

       ooppeennssssll ccaa [--vveerrbboossee] [--ccoonnffiigg ffiilleennaammee] [--nnaammee sseeccttiioonn] [--ggeennccrrll]
       [--rreevvookkee ffiillee] [--ccrrll_rreeaassoonn rreeaassoonn] [--ccrrll_hhoolldd iinnssttrruuccttiioonn] [--ccrrll_ccoomm--
       pprroommiissee ttiimmee] [--ccrrll_CCAA_ccoommpprroommiissee ttiimmee] [--ssuubbjj aarrgg] [--ccrrllddaayyss ddaayyss]
       [--ccrrllhhoouurrss hhoouurrss] [--ccrrlleexxttss sseeccttiioonn] [--ssttaarrttddaattee ddaattee] [--eennddddaattee ddaattee]
       [--ddaayyss aarrgg] [--mmdd aarrgg] [--ppoolliiccyy aarrgg] [--kkeeyyffiillee aarrgg] [--kkeeyy aarrgg] [--ppaassssiinn
       aarrgg] [--cceerrtt ffiillee] [--iinn ffiillee] [--oouutt ffiillee] [--nnootteexxtt] [--oouuttddiirr ddiirr]
       [--iinnffiilleess] [--ssppkkaacc ffiillee] [--ssss_cceerrtt ffiillee] [--pprreesseerrvveeDDNN] [--nnooeemmaaiillDDNN]
       [--bbaattcchh] [--mmssiiee_hhaacckk] [--eexxtteennssiioonnss sseeccttiioonn] [--eexxttffiillee sseeccttiioonn] [--eennggiinnee

       The ccaa command is a minimal CA application. It can be used to sign cer-
       tificate requests in a variety of forms and generate CRLs it also main-
       tains a text database of issued certificates and their status.

       The options descriptions will be divided into each purpose.

       --ccoonnffiigg ffiilleennaammee
           specifies the configuration file to use.

       --nnaammee sseeccttiioonn
           specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides
           ddeeffaauulltt_ccaa in the ccaa section).

       --iinn ffiilleennaammee
           an input filename containing a single certificate request to be
           signed by the CA.

       --ssss_cceerrtt ffiilleennaammee
           a single self signed certificate to be signed by the CA.

       --ssppkkaacc ffiilleennaammee
           a file containing a single Netscape signed public key and challenge
           and additional field values to be signed by the CA. See the SSPPKKAACC
           FFOORRMMAATT section for information on the required format.

           if present this should be the last option, all subsequent arguments
           are assumed to the the names of files containing certificate

       --oouutt ffiilleennaammee
           the output file to output certificates to. The default is standard
           output. The certificate details will also be printed out to this

       --oouuttddiirr ddiirreeccttoorryy
           the directory to output certificates to. The certificate will be
           written to a filename consisting of the serial number in hex with
           ".pem" appended.

           the CA certificate file.

       --kkeeyyffiillee ffiilleennaammee
           the private key to sign requests with.

       --kkeeyy ppaasssswwoorrdd
           the password used to encrypt the private key. Since on some systems
           the command line arguments are visible (e.g. Unix with the 'ps'
           utility) this option should be used with caution.

       --ppaassssiinn aarrgg
           the key password source. For more information about the format of
           aarrgg see the PPAASSSS PPHHRRAASSEE AARRGGUUMMEENNTTSS section in openssl(1).

           this prints extra details about the operations being performed.

           don't output the text form of a certificate to the output file.

       --ssttaarrttddaattee ddaattee
           this allows the start date to be explicitly set. The format of the
           date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).

       --eennddddaattee ddaattee
           this allows the expiry date to be explicitly set. The format of the
           date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the same as an ASN1 UTCTime structure).

       --ddaayyss aarrgg
           the number of days to certify the certificate for.

       --mmdd aallgg
           the message digest to use. Possible values include md5, sha1 and
           mdc2.  This option also applies to CRLs.

       --ppoolliiccyy aarrgg
           this option defines the CA "policy" to use. This is a section in
           the configuration file which decides which fields should be manda-
           tory or match the CA certificate. Check out the PPOOLLIICCYY FFOORRMMAATT sec-
           tion for more information.

           this is a legacy option to make ccaa work with very old versions of
           the IE certificate enrollment control "certenr3". It used Univer-
           salStrings for almost everything. Since the old control has various
           security bugs its use is strongly discouraged. The newer control
           "Xenroll" does not need this option.

           Normally the DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of
           the fields in the relevant policy section. When this option is set
           the order is the same as the request. This is largely for compati-
           bility with the older IE enrollment control which would only accept
           certificates if their DNs match the order of the request. This is
           not needed for Xenroll.

