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BVI(1)				 User Commands				BVI(1)

       bvi, bview - visual editor for binary files


       bbvvii   [--RR] [--cc cmd] [--ff script] [--ss skip] [--ee end] [--nn length] file...
       bbvviieeww [--RR] [--cc cmd] [--ff script] [--ss skip] [--ee end] [--nn length] file...

	   A  list  of	filenames.  The	first one will be the current file and
	   will	be read	into  the  buffer.  The	 cursor	 will  be  positioned
	   on the first	line of	the buffer.  You can get to the	other files
	   with	the ":next" command.

       --RR  "Readonly": The readonly flag is set	for all	the files, preventing
	   accidental overwriting with a write command.

       --ss skip
	   causes bvi to load a	file not from the start	but from offset	skip.
	   Skip	offset bytes from the beginning	of the input.  By default,
	   offset is interpreted as a decimal number.  With a leading 0x or
	   0X, offset is interpreted as	a hexadecimal number, otherwise, with
	   a leading 0,	offset is interpreted as an octal number.  Appending
	   the character b, k, or m to offset causes it	to be interpreted as a
	   multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.

       --ee end
	   causes bvi to load a	file not till end but till address end.

       --nn length
	   causes bvi not to load the complete file but	only length bytes.

       --cc cmd
	   cmd will be	executed  after	 the  first file  has been read. If
	   the	cmd  contains spaces  it  must	be enclosed in double quotes
	   (this depends on  the  shell	 that  is  used).

       --ff script
	   This	command	provides a means for collecting	a series of "ex"
	   (colon) commands into a script file,	then using this	file to	edit
	   other files.	Since there is no binary stream	editor "bsed", you can
	   use this option to make several global changes in a binary file.

       Bvi stands for "Binary VIsual editor".  Bvi is a	screen oriented	editor
       for binary files; its command set is based on that of the vi(1) text
       editor.	As a binary editor does	not have the concept of	"lines"	there
       are differences from Vi commands	wherever the latter are	line

       The main	differences between Vi and Bvi are:

       The screen is divided in	three sections or panes: The byte offset
       (extreme	left), the hex pane (middle), and an ascii pane	(right)	which
       shows as	printable characters those bytes in the	hex pane.  On an 80
       column terminal there will be sixteen hex values	and their ASCII	values
       on each screen line.  Note that (as one would expect) the first byte
       has the offset '0' (zero).

       You can toggle between the hex and ascii	windows	with the tab key
       (TAB).  Toggling	between	these two windows does not change the current
       position	(offset) within	the file.

       No "lines" concept: Files are treated as	one long stream	of bytes.  The
       characters "newline" and	"carriage return" are not special, id est they
       never mark the end of lines.  Therefore the lines on the	screen do not
       represent lines in the usual way.  Data is broken across	screen lines
       arbitarily.  As a consequence there are no commands in bvi from ex or
       vi that are based on line numbers, eg "dd", "yy", 'C', 'S', 'o',	'O'.
       This also changes the meaning of	"range"	before the ":write" command to
       a byte offset, ie the command ":100,200w	foo" writes all	*bytes*	(not
       lines) from offset 100 to offset	200 to the file	"foo".

       No "text	objects": There	are also no text-specific arrangements like
       words, paragraphs, sentences, sections and so on.

       Extended	"ruler": The bottom line of the	screen shows the current
       address (byte offset) and the current character in these	notations:

	       octal, hexadecimal, decimal and ascii.

       Search patterns:	All search commands understand these special

	    .	 any character
	    []	 set of	characters
	    *	 zero or more occurrences of previous char or set

       But as there is no concept of lines you cannot use the standard symbols
       ("anchors") for "begin-of-line" ('^') and "end-of-line" ('$').
       Searching for the start/end of lines must be done explicitly by adding
       these special characters	to your	search pattern using these meta

	       \n   newline
	       \r   return
	       \t   tab
	       \0   binary zero

       Additional search commands: Similar to the text search commands there
       are additional hex-search functions '\' and '#' which allow to search
       for any byte value.  Example:  "\62 76 69" will search for the string
       "bvi".  Spaces between hex value	are optional, so searching for
       "6775636B6573" will find	"guckes".

       Changing	the length of data (insertion, deletion) moves the data	to
       other addresses;	this is	bad for	many cases (eg.	databases, program
       files) and is thus disabled by default. You can enable this commands by

	    :set memmove

       BBVVII MMooddeess::

       Command Mode (Normal Mode):

       Input is	treated	as command.  Note that command mode is the default
       mode after startup and after escaping from input	mode.  Use ESC
       (escape)	to cancel a partial (uncompleted) command.

       Input Mode:

       Input is	treated	as replacement of current characters or	(after the end
       of the file) is appended	to the current file.  This mode	is entered
       from command mode by typing one of 'i', 'I', 'A', 'r', or 'R'.  You can
       enter the characters from the keyboard (in the ASCII window) or
       hexadecimal values (in the HEX window).	Type TAB to switch between
       these two windows.  Type	ESC to finish the current input	and return to
       command mode.  Type CTRL-C to cancel current command abnormally.

