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BUILD(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	      BUILD(7)

     build -- information on how to build the system

     The sources for the FreeBSD system	and its	applications are contained in
     three different directories, normally /usr/src, /usr/doc, and /usr/ports.
     These directories may be initially	empty or non-existent until updated
     with csup(1), svn(1), or portsnap(8).  Directory /usr/src contains	the
     "base system" sources, which is loosely defined as	the things required to
     rebuild the system	to a useful state.  Directory /usr/doc contains	the
     source for	the system documentation, excluding the	manual pages.  Direc-
     tory /usr/ports contains a	tree that provides a consistent	interface for
     building and installing third party applications.	For more information
     about the ports build process, see	ports(7).

     The make(1) command is used in each of these directories to build and in-
     stall the things in that directory.  Issuing the make(1) command in any
     directory or subdirectory of those	directories has	the same effect	as is-
     suing the same command in all subdirectories of that directory.  With no
     target specified, the things in that directory are	just built.

     A source tree is allowed to be read-only.	As described in	make(1), ob-
     jects are usually built in	a separate object directory hierarchy speci-
     fied by the environment variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX,	or under /usr/obj if
     variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is not set.  For	a given	source directory, its
     canonical object directory	would be ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} if
     make(1) variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is set, or /usr/obj${.CURDIR} if	this
     variable is not set.  Cross-builds	set the	object directory as described
     in	the documentation for the buildworld target below.

     The build may be controlled by defining make(1) variables described in
     the ENVIRONMENT section below, and	by the variables documented in

     The following list	provides the names and actions for the targets sup-
     ported by the build system:

     clean	  Remove any files created during the build process.

     cleandepend  Remove the file ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE} generated by	a
		  prior	"make depend" step.

     cleandir	  Remove the canonical object directory	if it exists, or per-
		  form actions equivalent to "make clean cleandepend" if it
		  does not.  This target will also remove an obj link in
		  ${.CURDIR} if	that exists.

		  It is	advisable to run "make cleandir" twice:	the first in-
		  vocation will	remove the canonical object directory and the
		  second one will clean	up ${.CURDIR}.

     depend	  Generate a list of build dependencies	in file

     install	  Install the results of the build to the appropriate location
		  in the installation directory	hierarchy specified in vari-
		  able DESTDIR.

     obj	  Create the canonical object directory	associated with	the
		  current directory.

     objlink	  Create a symbolic link to the	canonical object directory in

     tags	  Generate a tags file using the program specified in the
		  make(1) variable CTAGS.  The build system supports ctags(1)
		  and GNU Global.

     The other supported targets under directory /usr/src are:

     buildenv	      Spawn an interactive shell with environment variables
		      set up for cross-building	the system.  The target	archi-
		      tecture needs to be specified with make(1) variables

		      This target is only useful after a complete cross-
		      toolchain	including the compiler,	linker,	assembler,
		      headers and libraries has	been built; see	the toolchain
		      target below.

     buildworld	      Build everything but the kernel, configure files in etc,
		      and release.  The	actual build location prefix used is
		      ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} for	native builds, and
		      ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/${TARGET}${.CURDIR} for cross	builds
		      and native builds	with variable CROSS_BUILD_TESTING set.

     cleanworld	      Attempt to clean up targets built	by a preceding
		      buildworld step.

     distributeworld  Distribute everything compiled by	a preceding buildworld
		      step.  Files are placed in the directory hierarchy spec-
		      ified by make(1) variable	DISTDIR.  This target is used
		      while building a release;	see release(7).

     packageworld     Archive the results of distributeworld, placing the re-
		      sults in DISTDIR.	 This target is	used while building a
		      release; see release(7).

     installworld     Install everything built by a preceding buildworld step
		      into the directory hierarchy pointed to by make(1) vari-
		      able DESTDIR.