           The DN of a certificate can contain the EMAIL field if present in
           the request DN, however it is good policy just having the e-mail
           set into the altName extension of the certificate. When this option
           is set the EMAIL field is removed from the certificate' subject and
           set only in the, eventually present, extensions. The eemmaaiill_iinn_ddnn
           keyword can be used in the configuration file to enable this behav-

           this sets the batch mode. In this mode no questions will be asked
           and all certificates will be certified automatically.

       --eexxtteennssiioonnss sseeccttiioonn
           the section of the configuration file containing certificate exten-
           sions to be added when a certificate is issued (defaults to
           xx550099_eexxtteennssiioonnss unless the --eexxttffiillee option is used). If no exten-
           sion section is present then, a V1 certificate is created. If the
           extension section is present (even if it is empty), then a V3 cer-
           tificate is created.

       --eexxttffiillee ffiillee
           an additional configuration file to read certificate extensions
           from (using the default section unless the --eexxtteennssiioonnss option is
           also used).

       --eennggiinnee iidd
           specifying an engine (by it's unique iidd string) will cause rreeqq to
           attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
           thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the
           default for all available algorithms.

           this option generates a CRL based on information in the index file.

       --ccrrllddaayyss nnuumm
           the number of days before the next CRL is due. That is the days
           from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.

       --ccrrllhhoouurrss nnuumm
           the number of hours before the next CRL is due.

       --rreevvookkee ffiilleennaammee
           a filename containing a certificate to revoke.

       --ccrrll_rreeaassoonn rreeaassoonn
           revocation reason, where rreeaassoonn is one of: uunnssppeecciiffiieedd, kkeeyyCCoommpprroo--
           mmiissee, CCAACCoommpprroommiissee, aaffffiilliiaattiioonnCChhaannggeedd, ssuuppeerrsseeddeedd, cceessssaattiioonnOOffOOpp--
           eerraattiioonn, cceerrttiiffiiccaatteeHHoolldd or rreemmoovveeFFrroommCCRRLL. The matching of rreeaassoonn
           is case insensitive. Setting any revocation reason will make the
           CRL v2.

           In practive rreemmoovveeFFrroommCCRRLL is not particularly useful because it is
           only used in delta CRLs which are not currently implemented.

       --ccrrll_hhoolldd iinnssttrruuccttiioonn
           This sets the CRL revocation reason code to cceerrttiiffiiccaatteeHHoolldd and the
           hold instruction to iinnssttrruuccttiioonn which must be an OID. Although any
           OID can be used only hhoollddIInnssttrruuccttiioonnNNoonnee (the use of which is dis-
           couraged by RFC2459) hhoollddIInnssttrruuccttiioonnCCaallllIIssssuueerr or hhoollddIInnssttrruuccttiioonn--
           RReejjeecctt will normally be used.

       --ccrrll_ccoommpprroommiissee ttiimmee
           This sets the revocation reason to kkeeyyCCoommpprroommiissee and the compromise
           time to ttiimmee. ttiimmee should be in GeneralizedTime format that is

       --ccrrll_CCAA_ccoommpprroommiissee ttiimmee
           This is the same as ccrrll_ccoommpprroommiissee except the revocation reason is
           set to CCAACCoommpprroommiissee.

       --ssuubbjj aarrgg
           supersedes subject name given in the request.  The arg must be for-
           matted as /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be
           escaped by \ (backslash), no spaces are skipped.

       --ccrrlleexxttss sseeccttiioonn
           the section of the configuration file containing CRL extensions to
           include. If no CRL extension section is present then a V1 CRL is
           created, if the CRL extension section is present (even if it is
           empty) then a V2 CRL is created. The CRL extensions specified are
           CRL extensions and nnoott CRL entry extensions.  It should be noted
           that some software (for example Netscape) can't handle V2 CRLs.

       The section of the configuration file containing options for ccaa is
       found as follows: If the --nnaammee command line option is used, then it
       names the section to be used. Otherwise the section to be used must be
       named in the ddeeffaauulltt_ccaa option of the ccaa section of the configuration
       file (or in the default section of the configuration file). Besides
       ddeeffaauulltt_ccaa, the following options are read directly from the ccaa sec-
        msie_hack With the exception of RRAANNDDFFIILLEE, this is probably a bug and
       may change in future releases.

       Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line
       options. Where the option is present in the configuration file and the
       command line the command line value is used. Where an option is
       described as mandatory then it must be present in the configuration
       file or the command line equivalent (if any) used.

           This specifies a file containing additional OOBBJJEECCTT IIDDEENNTTIIFFIIEERRSS.
           Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the
           object identifier followed by white space then the short name fol-
           lowed by white space and finally the long name.

