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BUSYBOX(1)			    busybox			    BUSYBOX(1)

       BusyBox - The Swiss Army	Knife of Embedded Linux

	busybox	<applet> [arguments...]	 # or

	<applet> [arguments...]		 # if symlinked

       BusyBox combines	tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable.	It provides minimalist replacements for	most
       of the utilities	you usually find in GNU	coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in	BusyBox	generally have fewer options than their	full-
       featured	GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU

       BusyBox has been	written	with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.	 It is also extremely modular so you can easily	include	or
       exclude commands	(or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems.	To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.	BusyBox	provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This	allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or
       'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run	'make' to compile BusyBox using	your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to
       install BusyBox.	This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the
       target directory	specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set
       when configuring	BusyBox, or you	can specify an alternative location at
       install time (i.e., with	a command line like 'make
       CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you	enabled	any applet
       installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also
       be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.	A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there	is just	a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like	a large	number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since	all the	built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets)	can share code for many	common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a	command	as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

	       /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox'	into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using	links to the BusyBox binary.

       For example, entering

	       ln -s /bin/busybox ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if	the 'ls' command has been
       compiled	into BusyBox).	Generally speaking, you	should never need to
       make all	these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this
       for you when you	run the	'make install' command.

       If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments,	it will	provide	you with a
       list of the applets that	have been compiled into	your BusyBox binary.

       Most BusyBox applets support the	--help argument	to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the
       CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed
       usage information will also be available.

       Currently available applets include:

	       [, [[, addgroup,	ar, ash, awk, basename,	bunzip2, bzcat,	bzip2, cal,
	       cat, catv, chattr, chgrp, chmod,	chown, chroot, chrt, cksum, clear,
	       cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crontab, cut, dc, dd, delgroup, diff, dirname,
	       dnsd, dnsdomainname, dos2unix, du, echo,	ed, egrep, env,	expand,
	       expr, fakeidentd, false,	fatattr, fgrep,	find, flock, fold, fsync,
	       ftpd, ftpget, ftpput, getopt, grep, groups, gunzip, gzip, hd, head,
	       hexdump,	hostid,	hostname, httpd, id, install, iostat, ipcalc, kill,
	       killall,	killall5, less,	ln, logger, logname, logread, lpq, lpr,	ls,
	       lsof, lspci, lsusb, lzcat, lzma,	lzop, lzopcat, md5sum, microcom,
	       mkdir, mkfifo, mktemp, more, mpstat, mv,	nc, nice, nohup, od, patch,
	       pgrep, pipe_progress, pkill, pmap, powertop, printenv, printf, ps,
	       pscan, pstree, pwd, pwdx, readlink, readprofile,	realpath, renice,
	       reset, resize, rev, rm, rmdir, rpm, rpm2cpio, run-parts,
	       scriptreplay, sed, seq, setsid, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha3sum,
	       sha512sum, shuf,	sleep, smemcap,	sort, split, strings, sum, sync,
	       sysctl, syslogd,	tail, tar, tee,	telnet,	telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd,
	       timeout,	touch, tr, true, truncate, tty,	ttysize, uname,	uncompress,
	       unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlink, unlzma, unlzop, unxz, unzip,
	       usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vi, volname,	watch, wc, wget, which,
	       whoami, xargs, xz, xzcat, yes, zcat

	   addgroup [-g	GID] [-S] [USER] GROUP

	   Add a group or add a	user to	a group

		   -g GID  Group id
		   -S	   Create a system group

       ar  ar [-o] [-v]	[-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

	   Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

		   -o	   Preserve original dates
		   -p	   Extract to stdout
		   -t	   List
		   -x	   Extract
		   -v	   Verbose

       ash ash [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE

	   Unix	shell interpreter

       awk awk [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...

		   -v VAR=VAL	   Set variable
		   -F SEP	   Use SEP as field separator
		   -f FILE	   Read	program	from FILE

	   basename FILE [SUFFIX]

	   Strip directory path	and .SUFFIX from FILE

	   bunzip2 [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILEs (or	stdin)

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

	   bzcat [FILE]...

	   Decompress to stdout

	   bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Compress FILEs (or stdin) with bzip2	algorithm

		   -1..9   Compression level
		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       cal cal [-jy] [[MONTH] YEAR]

	   Display a calendar

		   -j	   Use julian dates
		   -y	   Display the entire year

       cat cat [FILE]...

	   Concatenate FILEs and print them to stdout

	   catv	[-etv] [FILE]...

	   Display nonprinting characters as ^x	or M-x

		   -e	   End each line with $
		   -t	   Show	tabs as	^I
		   -v	   Don't use ^x	or M-x escapes

	   chattr [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v VERSION] [FILE]...

	   Change file attributes on an	ext2 fs

	   Modifiers:n	    -	 Remove	attributes	+    Add attributes
		=    Set attributes Attributes:n      A	   Don't track atime
		a    Append mode only	   c	Enable compress
		D    Write dir contents	synchronously	   d	Don't backup
	   with	dump	  i    Cannot be modified (immutable)	   j	Write
	   all data to journal first	  s    Zero disk storage when deleted
		S    Write file	contents synchronously	    t	 Disable tail-
	   merging of partial blocks with other	files	   u	Allow file to
	   be undeleted	     -R	  Recurse      -v   Set	the file's
	   version/generation number

	   chgrp [-RhLHP]... GROUP FILE...

	   Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

		   -R	   Recurse
		   -h	   Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
		   -L	   Traverse all	symlinks to directories
		   -H	   Traverse symlinks on	command	line only
		   -P	   Don't traverse symlinks (default)

	   chmod [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

	   Each	MODE is	one or more of the letters ugoa, one of	the symbols
	   +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst

		   -R	   Recurse

	   chown [-Rh]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

	   Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

		   -R	   Recurse
		   -h	   Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets

	   chroot NEWROOT [PROG	ARGS]

	   Run PROG with root directory	set to NEWROOT

	   chrt	[-prfom] [PRIO]	[PID | PROG ARGS]

	   Change scheduling priority and class	for a process

		   -p	   Operate on PID
		   -r	   Set SCHED_RR	class
		   -f	   Set SCHED_FIFO class
		   -o	   Set SCHED_OTHER class
		   -m	   Show	min/max	priorities

	   cksum FILES...

