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BTREE(3)		   Library Functions Manual		      BTREE(3)

NAME
       btree - btree database access method

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<sys/types.h>
       #include	<db.h>

DESCRIPTION
       The  routine dbopen is the library interface to database	files.	One of
       the supported file formats is btree files.  The general description  of
       the database access methods is in dbopen(3), this manual	page describes
       only the	btree specific information.

       The btree data structure	is a sorted, balanced tree  structure  storing
       associated key/data pairs.

       The  btree  access method specific data structure provided to dbopen is
       defined in the <db.h> include file as follows:

       typedef struct {
	      u_long flags;
	      u_int cachesize;
	      int maxkeypage;
	      int minkeypage;
	      u_int psize;
	      int (*compare)(const DBT *key1, const DBT	*key2);
	      size_t (*prefix)(const DBT *key1,	const DBT *key2);
	      int lorder;
       } BTREEINFO;

       The elements of this structure are as follows:

       flags  The flag value is	specified by or'ing any	of the following  val-
	      ues:

	      R_DUP  Permit  duplicate keys in the tree, i.e. permit insertion
		     if	the key	to be inserted already	exists	in  the	 tree.
		     The  default  behavior,  as described in dbopen(3), is to
		     overwrite a matching key when inserting a new key	or  to
		     fail  if  the R_NOOVERWRITE flag is specified.  The R_DUP
		     flag is overridden	by the R_NOOVERWRITE flag, and if  the
		     R_NOOVERWRITE  flag  is specified,	attempts to insert du-
		     plicate keys into the tree	will fail.

		     If	the database contains duplicate	keys, the order	of re-
		     trieval of	key/data pairs is undefined if the get routine
		     is	used, however, seq routine  calls  with	 the  R_CURSOR
		     flag  set will always return the logical ``first''	of any
		     group of duplicate	keys.

       cachesize
	      A	suggested maximum size (in bytes) of the memory	 cache.	  This
	      value is only advisory, and the access method will allocate more
	      memory rather than fail.	Since every search examines  the  root
	      page  of the tree, caching the most recently used	pages substan-
	      tially improves access time.  In addition, physical  writes  are
	      delayed  as long as possible, so a moderate cache	can reduce the
	      number of	I/O  operations	 significantly.	  Obviously,  using  a
	      cache  increases	(but only increases) the likelihood of corrup-
	      tion or lost data	if the system crashes while a  tree  is	 being
	      modified.	  If  cachesize	 is 0 (no size is specified) a default
	      cache is used.

       maxkeypage
	      The maximum number of keys which will be stored  on  any	single
	      page.  Not currently implemented.

       minkeypage
	      The  minimum  number  of keys which will be stored on any	single
	      page.  This value	is used	to determine which keys	will be	stored
	      on overflow pages, i.e. if a key or data item is longer than the
	      pagesize divided by the minkeypage value,	it will	be  stored  on
	      overflow	pages instead of in the	page itself.  If minkeypage is
	      0	(no minimum number of keys is specified) a value of 2 is used.

       psize  Page size	is the size (in	bytes) of the pages used for nodes  in
	      the  tree.   The	minimum	page size is 512 bytes and the maximum
	      page size	is 64K.	 If psize is 0 (no page	size is	 specified)  a
	      page  size  is  chosen  based  on	the underlying file system I/O
	      block size.

       compare
	      Compare is the key comparison function.  It must return an inte-
	      ger  less	 than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first key
	      argument is considered to	be respectively	less than,  equal  to,
	      or  greater  than	 the second key	argument.  The same comparison
	      function must be used on a given tree every time it  is  opened.
	      If  compare  is  NULL (no	comparison function is specified), the
	      keys are compared	lexically, with	shorter	keys  considered  less
	      than longer keys.

       prefix Prefix  is  the  prefix comparison function.  If specified, this
	      routine must return the number of	bytes of the second key	 argu-
	      ment  which  are	necessary to determine that it is greater than
	      the first	key argument.  If the keys are equal, the  key	length
	      should  be  returned.   Note,  the usefulness of this routine is
	      very data	dependent, but,	in some	data sets can produce signifi-
	      cantly  reduced  tree sizes and search times.  If	prefix is NULL
	      (no prefix function is specified), and no	comparison function is
	      specified,  a  default  lexical  comparison routine is used.  If
	      prefix is	NULL and a comparison routine is specified, no	prefix
	      comparison is done.

       lorder The  byte	 order	for  integers in the stored database metadata.
	      The number should	represent the order as an integer;  for	 exam-
	      ple, big endian order would be the number	4,321.	If lorder is 0
	      (no order	is specified) the current host order is	used.

       If the file already exists (and the O_TRUNC flag	is not specified), the
       values specified	for the	parameters flags, lorder and psize are ignored
       in favor	of the values used when	the tree was created.

       Forward sequential scans	of a tree are from the least key to the	great-
       est.

       Space  freed  up	 by deleting key/data pairs from the tree is never re-
       claimed,	although it is normally	made available for reuse.  This	 means
       that  the btree storage structure is grow-only.	The only solutions are
       to avoid	excessive deletions, or	to create a  fresh  tree  periodically
       from a scan of an existing one.

       Searches,  insertions,  and deletions in	a btree	will all complete in O
       lg base N where base is the average fill	factor.	 Often,	inserting  or-
       dered  data into	btrees results in a low	fill factor.  This implementa-
       tion has	been modified to make ordered insertion	the best case, result-
       ing in a	much better than normal	page fill factor.

ERRORS
       The  btree access method	routines may fail and set errno	for any	of the
       errors specified	for the	library	routine	dbopen(3).

SEE ALSO
       dbopen(3), hash(3), mpool(3), recno(3)

       The Ubiquitous B-tree, Douglas Comer, ACM Comput.  Surv.	 11,  2	 (June
       1979), 121-138.

       Prefix  B-trees,	Bayer and Unterauer, ACM Transactions on Database Sys-
       tems, Vol. 2, 1 (March 1977), 11-26.

       The Art of Computer Programming Vol. 3:	Sorting	 and  Searching,  D.E.
       Knuth, 1968, pp 471-480.

BUGS
       Only big	and little endian byte order is	supported.

				  1994-08-18			      BTREE(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | BUGS

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