           This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra
           object identifiers. Each line should consist of the short name of
           the object identifier followed by == and the numerical form. The
           short and long names are the same when this option is used.

           the same as the --oouuttddiirr command line option. It specifies the
           directory where new certificates will be placed. Mandatory.

           the same as --cceerrtt. It gives the file containing the CA certificate.

           same as the --kkeeyyffiillee option. The file containing the CA private
           key. Mandatory.

           a file used to read and write random number seed information, or an
           EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).

           the same as the --ddaayyss option. The number of days to certify a cer-
           tificate for.

           the same as the --ssttaarrttddaattee option. The start date to certify a cer-
           tificate for. If not set the current time is used.

           the same as the --eennddddaattee option. Either this option or ddeeffaauulltt_ddaayyss
           (or the command line equivalents) must be present.

       ddeeffaauulltt_ccrrll_hhoouurrss ddeeffaauulltt_ccrrll_ddaayyss
           the same as the --ccrrllhhoouurrss and the --ccrrllddaayyss options. These will only
           be used if neither command line option is present. At least one of
           these must be present to generate a CRL.

           the same as the --mmdd option. The message digest to use. Mandatory.

           the text database file to use. Mandatory. This file must be present
           though initially it will be empty.

           a text file containing the next serial number to use in hex. Manda-
           tory.  This file must be present and contain a valid serial number.

           the same as --eexxtteennssiioonnss.

           the same as --ccrrlleexxttss.

           the same as --pprreesseerrvveeDDNN

           the same as --nnooeemmaaiillDDNN. If you want the EMAIL field to be removed
           from the DN of the certificate simply set this to 'no'. If not
           present the default is to allow for the EMAIL filed in the certifi-
           cate's DN.

           the same as --mmssiiee_hhaacckk

           the same as --ppoolliiccyy. Mandatory. See the PPOOLLIICCYY FFOORRMMAATT section for
           more information.

       nnaammeeoopptt, cceerrttoopptt
           these options allow the format used to display the certificate
           details when asking the user to confirm signing. All the options
           supported by the xx550099 utilities --nnaammeeoopptt and --cceerrttoopptt switches can
           be used here, except the nnoo_ssiiggnnaammee and nnoo_ssiiggdduummpp are permanently
           set and cannot be disabled (this is because the certificate signa-
           ture cannot be displayed because the certificate has not been
           signed at this point).

           For convenience the values ddeeffaauulltt_ccaa are accepted by both to pro-
           duce a reasonable output.

           If neither option is present the format used in earlier versions of
           OpenSSL is used. Use of the old format is ssttrroonnggllyy discouraged
           because it only displays fields mentioned in the ppoolliiccyy section,
           mishandles multicharacter string types and does not display exten-

           determines how extensions in certificate requests should be han-
           dled.  If set to nnoonnee or this option is not present then extensions
           are ignored and not copied to the certificate. If set to ccooppyy then
           any extensions present in the request that are not already present
           are copied to the certificate. If set to ccooppyyaallll then all exten-
           sions in the request are copied to the certificate: if the exten-
           sion is already present in the certificate it is deleted first. See
           the WWAARRNNIINNGGSS section before using this option.

           The main use of this option is to allow a certificate request to
           supply values for certain extensions such as subjectAltName.

       The policy section consists of a set of variables corresponding to cer-
       tificate DN fields. If the value is "match" then the field value must
       match the same field in the CA certificate. If the value is "supplied"
       then it must be present. If the value is "optional" then it may be
       present. Any fields not mentioned in the policy section are silently
       deleted, unless the --pprreesseerrvveeDDNN option is set but this can be regarded
       more of a quirk than intended behaviour.

       The input to the --ssppkkaacc command line option is a Netscape signed public
       key and challenge. This will usually come from the KKEEYYGGEENN tag in an
       HTML form to create a new private key.  It is however possible to cre-
       ate SPKACs using the ssppkkaacc utility.

       The file should contain the variable SPKAC set to the value of the
       SPKAC and also the required DN components as name value pairs.  If you
       need to include the same component twice then it can be preceded by a
       number and a '.'.

       Note: these examples assume that the ccaa directory structure is already
       set up and the relevant files already exist. This usually involves cre-
       ating a CA certificate and private key with rreeqq, a serial number file
       and an empty index file and placing them in the relevant directories.

       To use the sample configuration file below the directories demoCA,
       demoCA/private and demoCA/newcerts would be created. The CA certificate
       would be copied to demoCA/cacert.pem and its private key to demoCA/pri-
       vate/cakey.pem. A file demoCA/serial would be created containing for
       example "01" and the empty index file demoCA/index.txt.