	   Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES


	   Clear screen

       cmp cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2]

	   Compare FILE1 with FILE2 (or	stdin)

		   -l	   Write the byte numbers (decimal) and	values (octal)
			   for all differing bytes
		   -s	   Quiet

	   comm	[-123] FILE1 FILE2

	   Compare FILE1 with FILE2

		   -1	   Suppress lines unique to FILE1
		   -2	   Suppress lines unique to FILE2
		   -3	   Suppress lines common to both files

       cp  cp [OPTIONS]	SOURCE... DEST

	   Copy	SOURCE(s) to DEST

		   -a	   Same	as -dpR
		   -R,-r   Recurse
		   -d,-P   Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
		   -L	   Follow all symlinks
		   -H	   Follow symlinks on command line
		   -p	   Preserve file attributes if possible
		   -f	   Overwrite
		   -i	   Prompt before overwrite
		   -l,-s   Create (sym)links

	   cpio	[-dmvu]	[-F FILE] [-ti]	[EXTR_FILE]...

	   Extract or list files from a	cpio archive

	   Main	operation mode:n      -t   List	     -i	  Extract EXTR_FILEs
	   (or all) Options:n	   -d	Make leading directories
		-m   Preserve mtime	 -v   Verbose	   -u	Overwrite
		-F FILE	   Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file

	   crontab [-c DIR] [-u	USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

		   -c	   Crontab directory
		   -u	   User
		   -l	   List	crontab
		   -e	   Edit	crontab
		   -r	   Delete crontab
		   FILE	   Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

       cut cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print selected fields from each input FILE to stdout

		   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
		   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
		   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field	delimiter
		   -s	   Output only the lines containing delimiter
		   -f N	   Print only these fields
		   -n	   Ignored

       dc  dc EXPRESSION...

	   Tiny	RPN calculator.	Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %,
	   mod,	**, exp, and, or, not, xor, p -	print top of the stack
	   (without popping), f	- print	entire stack, o	- pop the value	and
	   set output radix (must be 10, 16, 8 or 2).  Examples: 'dc 2 2 add
	   p' -> 4, 'dc	8 8 mul	2 2 + /	p' -> 16

       dd  dd [if=FILE]	[of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]
		[seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]

	   Copy	a file with converting and formatting

		   if=FILE	   Read	from FILE instead of stdin
		   of=FILE	   Write to FILE instead of stdout
		   bs=N		   Read	and write N bytes at a time
		   ibs=N	   Read	N bytes	at a time
		   obs=N	   Write N bytes at a time
		   count=N	   Copy	only N input blocks
		   skip=N	   Skip	N input	blocks
		   seek=N	   Skip	N output blocks
		   conv=notrunc	   Don't truncate output file
		   conv=noerror	   Continue after read errors
		   conv=sync	   Pad blocks with zeros
		   conv=fsync	   Physically write data out before finishing
		   conv=swab	   Swap	every pair of bytes
		   status=noxfer   Suppress rate output
		   status=none	   Suppress all	output

	   N may be suffixed by	c (1), w (2), b	(512), kB (1000), k (1024),
	   MB, M, GB, G

	   delgroup [USER] GROUP

	   Delete group	GROUP from the system or user USER from	group GROUP

	   diff	[-abBdiNqrTstw]	[-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES]	FILE1 FILE2

	   Compare files line by line and output the differences between them.
	   This	implementation supports	unified	diffs only.

		   -a	   Treat all files as text
		   -b	   Ignore changes in the amount	of whitespace
		   -B	   Ignore changes whose	lines are all blank
		   -d	   Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
		   -i	   Ignore case differences
		   -L	   Use LABEL instead of	the filename in	the unified header
		   -N	   Treat absent	files as empty
		   -q	   Output only whether files differ
		   -r	   Recurse
		   -S	   Start with FILE when	comparing directories
		   -T	   Make	tabs line up by	prefixing a tab	when necessary
		   -s	   Report when two files are the same
		   -t	   Expand tabs to spaces in output
		   -U	   Output LINES	lines of context
		   -w	   Ignore all whitespace

	   dirname FILENAME

	   Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

	   dnsd	[-dvs] [-c CONFFILE] [-t TTL_SEC] [-p PORT] [-i	ADDR]

	   Small static	DNS server daemon

		   -c FILE Config file
		   -t SEC  TTL
		   -p PORT Listen on PORT
		   -i ADDR Listen on ADDR
		   -d	   Daemonize
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -s	   Send	successful replies only. Use this if you want
			   to use /etc/resolv.conf with	two nameserver lines:
				   nameserver DNSD_SERVER
				   nameserver NORMAL_DNS_SERVER

	   dos2unix [-ud] [FILE]

	   Convert FILE	in-place from DOS to Unix format.  When	no file	is
	   given, use stdin/stdout.

		   -u	   dos2unix
		   -d	   unix2dos

       du  du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

	   Summarize disk space	used for each FILE and/or directory

		   -a	   Show	file sizes too
		   -L	   Follow all symlinks
		   -H	   Follow symlinks on command line
		   -d N	   Limit output	to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
		   -c	   Show	grand total
		   -l	   Count sizes many times if hard linked
		   -s	   Display only	a total	for each argument
		   -x	   Skip	directories on different filesystems
		   -h	   Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)
		   -m	   Sizes in megabytes
		   -k	   Sizes in kilobytes (default)

	   echo	[-neE] [ARG]...

	   Print the specified ARGs to stdout

		   -n	   Suppress trailing newline
		   -e	   Interpret backslash escapes (i.e., \t=tab)
		   -E	   Don't interpret backslash escapes (default)

       ed  ed

       env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG ARGS]

	   Print the current environment or run	PROG after setting up the
	   specified environment

		   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
		   -u	   Remove variable from	the environment

	   expand [-i] [-t N] [FILE]...

