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brk(2)			      System Calls Manual			brk(2)

NAME
       brk,  sbrk  -  change  the  amount  of  space allocated for the calling
       process's data segment

SYNOPSIS
       #include	<unistd.h>

       int brk(void *endds);

       void *sbrk(int incr);

DESCRIPTION
       brk() and sbrk()	are used to change dynamically the amount of space al-
       located	for  the  calling  process's  data segment (see	exec(2)).  The
       change is made by resetting the process's break	value  and  allocating
       the appropriate amount of space.	 The break value is the	address	of the
       first location beyond the end of	the data segment.  The amount of allo-
       cated  space  increases	as the break value increases.  Newly allocated
       space is	set to zero.  If, however, the same memory  space  is  reallo-
       cated to	the same process its contents are undefined.

       When  a program begins execution	using execve() the break is set	at the
       highest location	defined	by the program and data	storage	areas.

       The getrlimit(2)	function may be	used to	determine the maximum  permis-
       sible  size  of	the  data  segment; it will not	be possible to set the
       break beyond the	rlim_max value returned	from a	call  to  getrlimit(),
       that  is	to say,	"etext + rlim.rlim_max."  (See end(3C) for the defini-
       tion of etext().)

       brk() sets the break value to endds and changes the allocated space ac-
       cordingly.

       sbrk()  adds  incr  bytes  to the break value and changes the allocated
       space accordingly.  incr	can be negative, in which case the  amount  of
       allocated space is decreased.

RETURN VALUES
       Upon  successful	 completion, brk() returns a value of 0	and sbrk() re-
       turns the old break value.  Otherwise, a	value of -1  is	 returned  and
       errno is	set to indicate	the error.

ERRORS
       brk()  and  sbrk() will fail and	no additional memory will be allocated
       if one of the following occurs:

       ENOMEM	      The data segment size limit, as set by setrlimit()  (see
		      getrlimit(2)), would be exceeded.

       ENOMEM	      The  maximum  possible  size of a	data segment (compiled
		      into the system) would be	exceeded.

       ENOMEM	      Insufficient space exists	in the swap  area  to  support
		      the expansion.

       ENOMEM	      Out  of  address space; the new break value would	extend
		      into an area of the address space	defined	by some	previ-
		      ously established	mapping	(see mmap(2)).

       EAGAIN	      Total  amount  of	 system	 memory	 available for private
		      pages is temporarily insufficient.  This may occur  even
		      though  the  space  requested  was less than the maximum
		      data segment size	(see ulimit(2)).

SEE ALSO
       exec(2),	getrlimit(2),  mmap(2),	 shmop(2),  ulimit(2),	end(3C),  mal-
       loc(3C)

WARNINGS
       Programs	combining the brk() and	sbrk() functions and malloc() will not
       work.  Many library routines use	malloc() internally, so	use brk()  and
       sbrk()  only when you know that malloc()	definitely will	not be used by
       any library routine.

NOTES
       The value of incr may be	adjusted by the	system before setting the  new
       break value.  Upon successful completion, the implementation guarantees
       a minimum of incr bytes will be added to	the data segment if incr is  a
       positive	 value.	  If incr is a negative	value, a maximum of incr bytes
       will be removed from the	data segment.  This adjustment may not be nec-
       essary for all machine architectures.

       The  value of the arguments to both brk() and sbrk() are	rounded	up for
       alignment with eight-byte boundries.

BUGS
       Setting the break may fail due to a temporary lack of swap  space.   It
       is  not possible	to distinguish this from a failure caused by exceeding
       the maximum size	of the data segment without consulting getrlimit().

				  28 Mar 1994				brk(2)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | WARNINGS | NOTES | BUGS

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