       Sign a certificate request:

        openssl ca -in req.pem -out newcert.pem

       Sign a certificate request, using CA extensions:

        openssl ca -in req.pem -extensions v3_ca -out newcert.pem

       Generate a CRL

        openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pem

       Sign several requests:

        openssl ca -infiles req1.pem req2.pem req3.pem

       Certify a Netscape SPKAC:

        openssl ca -spkac spkac.txt

       A sample SPKAC file (the SPKAC line has been truncated for clarity):

        CN=Steve Test
        0.OU=OpenSSL Group
        1.OU=Another Group

       A sample configuration file with the relevant sections for ccaa:

        [ ca ]
        default_ca      = CA_default            # The default ca section

        [ CA_default ]

        dir            = ./demoCA              # top dir
        database       = $dir/index.txt        # index file.
        new_certs_dir  = $dir/newcerts         # new certs dir

        certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem       # The CA cert
        serial         = $dir/serial           # serial no file
        private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# CA private key
        RANDFILE       = $dir/private/.rand    # random number file

        default_days   = 365                   # how long to certify for
        default_crl_days= 30                   # how long before next CRL
        default_md     = md5                   # md to use

        policy         = policy_any            # default policy
        email_in_dn    = no                    # Don't add the email into cert DN

        nameopt        = default_ca            # Subject name display option
        certopt        = default_ca            # Certificate display option
        copy_extensions = none                 # Don't copy extensions from request

        [ policy_any ]
        countryName            = supplied
        stateOrProvinceName    = optional
        organizationName       = optional
        organizationalUnitName = optional
        commonName             = supplied
        emailAddress           = optional

       Note: the location of all files can change either by compile time
       options, configuration file entries, environment variables or command
       line options.  The values below reflect the default values.

        /usr/local/ssl/lib/openssl.cnf - master configuration file
        ./demoCA                       - main CA directory
        ./demoCA/cacert.pem            - CA certificate
        ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem     - CA private key
        ./demoCA/serial                - CA serial number file
        ./demoCA/serial.old            - CA serial number backup file
        ./demoCA/index.txt             - CA text database file
        ./demoCA/index.txt.old         - CA text database backup file
        ./demoCA/certs                 - certificate output file
        ./demoCA/.rnd                  - CA random seed information

       OOPPEENNSSSSLL_CCOONNFF reflects the location of master configuration file it can
       be overridden by the --ccoonnffiigg command line option.

       The text database index file is a critical part of the process and if
       corrupted it can be difficult to fix. It is theoretically possible to
       rebuild the index file from all the issued certificates and a current
       CRL: however there is no option to do this.

       V2 CRL features like delta CRL support and CRL numbers are not cur-
       rently supported.

       Although several requests can be input and handled at once it is only
       possible to include one SPKAC or self signed certificate.

       The use of an in memory text database can cause problems when large
       numbers of certificates are present because, as the name implies the
       database has to be kept in memory.

       It is not possible to certify two certificates with the same DN: this
       is a side effect of how the text database is indexed and it cannot eas-
       ily be fixed without introducing other problems. Some S/MIME clients
       can use two certificates with the same DN for separate signing and
       encryption keys.

       The ccaa command really needs rewriting or the required functionality
       exposed at either a command or interface level so a more friendly util-
       ity (perl script or GUI) can handle things properly. The scripts CCAA..sshh
       and CCAA..ppll help a little but not very much.

       Any fields in a request that are not present in a policy are silently
       deleted. This does not happen if the --pprreesseerrvveeDDNN option is used. To
       enforce the absence of the EMAIL field within the DN, as suggested by
       RFCs, regardless the contents of the request' subject the --nnooeemmaaiillDDNN
       option can be used. The behaviour should be more friendly and config-

       Cancelling some commands by refusing to certify a certificate can cre-
       ate an empty file.

       The ccaa command is quirky and at times downright unfriendly.

       The ccaa utility was originally meant as an example of how to do things
       in a CA. It was not supposed to be used as a full blown CA itself: nev-
       ertheless some people are using it for this purpose.

       The ccaa command is effectively a single user command: no locking is done
       on the various files and attempts to run more than one ccaa command on
       the same database can have unpredictable results.

       The ccooppyy_eexxtteennssiioonnss option should be used with caution. If care is not
       taken then it can be a security risk. For example if a certificate
       request contains a basicConstraints extension with CA:TRUE and the
       ccooppyy_eexxtteennssiioonnss value is set to ccooppyyaallll and the user does not spot this
       when the certificate is displayed then this will hand the requestor a
       valid CA certificate.

       This situation can be avoided by setting ccooppyy_eexxtteennssiioonnss to ccooppyy and
       including basicConstraints with CA:FALSE in the configuration file.
       Then if the request contains a basicConstraints extension it will be

       It is advisable to also include values for other extensions such as
       kkeeyyUUssaaggee to prevent a request supplying its own values.

       Additional restrictions can be placed on the CA certificate itself.
       For example if the CA certificate has:

        basicConstraints = CA:TRUE, pathlen:0

       then even if a certificate is issued with CA:TRUE it will not be valid.

       req(1), spkac(1), x509(1),, config(5)

3rd Berkeley Distribution           0.9.7a                               CA(1)

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