	   Convert tabs	to spaces, writing to stdout

		   -i,--initial	   Don't convert tabs after non	blanks
		   -t,--tabs=N	   Tabstops every N chars


	   Print the value of EXPRESSION to stdout

	   EXPRESSION may be:n	    ARG1 | ARG2	   ARG1	if it is neither null
	   nor 0, otherwise ARG2      ARG1 & ARG2    ARG1 if neither argument
	   is null or 0, otherwise 0	  ARG1 < ARG2	 1 if ARG1 is less
	   than	ARG2, else 0. Similarly:      ARG1 <= ARG2	ARG1 = ARG2
		ARG1 !=	ARG2	  ARG1 >= ARG2	    ARG1 > ARG2	     ARG1 +
	   ARG2	   Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:	 ARG1 -	ARG2	  ARG1
	   * ARG2      ARG1 / ARG2	ARG1 % ARG2	 STRING	:
	   REGEXP	   Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
		match STRING REGEXP  Same as STRING : REGEXP	  substr
	   STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
		index STRING CHARS   Index in STRING where any CHARS is	found,
	   or 0	     length STRING	 Length	of STRING      quote
	   TOKEN	 Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
			       it is a keyword like 'match' or an
			       operator	like '/'

	   Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
	   Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers,	else
	   lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
	   \( and \) or	null; if \( and	\) are not used, they return the
	   number of characters	matched	or 0.

	   fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]

	   Provide fake	ident (auth) service

		   -f	   Run in foreground
		   -i	   Inetd mode
		   -w	   Inetd 'wait'	mode
		   -b ADDR Bind	to specified address
		   STRING  Ident answer	string (default: nobody)

	   fatattr [-+rhsvda] FILE...

	   Change file attributes on FAT filesystem

		   -	   Clear attributes
		   +	   Set attributes
		   r	   Read	only
		   h	   Hidden
		   s	   System
		   v	   Volume label
		   d	   Directory
		   a	   Archive

	   find	[-HL] [PATH]...	[OPTIONS] [ACTIONS]

	   Search for files and	perform	actions	on them.  First	failed action
	   stops processing of current file.  Defaults:	PATH is	current
	   directory, action is	'-print'

		   -L,-follow	   Follow symlinks
		   -H		   ...on command line only
		   -xdev	   Don't descend directories on	other filesystems
		   -maxdepth N	   Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
				   actions to command line arguments only
		   -mindepth N	   Don't act on	first N	levels
		   -depth	   Act on directory *after* traversing it

	   Actions:n	  ( ACTIONS )	 Group actions for -o /	-a	!
	   ACT		Invert ACT's success/failure	  ACT1 [-a] ACT2 If
	   ACT1	fails, stop, else do ACT2      ACT1 -o ACT2   If ACT1
	   succeeds, stop, else	do ACT2		       Note: -a	has higher
	   priority than -o	 -name PATTERN	Match file name	(w/o directory
	   name) to PATTERN	 -iname	PATTERN	Case insensitive -name
		-path PATTERN	Match path to PATTERN	   -ipath PATTERN Case
	   insensitive -path	  -regex PATTERN Match path to regex PATTERN
		-type X		File type is X (one of:	f,d,l,b,c,...)
		-perm MASK  At least one mask bit (+MASK), all bits (-MASK),
			  or exactly MASK bits are set in file's mode
		-mtime DAYS	mtime is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
			  or exactly N days in the past	     -mmin
	   MINS	    mtime is greater than (+N),	less than (-N),
			  or exactly N minutes in the past	-newer
	   FILE	   mtime is more recent	than FILE's	 -inum N	File
	   has inode number N	   -user NAME/ID  File is owned	by given user
		-group NAME/ID	File is	owned by given group	  -size
	   N[bck]   File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.))
			  +/-N:	file size is bigger/smaller than N	-links
	   N  Number of	links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
			  or exactly N	    -prune	   If current file is
	   directory, don't descend into it If none of the following actions
	   is specified, -print	is assumed	-print	       Print file name
		-print0	       Print file name,	NUL terminated	    -exec CMD
	   ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by
			  file name. Fails if CMD exits	with nonzero
		-exec CMD ARG +	Run CMD	with {}	replaced by list of file names
		-delete	       Delete current file/directory. Turns on -depth

	   flock [-sxun] FD|{FILE [-c] PROG ARGS}

	   [Un]lock file descriptor, or	lock FILE, run PROG

		   -s	   Shared lock
		   -x	   Exclusive lock (default)
		   -u	   Unlock FD
		   -n	   Fail	rather than wait

	   fold	[-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

	   Wrap	input lines in each FILE (or stdin), writing to	stdout

		   -b	   Count bytes rather than columns
		   -s	   Break at spaces
		   -w	   Use WIDTH columns instead of	80

	   fsync [-d] FILE...

	   Write files'	buffered blocks	to disk

		   -d	   Avoid syncing metadata

	   ftpd	[-wvS] [-t N] [-T N] [DIR]

	   Anonymous FTP server

	   ftpd	should be used as an inetd service.  ftpd's line for
	   inetd.conf:	    21 stream tcp nowait root ftpd ftpd
	   /files/to/serve It also can be ran from tcpsvd:n	 tcpsvd	-vE 21 ftpd /files/to/serve

		   -w	   Allow upload
		   -v	   Log errors to stderr. -vv: verbose log
		   -S	   Log errors to syslog. -SS: verbose log
		   -t,-T   Idle	and absolute timeouts
		   DIR	   Change root to this directory


	   Download a file via FTP

		   -c,--continue	   Continue previous transfer
		   -v,--verbose		   Verbose
		   -u,--username USER	   Username
		   -p,--password PASS	   Password
		   -P,--port NUM	   Port


	   Upload a file to a FTP server

		   -v,--verbose		   Verbose
		   -u,--username USER	   Username
		   -p,--password PASS	   Password
		   -P,--port NUM	   Port


		   -a,--alternative		   Allow long options starting with single -
		   -l,--longoptions=LOPT[,...]	   Long	options	to recognize
		   -n,--name=PROGNAME		   The name under which	errors are reported
		   -o,--options=OPTSTRING	   Short options to recognize
		   -q,--quiet			   No error messages on	unrecognized options
		   -Q,--quiet-output		   No normal output
		   -s,--shell=SHELL		   Set shell quoting conventions
		   -T,--test			   Version test	(exits with 4)
		   -u,--unquoted		   Don't quote output


	   O=`getopt -l	bb: -- ab:c:: "$@"` || exit 1 eval set -- "$O" while
	   true; do	 case "$1" in	   -a)	echo A;	shift;;	     -b|--bb)
	   echo	"B:'$2'"; shift	2;;	 -c)  case "$2"	in	     "")  echo
	   C; shift 2;;		  *)   echo "C:'$2'"; shift 2;;
		     esac;;	 --)  shift; break;;	  *)   echo Error;
	   exit	1;;	 esac done

	   grep	[-HhnlLoqvsriwFE] [-m N] [-A/B/C N] PATTERN/-e PATTERN.../-f
	   FILE	[FILE]...