		      If installing onto an NFS	file system and	running
		      make(1) with the -j option, make sure that rpc.lockd(8)
		      is running on both client	and server.  See rc.conf(5) on
		      how to make it start at boot time.

     toolchain	      Create the build toolchain needed	to build the rest of
		      the system.  For cross-architecture builds, this step
		      creates a	cross-toolchain.

     universe	      For each architecture, execute a buildworld followed by
		      a	buildkernel for	all kernels for	that architecture, in-
		      cluding LINT.  This command takes	a long time.

     update	      Get updated sources as configured	in make.conf(5).

     targets	      Print a list of supported	TARGET / TARGET_ARCH pairs for
		      world and	kernel targets.

     tinderbox	      Execute the same targets as universe.  In	addition print
		      a	summary	of all failed targets at the end and exit with
		      an error if there	were any.

     toolchains	      Create a build toolchain for each	architecture supported
		      by the build system.

     Kernel specific build targets in /usr/src are:

     buildkernel       Rebuild the kernel and the kernel modules.

     installkernel     Install the kernel and the kernel modules to directory
		       ${DESTDIR}/boot/kernel, renaming	any pre-existing di-
		       rectory with this name to kernel.old if it contained
		       the currently running kernel.  The target directory un-
		       der ${DESTDIR} may be modified using the	INSTKERNNAME
		       and KODIR make(1) variables.

     distributekernel  Install the kernel to the directory
		       ${DISTDIR}/kernel/boot/kernel.  This target is used
		       while building a	release; see release(7).

     packagekernel     Archive the results of distributekernel,	placing	the
		       results in DISTDIR.  This target	is used	while building
		       a release; see release(7).

     kernel	       Equivalent to buildkernel followed by installkernel

     kernel-toolchain  Rebuild the tools needed	for kernel compilation.	 Use
		       this if you did not do a	buildworld first.

     reinstallkernel   Reinstall the kernel and	the kernel modules, overwrit-
		       ing the contents	of the target directory.  As with the
		       installkernel target, the target	directory can be spec-
		       ified using the make(1) variable	INSTKERNNAME.

     Convenience targets for cleaning up the install destination directory de-
     noted by variable DESTDIR include:

     check-old	      Print a list of old files	and directories	in the system.

     delete-old	      Delete obsolete base system files	and directories	inter-
		      actively.	 When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at
		      the command line,	the delete operation will be non-in-
		      teractive.  The variables	DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and
		      TARGET should be set as with "make installworld".

     delete-old-libs  Delete obsolete base system libraries interactively.
		      This target should only be used if no 3rd	party software
		      uses these libraries.  When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is
		      specified	at the command line, the delete	operation will
		      be non-interactive.  The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH
		      and TARGET should	be set as with "make installworld".

     Variables that influence all builds include:

     DEBUG_FLAGS       Defines a set of	debugging flags	that will be used to
		       build all userland binaries under /usr/src.  When
		       DEBUG_FLAGS is defined, the install and installworld
		       targets install binaries	from the current
		       MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX	without	stripping, so that debugging
		       information is retained in the installed	binaries.

     DESTDIR	       The directory hierarchy prefix where built objects will
		       be installed.  If not set, DESTDIR defaults to the
		       empty string.

     MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX  Defines the prefix for directory	names in the tree of
		       built objects.  Defaults	to /usr/obj if not defined.
		       This variable should only be set	in the environment and
		       not via /etc/make.conf or the command line.

     NO_WERROR	       If defined, compiler warnings will not cause the	build
		       to halt,	even if	the makefile says otherwise.

     WITH_CTF	       If defined, the build process will run the DTrace CTF
		       conversion tools	on built objects.

     Additionally, builds in /usr/src are influenced by	the following make(1)

     KERNCONF	      Overrides	which kernel to	build and install for the var-
		      ious kernel make targets.	 It defaults to	GENERIC.

     KERNFAST	      If set, the build	target buildkernel defaults to setting
		      NO_KERNELOBJ.  When set to a value other than 1 then
		      KERNCONF is set to the value of KERNFAST.