       Command line mode (Last Line Mode or : mode):

       Similar to vi, this mode	is entered by typing one of the	characters : /
       ? \ # !	The command is terminated and executed by typing a carriage
       return; to cancel a partially typed command, type ESC to	cancel the
       current command and return to command mode.

       The editor recognizes the environment variable BVIINIT as  a command
       (or  list of commands) to run when it starts up.	If this	variable is
       undefined, the editor  checks  for  startup commands  in	 the  file
       ~/.bvirc	 file, which you must own.  However, if	there is a .bvirc
       owned by	you  in	 the  current directory,  the  editor takes its
       startup commands	from this file - overriding both the file in your home
       directory  and the environment variable.

       Characters names	are abbreviated	as follows:
	    Abbr.     ASCII	name	  aka
	    CR	      010	carriage return
	    ^A	      001	control-a
	    ^H	      008	control-h
	    ^I	      009	control-i      aka TAB
	    ^U	      021	control-u
	    ^Z	      026	control-z
	    ESC	      027	escape	       aka ESC
	    DEL	      127	delete
	    LEFT      ---	left  arrow
	    RIGHT     ---	right arrow
	    DOWN      ---	down  arrow
	    UP	      ---	up    arrow

       See the TERMINOLOGY for a summary on key	name abbreviations used	within
       the following description of commands.

	 Arrow keys move the cursor on the screen within the current window.

       SSaammppllee ccoommmmaannddss::
	 :version    show version info
	 <- v ^	->   arrow keys	move the cursor
	 h j k l     same as arrow keys
	 u	     undo previous change
	 ZZ	     exit bvi, saving changes
	 :q!	     quit, discarding changes
	 /text	     search for	text
	 ^U ^D	     scroll up or down

       CCoouunnttss bbeeffoorree bbvvii ccoommmmaannddss::
	 Numbers may be	typed as a prefix to some commands.
	 They are interpreted in one of	these ways.

	 screen	column	     |
	 byte of file	     G
	 scroll	amount	     ^D	 ^U
	 repeat	effect	     most of the rest

       IInntteerrrruuppttiinngg,, ccaanncceelliinngg
	 ESC	     end insert	or incomplete command
	 DEL	     (delete or	rubout)	interrupts

       FFiillee mmaanniippuullaattiioonn::
	 ZZ	     if	file modified, write and exit;
		     otherwise,	exit
	 :w	     write changed buffer to file
	 :w!	     write changed buffer to file, overriding
		     read-only ("forced" write)
	 :q	     quit when no changes have been made
	 :q!	     quit and discard all changes
	 :e file     edit file
	 :e!	     re-read current file, discard all changes
	 :e #	     edit the alternate	file
	 :e! #	     edit the alternate	file, discard changes
	 :w  file    write current buffer to file
	 :w! file    write current buffer to file overriding
		     read-only (this "overwrites" the file)
	 :sh	     run the command as	set with option	"shell",
		     then return
	 :!cmd	     run the command cmd from "shell", then
	 :n	     edit next file in the argument list
	 :f	     show current filename, modified flag,
		     current byte offset, and percentage of
		     current position within buffer
	 ^G	     same as :f

       AAddddiittiioonnaall eeddiitt ccoommmmaannddss
	 You can insert/append/change bytes in ASCII/binary/decimal/
       hexadecimal or octal representation. You	can enter several (screen)
       lines of	input. A line with only	a period (.) in	it will	terminate the
       command.	You must not type in values greater than a byte	value. This
       causes an abandonment of	the command.  Pressing the CR key does not
       insert a	newline	- character into the file. If you use ASCII mode you
       can use the special characters \n, \r, \t and \0.

	 :i aCR	     insert bytes (ASCII) at cursor position
	 :a bCR	     append bytes (Binary) at end of file
	 :c hCR	     change bytes (hexadecimal)	at cursor position

       BBiitt--lleevveell ooppeerraattiioonnss
	 :and n	     bitwise 'and' operation with value	n
	 :or  n	     bitwise 'or' operation with value n
	 :xor n	     bitwise 'xor' operation with value	n
	 :neg	     two's   complement
	 :not	     logical negation
	 :sl i	     shift  each byte i	bits to	the left
	 :sr i	     shift  each byte i	bits to	the right
	 :rl i	     rotate each byte i	bits to	the left
	 :rr i	     rotate each byte i	bits to	the right

       CCoommmmaanndd mmooddee aaddddrreesssseess
	 :w foo		write current buffer to	a file
			named "foo"
	 :5,10w	foo	copy byte 5 through 100	into as
			file named foo
	 :.,.+20w foo	copy the current byte and the next
			20 bytes to foo
	 :^,'aw	foo	write all bytes	from the beginning
			through	marker 'a'
	 :/pat/,$ foo	search pattern pat and and copy
			through	end of file