	   Search for PATTERN in FILEs (or stdin)

		   -H	   Add 'filename:' prefix
		   -h	   Do not add 'filename:' prefix
		   -n	   Add 'line_no:' prefix
		   -l	   Show	only names of files that match
		   -L	   Show	only names of files that don't match
		   -c	   Show	only count of matching lines
		   -o	   Show	only the matching part of line
		   -q	   Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found,	1 otherwise
		   -v	   Select non-matching lines
		   -s	   Suppress open and read errors
		   -r	   Recurse
		   -i	   Ignore case
		   -w	   Match whole words only
		   -x	   Match whole lines only
		   -F	   PATTERN is a	literal	(not regexp)
		   -E	   PATTERN is an extended regexp
		   -m N	   Match up to N times per file
		   -A N	   Print N lines of trailing context
		   -B N	   Print N lines of leading context
		   -C N	   Same	as '-A N -B N'
		   -e PTRN Pattern to match
		   -f FILE Read	pattern	from file

	   groups [USER]

	   Print the group memberships of USER or for the current process

	   gunzip [-cft] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILEs (or	stdin)

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force
		   -t	   Test	file integrity

	   gzip	[-cfd] [FILE]...

	   Compress FILEs (or stdin)

		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       hd  hd FILE...

	   hd is an alias for hexdump -C

	   head	[OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print first 10 lines	of each	FILE (or stdin)	to stdout.  With more
	   than	one FILE, precede each with a filename header.

		   -n N[kbm]	   Print first N lines
		   -n -N[kbm]	   Print all except N last lines
		   -c [-]N[kbm]	   Print first N bytes
		   -q		   Never print headers
		   -v		   Always print	headers

	   N may be suffixed by	k (x1024), b (x512), or	m (x1024^2).

	   hexdump [-bcCdefnosvx] [FILE]...

	   Display FILEs (or stdin) in a user specified	format

		   -b		   One-byte octal display
		   -c		   One-byte character display
		   -C		   Canonical hex+ASCII,	16 bytes per line
		   -d		   Two-byte decimal display
		   -n LENGTH	   Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
		   -o		   Two-byte octal display
		   -s OFFSET	   Skip	OFFSET bytes
		   -v		   Display all input data
		   -x		   Two-byte hexadecimal	display


	   Print out a unique 32-bit identifier	for the	machine

	   hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME	| -F FILE]

	   Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

		   -s	   Short
		   -i	   Addresses for the hostname
		   -d	   DNS domain name
		   -f	   Fully qualified domain name
		   -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname

	   httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT]	[-r REALM] [-h HOME]
	   or httpd -d/-e/-m STRING

	   Listen for incoming HTTP requests

		   -i		   Inetd mode
		   -f		   Don't daemonize
		   -v[v]	   Verbose
		   -p [IP:]PORT	   Bind	to IP:PORT (default *:80)
		   -r REALM	   Authentication Realm	for Basic Authentication
		   -h HOME	   Home	directory (default .)
		   -c FILE	   Configuration file (default {/etc,HOME}/httpd.conf)
		   -m STRING	   MD5 crypt STRING
		   -e STRING	   HTML	encode STRING
		   -d STRING	   URL decode STRING

       id  id [OPTIONS]	[USER]

	   Print information about USER	or the current user

		   -u	   User	ID
		   -g	   Group ID
		   -G	   Supplementary group IDs
		   -n	   Print names instead of numbers
		   -r	   Print real ID instead of effective ID

	   install [-cdDsp] [-o	USER] [-g GRP] [-m MODE] [-t DIR] [SOURCE]...

	   Copy	files and set attributes

		   -c	   Just	copy (default)
		   -d	   Create directories
		   -D	   Create leading target directories
		   -s	   Strip symbol	table
		   -p	   Preserve date
		   -o USER Set ownership
		   -g GRP  Set group ownership
		   -m MODE Set permissions
		   -t DIR  Install to DIR

	   iostat [-c] [-d] [-t] [-z] [-k|-m] [ALL|BLOCKDEV...]	[INTERVAL

	   Report CPU and I/O statistics

		   -c	   Show	CPU utilization
		   -d	   Show	device utilization
		   -t	   Print current time
		   -z	   Omit	devices	with no	activity
		   -k	   Use kb/s
		   -m	   Use Mb/s


	   Calculate IP	network	settings from a	IP address

		   -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast	address
		   -n,--network	   Display calculated network address
		   -m,--netmask	   Display default netmask for IP
		   -p,--prefix	   Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
		   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
		   -s,--silent	   Don't ever display error messages

	   kill	[-l] [-SIG] PID...

	   Send	a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs

		   -l	   List	all signal names and numbers

	   killall [-l]	[-q] [-SIG] PROCESS_NAME...

	   Send	a signal (default: TERM) to given processes

		   -l	   List	all signal names and numbers
		   -q	   Don't complain if no	processes were killed

	   killall5 [-l] [-SIG]	[-o PID]...

	   Send	a signal (default: TERM) to all	processes outside current

		   -l	   List	all signal names and numbers
		   -o PID  Don't signal	this PID

	   less	[-EIMmNSh~] [FILE]...

	   View	FILE (or stdin)	one screenful at a time

		   -E	   Quit	once the end of	a file is reached
		   -I	   Ignore case in all searches
		   -M,-m   Display status line with line numbers
			   and percentage through the file
		   -N	   Prefix line number to each line
		   -S	   Truncate long lines
		   -~	   Suppress ~s displayed past EOF

       ln  ln [OPTIONS]	TARGET... LINK|DIR

	   Create a link LINK or DIR/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)

		   -s	   Make	symlinks instead of hardlinks
		   -f	   Remove existing destinations
		   -n	   Don't dereference symlinks -	treat like normal file
		   -b	   Make	a backup of the	target (if exists) before link operation
		   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when	making backup files
		   -T	   2nd arg must	be a DIR
		   -v	   Verbose

	   logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]

	   Write MESSAGE (or stdin) to syslog

		   -s	   Log to stderr as well as the	system log
		   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
		   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or	facility.level pair)


	   Print the name of the current user

	   logread [-fF]

	   Show	messages in syslogd's circular buffer

		   -f	   Output data as log grows
		   -F	   Same	as -f, but dump	buffer first

       lpq lpq [-P queue[@host[:port]]]	[-U USERNAME] [-d JOBID]... [-fs]

		   -P	   lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
		   -d	   Delete jobs
		   -f	   Force any waiting job to be printed
		   -s	   Short display

       lpr lpr -P queue[@host[:port]] -U USERNAME -J TITLE -Vmh	[FILE]...

