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BOOT(8)              FreeBSD/i386 System Manager's Manual              BOOT(8)

     boot -- system bootstrapping procedures

     Power fail and crash recovery.  Normally, the system will reboot itself
     at power-up or after crashes.  An automatic consistency check of the file
     systems will be performed, and unless this fails, the system will resume
     multi-user operations.

     Cold starts.  Most i386 PCs attempt to boot first from floppy disk drive
     0 (sometimes known as drive A:) and, failing that, from hard disk drive 0
     (sometimes known as drive C:, or as drive 0x80 to the BIOS).  Some BIOSes
     allow you to change this default sequence, and may also include a CD-ROM
     drive as a boot device.

     By default, a three-stage bootstrap is employed, and control is automati-
     cally passed from the boot blocks (bootstrap stages one and two) to a
     separate third-stage bootstrap program, loader(8).  This third stage pro-
     vides more sophisticated control over the booting process than it is pos-
     sible to achieve in the boot blocks, which are constrained by occupying
     limited fixed space on a given disk or slice.

     However, it is possible to dispense with the third stage altogether,
     either by specifying a kernel name in the boot block parameter file,
     /boot.config, or, unless option -n is set, by hitting a key during a
     brief pause (while one of the characters -, \, |, or / is displayed)
     before loader(8) is invoked.  Booting will also be attempted at stage
     two, if the third stage cannot be loaded.

     The remainder of this subsection deals only with the boot blocks.  The
     loader(8) program is documented separately.

     After the boot blocks have been loaded, you should see a prompt similar
     to the following:

     >> FreeBSD/i386 BOOT
     Default: 0:ad(0,a)/kernel

     The automatic boot will attempt to load /kernel from partition `a' of
     either the floppy or the hard disk.  This boot may be aborted by typing
     any character on the keyboard at the `boot:' prompt.  At this time, the
     following input will be accepted:

     ?       Give a short listing of the files in the root directory of the
             default boot device, as a hint about available boot files.  (A ?
             may also be specified as the last segment of a path, in which
             case the listing will be of the relevant subdirectory.)

     bios_drive:interface(unit,part) filename [-aCcDdghnPprsv]
             Specify boot file and flags.

                     The drive number as recognized by the BIOS.  0 for the
                     first drive, 1 for the second drive, etc.

                     The type of controller to boot from.  Note that the con-
                     troller is required to have BIOS support since the BIOS
                     services are used to load the boot file image.

                     The supported interfaces are:

                     ad    ST506, IDE, ESDI, RLL disks on a WD100[2367] or
                           lookalike controller
                     fd    5 1/4" or 3 1/2" High density floppies
                     da    SCSI disk on any supported SCSI controller

             unit    The unit number of the drive on the interface being used.
                     0 for the first drive, 1 for the second drive, etc.

             part    The partition letter inside the BSD portion of the disk.
                     See disklabel(8).  By convention, only partition `a' con-
                     tains a bootable image.  If sliced disks are used
                     (``fdisk partitions''), any slice can be booted from,
                     with the default being the active slice or, otherwise,
                     the first FreeBSD slice.

                     The pathname of the file to boot (relative to the root
                     directory on the specified partition).  Defaults to
                     /kernel.  Symbolic links are not supported (hard links

                     Boot flags:

                     -a    during kernel initialization, ask for the device to
                           mount as the root file system.
                     -C    boot from CDROM.
                     -c    run UserConfig to modify hardware parameters for
                           the loaded kernel.  If the kernel was built with
                           one of USERCONFIG, INTRO_USERCONFIG,
                           VISUAL_USERCONFIG options, remain in UserConfig
                           regardless of any quit commands present in the
                     -D    toggle single and dual console configurations.  In
                           the single configuration the console will be either
                           the internal display or the serial port, depending
                           on the state of the -h option below.  In the dual
                           console configuration, both the internal display
                           and the serial port will become the console at the
                           same time, regardless of the state of the -h
                           option.  However, the dual console configuration
                           takes effect only during the boot prompt.  Once the
                           kernel is loaded, the console specified by the -h
                           option becomes the only console.
                     -d    enter the DDB kernel debugger (see ddb(4)) as early
                           as possible in kernel initialization.
                     -g    use the GDB remote debugging protocol.
                     -h    toggle internal and serial consoles.  You can use
                           this to switch console devices.  For instance, if
                           you boot from the internal console, you can use the
                           -h option to force the kernel to use the serial
                           port as its console device.  Alternatively, if you
                           boot from the serial port, you can use this option
                           to force the kernel to use the internal display as
                           the console instead.  The serial port driver sio(4)
                           has a flag to override this option.  If that flag
                           is set, the serial port will always be used as the
                           console, regardless of the -h option described
                           here.  See the man page for sio(4) for more
                     -n    ignore key press to interrupt boot before loader(8)
                           is invoked.
                     -P    probe the keyboard.  If no keyboard is found, the
                           -D and -h options are automatically set.
                     -p    pause after each attached device during the device
                           probing phase.
                     -r    use the statically configured default for the
                           device containing the root file system (see
                           config(8)).  Normally, the root file system is on
                           the device that the kernel was loaded from.
                     -s    boot into single-user mode; if the console is
                           marked as ``insecure'' (see ttys(5)), the root
                           password must be entered.
                     -v    be verbose during device probing (and later).

     You may put a BIOS drive number, a controller type, a unit number, a par-
     tition, a kernel file name, and any valid option in /boot.config to set
     defaults.  Enter them in one line just as you type at the `boot:' prompt.

     /boot.config  parameters for the boot blocks (optional)
     /boot/boot1   first stage bootstrap file
     /boot/boot2   second stage bootstrap file
     /boot/loader  third stage bootstrap
     /kernel       default kernel
     /kernel.old   typical non-default kernel (optional)

     ddb(4), ttys(5), boot0cfg(8), btxld(8), config(8), disklabel(8), halt(8),
     loader(8), reboot(8), shutdown(8)

     When disk-related errors occur, these are reported by the second-stage
     bootstrap using the same error codes returned by the BIOS, for example
     ``Disk error 0x1 (lba=0x12345678)''.  Here is a partial list of these
     error codes:

     0x1   Invalid argument
     0x2   Address mark not found
     0x4   Sector not found
     0x8   DMA overrun
     0x9   DMA attempt across 64K boundary
     0xc   Invalid media
     0x10  Uncorrectable CRC/ECC error
     0x20  Controller failure
     0x40  Seek failed
     0x80  Timeout

     NOTE: On older machines, or otherwise where EDD support (disk packet
     interface support) is not available, all boot-related files and struc-
     tures (including the kernel) that need to be accessed during the boot
     phase must reside on the disk at or below cylinder 1023 (as the BIOS
     understands the geometry).  When a ``Disk error 0x1'' is reported by the
     second-stage bootstrap, it generally means that this requirement has not
     been adhered to.

     The disklabel(5) format used by this version of BSD is quite different
     from that of other architectures.

     Due to space constraints, the keyboard probe initiated by the -P option
     is simply a test that the BIOS has detected an ``extended'' keyboard.  If
     an ``XT/AT'' keyboard (with no F11 and F12 keys, etc.) is attached, the
     probe will fail.

     Some features are not yet documented.

FreeBSD 4.10                    April 19, 1994                    FreeBSD 4.10


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