     LOCAL_DIRS	      If set, this variable supplies a list of additional di-
		      rectories	to build, relative to the root of the source

     PORTS_MODULES    A	list of	ports with kernel modules that should be built
		      and installed as part of the buildkernel and
		      installkernel process.

			    make PORTS_MODULES=emulators/kqemu-kmod kernel

     SUBDIR_OVERRIDE  Override the default list	of sub-directories and only
		      build the	sub-directory named in this variable.  This
		      variable is useful when debugging	failed builds.

			    make some-target SUBDIR_OVERRIDE=foo/bar

     TARGET	      The target hardware platform.  This is analogous to the
		      "uname -m" output.  This is necessary to cross-build
		      some target architectures.  For example, cross-building
		      for PC98 machines	requires TARGET_ARCH=i386 and
		      TARGET=pc98.  If not set,	TARGET defaults	to the current
		      hardware platform.

     TARGET_ARCH      The target machine processor architecture.  This is
		      analogous	to the "uname -p" output.  Set this to cross-
		      build for	a different architecture.  If not set,
		      TARGET_ARCH defaults to the current machine architec-
		      ture, unless TARGET is also set, in which	case it	de-
		      faults to	the appropriate	value for that platform.  Typ-
		      ically, one only needs to	set TARGET.

     Builds under directory /usr/src are also influenced by defining one or
     more of the following symbols, using the -D option	of make(1):

     NO_CLEANDIR	If set,	the build targets that clean parts of the ob-
			ject tree use the equivalent of	"make clean" instead
			of "make cleandir".

     NO_CLEAN		If set,	no object tree files are cleaned at all.  Set-
			ting NO_CLEAN implies NO_KERNELCLEAN, so when NO_CLEAN
			is set no kernel objects are cleaned either.

     NO_CTF		If set,	the build process does not run the DTrace CTF
			conversion tools on built objects.

     NO_SHARE		If set,	the build does not descend into	the
			/usr/src/share subdirectory (i.e., manpages, locale
			data files, timezone data files	and other
			/usr/src/share files will not be rebuild from their

     NO_KERNELCLEAN	If set,	the build process does not run "make clean" as
			part of	the buildkernel	target.

     NO_KERNELCONFIG	If set,	the build process does not run config(8) as
			part of	the buildkernel	target.

     NO_KERNELDEPEND	If set,	the build process does not run "make depend"
			as part	of the buildkernel target.

     NO_KERNELOBJ	If set,	the build process does not run "make obj" as
			part of	the buildkernel	target.

     NO_DOCUPDATE	If set,	the update process does	not update the source
			of the FreeBSD documentation as	part of	the "make
			update"	target.

     NO_PORTSUPDATE	If set,	the update process does	not update the Ports
			tree as	part of	the "make update" target.

     NO_WWWUPDATE	If set,	the update process does	not update the www
			tree as	part of	the "make update" target.

     Builds under directory /usr/doc are influenced by the following make(1)

     DOC_LANG  If set, restricts the documentation build to the	language sub-
	       directories specified as	its content.  The default action is to
	       build documentation for all languages.

     Builds using the universe target are influenced by	the following make(1)

     JFLAG		Pass the value of this variable	to each	make(1)	invo-
			cation used to build worlds and	kernels.  This can be
			used to	enable multiple	jobs within a single architec-
			ture's build while still building each architecture

     MAKE_JUST_KERNELS	Only build kernels for each supported architecture.

     MAKE_JUST_WORLDS	Only build worlds for each supported architecture.

     UNIVERSE_TARGET	Execute	the specified make(1) target for each sup-
			ported architecture instead of the default action of
			building a world and one or more kernels.


     For an "approved" method of updating your system from the latest sources,
     please see	the COMMON ITEMS section in src/UPDATING.

     The following sequence of commands	can be used to cross-build the system
     for the sparc64 architecture on an	i386 host:

	   cd /usr/src
	   make	TARGET=sparc64 buildworld
	   make	TARGET=sparc64 DESTDIR=/clients/sparc64	installworld

     cc(1), csup(1), install(1), make(1), svn(1), make.conf(5),	src.conf(5),
     ports(7), release(7), config(8), mergemaster(8), portsnap(8), reboot(8),

     Mike W. Meyer <>.

BSD			       October 10, 2012				   BSD


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