		   -P	   lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
		   -m	   Send	mail on	completion
		   -h	   Print banner	page too
		   -V	   Verbose

       ls  ls [-1AaCxdLHRFplinsehrSXvctu] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

	   List	directory contents

		   -1	   One column output
		   -a	   Include entries which start with .
		   -A	   Like	-a, but	exclude	. and ..
		   -C	   List	by columns
		   -x	   List	by lines
		   -d	   List	directory entries instead of contents
		   -L	   Follow symlinks
		   -H	   Follow symlinks on command line
		   -R	   Recurse
		   -p	   Append / to dir entries
		   -F	   Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
		   -l	   Long	listing	format
		   -i	   List	inode numbers
		   -n	   List	numeric	UIDs and GIDs instead of names
		   -s	   List	allocated blocks
		   -e	   List	full date and time
		   -h	   List	sizes in human readable	format (1K 243M	2G)
		   -r	   Sort	in reverse order
		   -S	   Sort	by size
		   -X	   Sort	by extension
		   -v	   Sort	by version
		   -c	   With	-l: sort by ctime
		   -t	   With	-l: sort by mtime
		   -u	   With	-l: sort by atime
		   -w N	   Assume the terminal is N columns wide
		   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring


	   Show	all open files

	   lspci [-mk]

	   List	all PCI	devices

		   -m	   Parsable output
		   -k	   Show	driver

	   lzcat [FILE]...

	   Decompress to stdout

	   lzma	-d [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILE (or stdin)

		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

	   lzop	[-cfvd123456789CF] [FILE]...

		   -1..9   Compression level
		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -F	   Don't store or verify checksum
		   -C	   Also	write checksum of compressed block

	   lzopcat [-vCF] [FILE]...

		   -v	   Verbose
		   -F	   Don't store or verify checksum

	   md5sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

	   Print or check MD5 checksums

		   -c	   Check sums against list in FILEs
		   -s	   Don't output	anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn	about improperly formatted checksum lines

	   microcom [-d	DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s	SPEED] [-X] TTY

	   Copy	bytes for stdin	to TTY and from	TTY to stdout

		   -d	   Wait	up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
			   next	byte to	it
		   -t	   Exit	if both	stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
		   -s	   Set serial line to SPEED
		   -X	   Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

	   mkdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

	   Create DIRECTORY

		   -m MODE Mode
		   -p	   No error if exists; make parent directories as needed

	   mkfifo [-m MODE] NAME

	   Create named	pipe

		   -m MODE Mode	(default a=rw)

	   mktemp [-dt]	[-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]

	   Create a temporary file with	name based on TEMPLATE and print its
	   name.  TEMPLATE must	end with XXXXXX	(e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).
	   Without TEMPLATE, -t	tmp.XXXXXX is assumed.

		   -d	   Make	directory, not file
		   -q	   Fail	silently on errors
		   -t	   Prepend base	directory name to TEMPLATE
		   -p DIR  Use DIR as a	base directory (implies	-t)
		   -u	   Do not create anything; print a name

	   Base	directory is: -p DIR, else $TMPDIR, else /tmp

	   more	[FILE]...

	   View	FILE (or stdin)	one screenful at a time

	   mpstat [-A] [-I SUM|CPU|ALL|SCPU] [-u] [-P num|ALL] [INTERVAL

	   Per-processor statistics

		   -A			   Same	as -I ALL -u -P	ALL
		   -I SUM|CPU|ALL|SCPU	   Report interrupt statistics
		   -P num|ALL		   Processor to	monitor
		   -u			   Report CPU utilization

       mv  mv [-fin] SOURCE DEST or: mv	[-fin] SOURCE... DIRECTORY

	   Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

		   -f	   Don't prompt	before overwriting
		   -i	   Interactive,	prompt before overwrite
		   -n	   Don't overwrite an existing file

       nc  nc [IPADDR PORT]

	   Open	a pipe to IP:PORT

	   nice	[-n ADJUST] [PROG ARGS]

	   Change scheduling priority, run PROG

		   -n ADJUST	   Adjust priority by ADJUST

	   nohup PROG ARGS

	   Run PROG immune to hangups, with output to a	non-tty

       od  od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [FILE]

	   Print FILE (or stdin) unambiguously,	as octal bytes by default


		   -p,--strip N		   Strip N leading components from file	names
		   -i,--input DIFF	   Read	DIFF instead of	stdin
		   -R,--reverse		   Reverse patch
		   -N,--forward		   Ignore already applied patches
		   -E,--remove-empty-files Remove output files if they become empty

	   pgrep [-flnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]

	   Display process(es) selected	by regex PATTERN

		   -l	   Show	command	name too
		   -f	   Match against entire	command	line
		   -n	   Show	the newest process only
		   -o	   Show	the oldest process only
		   -v	   Negate the match
		   -x	   Match whole name (not substring)
		   -s	   Match session ID (0 for current)
		   -P	   Match parent	process	ID

	   pkill [-l|-SIGNAL] [-fnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]

	   Send	a signal to process(es)	selected by regex PATTERN

		   -l	   List	all signals
		   -f	   Match against entire	command	line
		   -n	   Signal the newest process only
		   -o	   Signal the oldest process only
		   -v	   Negate the match
		   -x	   Match whole name (not substring)
		   -s	   Match session ID (0 for current)
		   -P	   Match parent	process	ID

	   pmap	[-xq] PID

	   Display detailed process memory usage

		   -x	   Show	details
		   -q	   Quiet


	   Analyze power consumption on	Intel-based laptops

	   printenv [VARIABLE]...

	   Print environment VARIABLEs.	 If no VARIABLE	specified, print all.

	   printf FORMAT [ARG]...