       PPoossiittiioonniinngg wwiitthhiinn ffiillee::
	 ^B	 backward screen
	 ^F	 forward  screen
	 ^D	 scroll	down half screen
	 ^U	 scroll	up   half screen
	 nG	 go to the specified character
		 (end default),	where n	is a decimal address
	 /pat	 next line matching pat
	 ?pat	 previous line matching	pat
	 \hex	 jump to next	  occurrence of	hex string hex
	 #hex	 jump to previous occurrence of	hex string hex
	 n	 repeat	last search command
	 N	 repeat	last search command, but in opposite

       AAddjjuussttiinngg tthhee ssccrreeeenn::
	 ^L	 clear and redraw screen
	 zCR	 redraw	screen with current line at top	of screen
	 z-	 redraw	screen with current line at bottom of
	 z.	 redraw	screen with current line at center of
	 /pat/z- search	for pattern pat	and then move currents
		 line to bottom
	 ^E	 scroll	screen down 1 line
	 ^Y	 scroll	screen up   1 line

       MMaarrkkiinngg aanndd rreettuurrnniinngg::
	 mx	 mark current position with lower-case letter x
		 Note: this command works for all lower-case letters
	 'x	 move cursor to	mark x in ASCII	section
	 `x	 move cursor to	mark x in HEX section
	 ''	 move cursor to	previous context in ASCII section
	 ``	 move cursor to	previous context in HEX	section

       LLiinnee ppoossiittiioonniinngg::
	 H	     jump to first	line on	screen ("top")
	 L	     jump to last	line on	screen ("low")
	 M	     jump to middle	line on	screen ("middle")
	 -	     jump onto previous	line on	screen
	 +	     jump onto next	line on	screen
	 CR	     same as +
	 DOWN or j   next     line, same column
	 UP   or k   previous line, same column

       CChhaarraacctteerr ppoossiittiioonniinngg::
	 ^	     first byte	in HEX window
	 $	     end of screen line
	 l or RIGHT  jump onto next byte (within current
		     screen line)
	 h or LEFT   jump onto previous	byte (within current
		     screen line)
	 ^H	     same as LEFT
	 space	     same as RIGHT
	 fx	     find next	   occurrence of character x
	 Fx	     find previous occurrence of character x
	 n|	     jump onto nth byte/character within current

	 (works	similar	to the strings(1) command)
	 Note:	"Words"	are defined as strings of "nonprinting
	 e	 jump to next	  end	of word
	 w	 jump to next	  begin	of word
	 b	 jump to previous begin	of word
	 W	 forward to next string	delimited with a
		 \0 or \n
	 B	 back to previous string delimited with	a
		 nonprinting char

       CCoorrrreeccttiioonnss dduurriinngg iinnsseerrtt::
	 ^H	 erase last character (backspace)
	 erase	 your erase character, same as ^H (backspace)
	 ESC	 ends insertion, back to command mode

       AAppppeenndd aanndd rreeppllaaccee::
	 A	 append	at end of file
	 rx	 replace current bte with char 'x'
	 R	 enter replace mode; for all subsequent	input,
		 the current byte is overwritten with the next
       input character;	leave replace mode with	ESC.

       MMiisscceellllaanneeoouuss OOppeerraattiioonnss::
	 TAB	 toggle	between	ASCII and HEX section

       YYaannkk aanndd	PPuutt::
	 3ySPACE yank 3	characters
	 p	 insert	contents of yank buffer
	 o	 replace text with content of yank buffer
	 P	 put back at end of file

       UUnnddoo,, RReeddoo::
	 u	 undo last change
		 Note:	Only the last change can be undone.
		 Therefore this	commands toggles between the
		 last and second-t-last	state of the buffer.

       SSeettttiinngg OOppttiioonnss::
	 With the :set command you can set options in bvi

	 Option	    Default  Description

	 autowrite  noaw     Save current file,	if modified, if	you
			     give a :n,	:r or !	command
	 columns    cm=16    on	an 80 character	wide terminal
	 ignorecase noic     Ignores letter case in searching
	 magic	    nomagic  Makes . [ * special in patterns
	 memmove    nomm     enables insert and	delete commands
	 offset	    of=0     adds an offset to the diplayed addresses
	 readonly   noro     If	set, write fails unless	you use	! after	command
	 scroll	    sc=1/2 window
			     Number of lines scrolled by ^U and	^D
	 showmode   mo	     Displays statusline on bottom of the screen
	 terse	    noterse  Let you obtain shorter error messages
	 window	    window=screensize
			     Lines in window, can be reduced at	slow terminals
	 wordlength wl=4     Length of an ASCII-string found by	w, W, b	or B
	 wrapscan   ws	     Searches wrap around past the end of the file
	 unixstyle  nous     The representation	of ascii characters below
			     32	is displayed in	the statusline as shown
			     in	ascii(7) if unset rather in DOS-style (^A)

       bvi was developed by Gerhard Buergmann, Vienna, Austria

       Bvi Homepage:
       Vi Pages:
		      (all about Vi and	its clones)

	$HOME/.bvirc	      editor startup file
	./.bvirc	      editor startup file

       Bvi does	not update the screen when the terminal	changes	its size.

       vi(1), strings(1), ascii(5)

3rd Berkeley Distribution      BVI Version 1.4.0			BVI(1)

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