	   Format and print ARG(s) according to	FORMAT (a-la C printf)

       ps  ps

	   Show	list of	processes

		   w	   Wide	output
		   l	   Long	output
		   T	   Show	threads

	   pscan [-cb] [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT]	[-T MIN_RTT]

	   Scan	a host,	print all open ports

		   -c	   Show	closed ports too
		   -b	   Show	blocked	ports too
		   -p	   Scan	from this port (default	1)
		   -P	   Scan	up to this port	(default 1024)
		   -t	   Timeout (default 5000 ms)
		   -T	   Minimum rtt (default	5 ms, increase for congested hosts)

	   pstree [-p] [PID|USER]

	   Display process tree, optionally start from USER or PID

		   -p	   Show	pids

       pwd pwd

	   Print the full filename of the current working directory

	   pwdx	PID...

	   Show	current	directory for PIDs

	   readlink [-fnv] FILE

	   Display the value of	a symlink

		   -f	   Canonicalize	by following all symlinks
		   -n	   Don't add newline
		   -v	   Verbose

	   readprofile [OPTIONS]

		   -m mapfile	   (Default: /boot/
		   -p profile	   (Default: /proc/profile)
		   -M NUM	   Set the profiling multiplier	to NUM
		   -i		   Print only info about the sampling step
		   -v		   Verbose
		   -a		   Print all symbols, even if count is 0
		   -b		   Print individual histogram-bin counts
		   -s		   Print individual counters within functions
		   -r		   Reset all the counters (root	only)
		   -n		   Disable byte	order auto-detection

	   realpath FILE...

	   Return the absolute pathnames of given FILE

	   renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g	| -u] ID...]

	   Change scheduling priority for a running process

		   -n	   Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
		   -p	   Process id(s) (default)
		   -g	   Process group id(s)
		   -u	   Process user	name(s)	and/or id(s)


	   Reset the screen


	   Resize the screen

       rev rev [FILE]...

	   Reverse lines of FILE

       rm  rm [-irf] FILE...

	   Remove (unlink) FILEs

		   -i	   Always prompt before	removing
		   -f	   Never prompt
		   -R,-r   Recurse

	   rmdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

	   Remove DIRECTORY if it is empty

		   -p	   Include parents

       rpm rpm -i PACKAGE.rpm; rpm -qp[ildc] PACKAGE.rpm

	   Manipulate RPM packages

	   Commands:n	   -i	Install	package	     -qp  Query	package
		-qpi Show information	   -qpl	List contents	   -qpd	List
	   documents	  -qpc List config files

	   rpm2cpio package.rpm

	   Output a cpio archive of the	rpm file

	   run-parts [-a ARG]... [-u UMASK] [--reverse]	[--test]
	   [--exit-on-error] [--list] DIRECTORY

	   Run a bunch of scripts in DIRECTORY

		   -a ARG	   Pass	ARG as argument	to scripts
		   -u UMASK	   Set UMASK before running scripts
		   --reverse	   Reverse execution order
		   --test	   Dry run
		   --exit-on-error Exit	if a script exits with non-zero
		   --list	   Print names of matching files even if they are not executable

	   scriptreplay	timingfile [typescript [divisor]]

	   Play	back typescripts, using	timing information

       sed sed [-inrE] [-f FILE]... [-e	CMD]...	[FILE]...  or: sed [-inrE] CMD

		   -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
		   -f FILE Add FILE contents to	sed commands to	be executed
		   -i[SFX] Edit	files in-place (otherwise sends	to stdout)
			   Optionally back files up, appending SFX
		   -n	   Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
		   -r,-E   Use extended	regex syntax

	   If no -e or -f, the first non-option	argument is the	sed command
	   string.  Remaining arguments	are input files	(stdin if none).

       seq seq [-w] [-s	SEP] [FIRST [INC]] LAST

	   Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in	steps of INC.  FIRST, INC
	   default to 1.

		   -w	   Pad to last with leading zeros
		   -s SEP  String separator

	   setsid PROG ARGS

	   Run PROG in a new session. PROG will	have no	controlling terminal
	   and will not	be affected by keyboard	signals	(Ctrl-C	etc).  See
	   setsid(2) for details.

       sh  sh [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE

	   Unix	shell interpreter

	   sha1sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

	   Print or check SHA1 checksums

		   -c	   Check sums against list in FILEs
		   -s	   Don't output	anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn	about improperly formatted checksum lines

	   sha256sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

	   Print or check SHA256 checksums

		   -c	   Check sums against list in FILEs
		   -s	   Don't output	anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn	about improperly formatted checksum lines

	   sha3sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

	   Print or check SHA3-512 checksums

		   -c	   Check sums against list in FILEs
		   -s	   Don't output	anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn	about improperly formatted checksum lines

	   sha512sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

	   Print or check SHA512 checksums

		   -c	   Check sums against list in FILEs
		   -s	   Don't output	anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn	about improperly formatted checksum lines

	   shuf	[-e|-i L-H] [-n	NUM] [-o FILE] [-z] [FILE|ARG...]

	   Randomly permute lines

		   -e	   Treat ARGs as lines
		   -i L-H  Treat numbers L-H as	lines
		   -n NUM  Output at most NUM lines
		   -o FILE Write to FILE, not standard output
		   -z	   End lines with zero byte, not newline

	   sleep [N]...

	   Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where	each
	   arg can have	an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours,
	   or (d)ays

	   smemcap >SMEMDATA.TAR

	   Collect memory usage	data in	/proc and write	it to stdout

	   sort	[-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE]	[-k
	   start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...

	   Sort	lines of text

		   -b	   Ignore leading blanks
		   -c	   Check whether input is sorted
		   -d	   Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
		   -f	   Ignore case
		   -g	   General numerical sort
		   -i	   Ignore unprintable characters
		   -M	   Sort	month
		   -n	   Sort	numbers
		   -o	   Output to file
		   -t CHAR Field separator
		   -k N[,M] Sort by Nth	field
		   -r	   Reverse sort	order
		   -s	   Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
		   -u	   Suppress duplicate lines
		   -z	   Lines are terminated	by NUL,	not newline
		   -mST	   Ignored for GNU compatibility

	   split [OPTIONS] [INPUT [PREFIX]]

		   -b N[k|m]	   Split by N (kilo|mega)bytes
		   -l N		   Split by N lines
		   -a N		   Use N letters as suffix

	   strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...

	   Display printable strings in	a binary file

		   -a	   Scan	whole file (default)
		   -f	   Precede strings with	filenames
		   -n LEN  At least LEN	characters form	a string (default 4)
		   -o	   Precede strings with	decimal	offsets

       sum sum [-rs] [FILE]...

	   Checksum and	count the blocks in a file

		   -r	   Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
		   -s	   Use System V	sum algorithm (512byte blocks)


	   Write all buffered blocks to	disk

	   sysctl [OPTIONS] [KEY[=VALUE]]...

	   Show/set kernel parameters

		   -e	   Don't warn about unknown keys
		   -n	   Don't show key names
		   -a	   Show	all values
		   -w	   Set values
		   -p FILE Set values from FILE	(default /etc/sysctl.conf)
		   -q	   Set values silently

	   syslogd [OPTIONS]

	   System logging utility

		   -n		   Run in foreground
		   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to HOST:PORT (default PORT:514)
		   -L		   Log locally and via network (default	is network only	if -R)
		   -C[size_kb]	   Log to shared mem buffer (use logread to read it)
		   -K		   Log to kernel printk	buffer (use dmesg to read it)
		   -O FILE	   Log to FILE (default:/var/log/messages, stdout if -)
		   -s SIZE	   Max size (KB) before	rotation (default:200KB, 0=off)
		   -b N		   N rotated logs to keep (default:1, max=99, 0=purge)
		   -l N		   Log only messages more urgent than prio N (1-8)
		   -S		   Smaller output
		   -f FILE	   Use FILE as config (default:/etc/syslog.conf)

	   tail	[OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print last 10 lines of each FILE (or	stdin) to stdout.  With	more
	   than	one FILE, precede each with a filename header.

		   -f		   Print data as file grows
		   -c [+]N[kbm]	   Print last N	bytes
		   -n N[kbm]	   Print last N	lines
		   -n +N[kbm]	   Start on Nth	line and print the rest
		   -q		   Never print headers
		   -s SECONDS	   Wait	SECONDS	between	reads with -f
		   -v		   Always print	headers
		   -F		   Same	as -f, but keep	retrying

	   N may be suffixed by	k (x1024), b (x512), or	m (x1024^2).

       tar tar -[cxtZzJjahmvO] [-X FILE] [-T FILE] [-f TARFILE]	[-C DIR]

	   Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

	   Operation:n	    c	 Create	     x	  Extract      t    List
		f    Name of TARFILE ('-' for stdin/out)      C	   Change to
	   DIR before operation	     v	  Verbose      Z    (De)compress using
	   compress	 z    (De)compress using gzip	   J	(De)compress
	   using xz	 j    (De)compress using bzip2	    a	 (De)compress
	   using lzma	   O	Extract	to stdout      h    Follow symlinks
		m    Don't restore mtime      exclude	File to	exclude
		X    File with names to	exclude	     T	  File with names to

       tee tee [-ai] [FILE]...

	   Copy	stdin to each FILE, and	also to	stdout

		   -a	   Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
		   -i	   Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

	   telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]

	   Connect to telnet server

		   -a	   Automatic login with	$USER variable
		   -l USER Automatic login as USER

	   telnetd [OPTIONS]

	   Handle incoming telnet connections

		   -l LOGIN	   Exec	LOGIN on connect
		   -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
		   -K		   Close connection as soon as login exits
				   (normally wait until	all programs close slave pty)
		   -p PORT	   Port	to listen on
		   -b ADDR[:PORT]  Address to bind to
		   -F		   Run in foreground
		   -i		   Inetd mode
		   -w SEC	   Inetd 'wait'	mode, linger time SEC
		   -S		   Log to syslog (implied by -i	or without -F and -w)

	   tftp	[OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]

	   Transfer a file from/to tftp	server

		   -l FILE Local FILE
		   -r FILE Remote FILE
		   -g	   Get file
		   -p	   Put file
		   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

	   tftpd [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]

	   Transfer a file on tftp client's request

	   tftpd should	be used	as an inetd service.  tftpd's line for
	   inetd.conf:	    69 dgram udp nowait	root tftpd tftpd -l
	   /files/to/serve It also can be ran from udpsvd:n	 udpsvd	-vE 69 tftpd /files/to/serve

		   -r	   Prohibit upload
		   -c	   Allow file creation via upload
		   -u	   Access files	as USER
		   -l	   Log to syslog (inetd	mode requires this)

	   timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG ARGS

	   Runs	PROG. Sends SIG	to it if it is not gone	in SECS	seconds.
	   Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.

	   touch [-c] [-d DATE]	[-t DATE] [-r FILE] FILE...

	   Update the last-modified date on the	given FILE[s]

		   -c	   Don't create	files
		   -h	   Don't follow	links
		   -d DT   Date/time to	use
		   -t DT   Date/time to	use
		   -r FILE Use FILE's date/time

       tr  tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

	   Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from stdin,	writing	to

		   -c	   Take	complement of STRING1
		   -d	   Delete input	characters coded STRING1
		   -s	   Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

	   truncate [-c] -s SIZE FILE...

	   Truncate FILEs to the given size

		   -c	   Do not create files
		   -s SIZE Truncate to SIZE

       tty tty

	   Print file name of stdin's terminal

		   -s	   Print nothing, only return exit status

	   ttysize [w] [h]

	   Print dimension(s) of stdin's terminal, on error return 80x25

	   uname [-amnrspvio]

	   Print system	information

		   -a	   Print all
		   -m	   The machine (hardware) type
		   -n	   Hostname
		   -r	   Kernel release
		   -s	   Kernel name (default)
		   -p	   Processor type
		   -v	   Kernel version
		   -i	   The hardware	platform
		   -o	   OS name

	   uncompress [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress .Z file[s]

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Overwrite

	   unexpand [-fa][-t N]	[FILE]...

	   Convert spaces to tabs, writing to stdout

		   -a,--all	   Convert all blanks
		   -f,--first-only Convert only	leading	blanks
		   -t,--tabs=N	   Tabstops every N chars

	   uniq	[-cdu][-f,s,w N] [INPUT	[OUTPUT]]

	   Discard duplicate lines

		   -c	   Prefix lines	by the number of occurrences
		   -d	   Only	print duplicate	lines
		   -u	   Only	print unique lines
		   -f N	   Skip	first N	fields
		   -s N	   Skip	first N	chars (after any skipped fields)
		   -w N	   Compare N characters	in line

	   unix2dos [-ud] [FILE]

	   Convert FILE	in-place from Unix to DOS format.  When	no file	is
	   given, use stdin/stdout.

		   -u	   dos2unix
		   -d	   unix2dos

	   unlink FILE

	   Delete FILE by calling unlink()

	   unlzma [-cf]	[FILE]...

	   Decompress FILE (or stdin)

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

	   unlzop [-cfvCF] [FILE]...

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -F	   Don't store or verify checksum

	   unxz	[-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILE (or stdin)

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

	   unzip [-lnopq] FILE[.zip] [FILE]... [-x FILE...] [-d	DIR]

	   Extract FILEs from ZIP archive

		   -l	   List	contents (with -q for short form)
		   -n	   Never overwrite files (default: ask)
		   -o	   Overwrite
		   -p	   Print to stdout
		   -q	   Quiet
		   -x FILE Exclude FILEs
		   -d DIR  Extract into	DIR

	   usleep N

	   Pause for N microseconds

	   uudecode [-o	OUTFILE] [INFILE]

	   Uudecode a file Finds OUTFILE in uuencoded source unless -o is

	   uuencode [-m] [FILE]	STORED_FILENAME

	   Uuencode FILE (or stdin) to stdout

		   -m	   Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

       vi  vi [OPTIONS]	[FILE]...

	   Edit	FILE

		   -c CMD  Initial command to run ($EXINIT also	available)
		   -R	   Read-only
		   -H	   List	available features

	   volname [DEVICE]

	   Show	CD volume name of the DEVICE (default /dev/cdrom)

	   watch [-n SEC] [-t] PROG ARGS

	   Run PROG periodically

		   -n	   Loop	period in seconds (default 2)
		   -t	   Don't print header

       wc  wc [-cmlwL] [FILE]...

	   Count lines,	words, and bytes for each FILE (or stdin)

		   -c	   Count bytes
		   -m	   Count characters
		   -l	   Count newlines
		   -w	   Count words
		   -L	   Print longest line length

	   wget	[-c|--continue]	[-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet]
	   [-O|--output-document FILE]	    [--header 'header: value']
	   [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]	     [-U|--user-agent AGENT] [-T SEC]

	   Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

		   -s	   Spider mode - only check file existence
		   -c	   Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
		   -q	   Quiet
		   -P DIR  Save	to DIR (default	.)
		   -T SEC  Network read	timeout	is SEC seconds
		   -O FILE Save	to FILE	('-' for stdout)
		   -U STR  Use STR for User-Agent header
		   -Y	   Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

	   which [COMMAND]...

	   Locate a COMMAND


	   Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

	   xargs [OPTIONS] [PROG ARGS]

	   Run PROG on every item given	by stdin

		   -p	   Ask user whether to run each	command
		   -r	   Don't run command if	input is empty
		   -0	   Input is separated by NUL characters
		   -t	   Print the command on	stderr before execution
		   -e[STR] STR stops input processing
		   -n N	   Pass	no more	than N args to PROG
		   -s N	   Pass	command	line of	no more	than N bytes
		   -I STR  Replace STR within PROG ARGS	with input line
		   -x	   Exit	if size	is exceeded

       xz  xz -d [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILE (or stdin)

		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

	   xzcat [FILE]...

	   Decompress to stdout

       yes yes [STRING]

	   Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'

	   zcat	[FILE]...

	   Decompress to stdout

       GNU Libc	(glibc)	uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure	the
       behavior	of the C library for the local environment, and	to configure
       how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information.
       This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and
       using one or more of the	/lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries	to
       avoid using any libc calls that make use	of NSS.	 Some applets however,
       such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal
       functions to directly access the	/etc/passwd, /etc/group, and
       /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may allow you	to run your
       system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly
       require that you	install	at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in
       particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*,
       and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use	a C library such as
       uClibc.	In addition to making your system significantly	smaller,
       uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files	or libraries.

       Denis Vlasenko <>

       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know
       it or not.  If you have written code included in	BusyBox, you should
       probably	be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory.
       If you should be	listed here, or	the description	of what	you have done
       needs more detail, or is	incorrect, please send in an update.

       Emanuele	Aina <>

       Erik Andersen <>

	   Tons	of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
	   core	apps, tons of new apps as noted	in header files.
	   Lots	of tedious effort writing these	boring docs that
	   nobody is going to actually read.

       Laurence	Anderson <>

	   rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface,	rpm

       Jeff Angielski <>

	   ftpput, ftpget

       Edward Betts <>

	   expr, hostid, logname, whoami

       John Beppu <>

	   du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <>


       Randolph	Chung <>

	   fbset, ping,	hostname

       Dave Cinege <>

	   more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
	   various fixes, Linux	Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <>


       Magnus Damm <>

	   tftp	client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <>

	   pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <>


       Gennady Feldman <>

	   Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
	   logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom	<>

	   cp_mv.c, the	test suite, various fixes to utility.c,	&c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <>


       Matt Kraai <>

	   documentation, bugfixes, test suite

       Stephan Linz <>

	   ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

       John Lombardo <>


       Glenn McGrath <>

	   Common unarchiving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
	   nameif, sed,	patch, fold, install, uudecode.
	   Various bugfixes, review and	apply numerous patches.

       Manuel Novoa III	<>

	   cat,	head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee,	tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
	   mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
	   get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number	trivial	libbb routines

	   also	bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
	   ash,	basename, cal, cmp, cp,	df, du,	echo, env, ln, logname,	md5sum,	mkdir,
	   mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch,	uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
	   interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir	Oleynik	<>

	   cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
	   ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
	   locale, various fixes
	   and irreconcilable critic of	everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <>

	   Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
	   still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <>

	   bug fixes, member of	fan club

       Kent Robotti <>

	   reset, tons and tons	of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <>, <>

	   wget	- Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <>

	   Lots	of bugs	fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <>

	   Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <>

	   mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <>

	   grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
	   style-guide,	new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <>

	   gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <>

	   tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

       Tito Ragusa <>

	   devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and	deallocvt.

       Paul Fox	<>

	   vi editing mode for ash, various other patches/fixes

       Roberto A. Foglietta <>

	   port: dnsd

       Bernhard	Reutner-Fischer	<>


       Mike Frysinger <>

	   initial e2fsprogs, printenv,	setarch, sum, misc

       Jie Zhang <>

	   fixed two bugs in msh and hush (exitcode of killed processes)

version	1.24.2			  2017-04-29			    BUSYBOX(1)


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