Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
ATHN(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		       ATHN(4)

NAME
     athn -- Atheros IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n	wireless network device

SYNOPSIS
     athn* at cardbus?
     athn* at pci?
     athn* at uhub? port ?

DESCRIPTION
     The athn driver provides support for a wide variety of Atheros 802.11n
     devices, ranging from the AR5008 up to the	AR9287.

     The AR5008	(codenamed Owl)	is the first generation	of Atheros 802.11n so-
     lutions.  It consists of two chips, a MAC/Baseband	Processor and a	Radio-
     on-a-Chip.	 The MAC/Baseband Processor can	be an AR5416 (PCI and CardBus
     form factors) or an AR5418	(PCIe Mini Card	form factor).  The radio can
     be	an AR2122, AR2133, AR5122 or an	AR5133 chip.  The AR2122 chip operates
     in	the 2GHz spectrum and supports up to 2 transmit	paths and 2 receiver
     paths (2T2R).  The	AR2133 chip operates in	the 2GHz spectrum and supports
     up	to 3 transmit paths and	3 receiver paths (3T3R).  The AR5122 chip op-
     erates in the 2GHz	and 5GHz spectra and supports up to 2 transmit paths
     and 2 receiver paths (2T2R).  The AR5133 chip operates in the 2GHz	and
     5GHz spectra and supports up to 3 transmit	paths and 3 receiver paths
     (3T3R).

     The AR9001	(codenamed Sowl) is a Mini-PCI 802.11n solution.  It consists
     of	two chips, an AR9160 MAC/Baseband Processor and	an AR9103 or AR9106
     Radio-on-a-Chip.  The AR9103 chip operates	in the 2GHz spectrum and sup-
     ports up to 3 transmit paths and 3	receiver paths (3T3R).	The AR9106
     chip operates in the 2GHz and 5GHz	spectra	and supports up	to 3 transmit
     paths and 3 receiver paths	(3T3R).

     The AR9220, AR9223	and AR9280 (codenamed Merlin) are the first generation
     of	Atheros	single-chip 802.11n solutions.	The AR9220 and AR9223 exist in
     PCI and Mini-PCI form factors.  The AR9280	exists in PCIe (DT92), PCIe
     Mini Card (XB92), half Mini Card (HB92) and USB 2.0 (AR9280+AR7010) form
     factors.  The AR9220 and AR9280 operate in	the 2GHz and 5GHz spectra and
     support 2 transmit	paths and 2 receiver paths (2T2R).  The	AR9223 oper-
     ates in the 2GHz spectrum and supports 2 transmit paths and 2 receiver
     paths (2T2R).

     The AR9281	is a single-chip PCIe 802.11n solution.	 It exists in PCIe
     Mini Card (XB91) and half Mini Card (HB91)	form factors.  It operates in
     the 2GHz spectrum and supports 1 transmit path and	2 receiver paths
     (1T2R).

     The AR9285	(codenamed Kite) is a single-chip PCIe 802.11n solution	that
     targets the value PC market.  It exists in	PCIe half Mini Card (HB95)
     form factor only.	It operates in the 2GHz	spectrum and supports a	single
     stream (1T1R).  It	can be combined	with the AR3011	chip to	form a combo
     WiFi/Bluetooth device (WB195).

     The AR9271	is a single-chip USB 2.0 802.11n solution.  It operates	in the
     2GHz spectrum and supports	a single stream	(1T1R).

     The AR2427	is a single-chip PCIe 802.11b/g	solution similar to the	other
     AR9280 solutions but with 802.11n capabilities removed.  It exists	in
     PCIe Mini Card form factor	only.  It operates in the 2GHz spectrum.

     The AR9227	and AR9287 are single-chip 802.11n solutions that target mid-
     tier PCs.	The AR9227 exists in PCI and Mini-PCI form factors.  The
     AR9287 exists in PCIe half	Mini Card (HB97) and USB 2.0 (AR9287+AR7010)
     form factors.  They operate in the	2GHz spectrum and support 2 transmit
     paths and 2 receiver paths	(2T2R).

     The following table summarizes the	supported chips	and their capabili-
     ties.

	   Chipset			  Spectrum     TxR:S	Bus
	   AR5008-2NG (AR5416+AR2122)	  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCI/CardBus
	   AR5008-3NG (AR5416+AR2133)	  2GHz	       3x3:2	PCI/CardBus
	   AR5008-2NX (AR5416+AR5122)	  2GHz/5GHz    2x2:2	PCI/CardBus
	   AR5008-3NX (AR5416+AR5133)	  2GHz/5GHz    3x3:2	PCI/CardBus
	   AR5008E-2NG (AR5418+AR2122)	  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCIe
	   AR5008E-3NG (AR5418+AR2133)	  2GHz	       3x3:2	PCIe
	   AR5008E-2NX (AR5418+AR5122)	  2GHz/5GHz    2x2:2	PCIe
	   AR5008E-3NX (AR5418+AR5133)	  2GHz/5GHz    3x3:2	PCIe
	   AR9001-2NG (AR9160+AR9103)	  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCI
	   AR9001-3NG (AR9160+AR9103)	  2GHz	       3x3:2	PCI
	   AR9001-3NX2 (AR9160+AR9106)	  2GHz/5GHz    3x3:2	PCI
	   AR9220			  2GHz/5GHz    2x2:2	PCI
	   AR9223			  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCI
	   AR9280			  2GHz/5GHz    2x2:2	PCIe
	   AR9280+AR7010		  2GHz/5GHz    2x2:2	USB 2.0
	   AR9281			  2GHz	       1x2:2	PCIe
	   AR9285			  2GHz	       1x1:1	PCIe
	   AR9271			  2GHz	       1x1:1	USB 2.0
	   AR2427			  2GHz	       1x1:1	PCIe
	   AR9227			  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCI
	   AR9287			  2GHz	       2x2:2	PCIe
	   AR9287+AR7010		  2GHz	       2x2:2	USB 2.0

     These are the modes the athn driver can operate in:

     BSS mode	    Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
		    ciating with an access point, through which	all traffic
		    passes.  This mode is the default.

     Host AP	    In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base sta-
		    tion) for other cards.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
		    associating	with an	access point.  This disables the in-
		    ternal receive filter and enables the card to capture
		    packets from networks which	it wouldn't normally have ac-
		    cess to, or	to scan	for access points.

     The athn driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
     or	Wi-Fi Protected	Access (WPA1 and WPA2).	 WPA2 is the current encryp-
     tion standard for wireless	networks.  It is strongly recommended that
     neither WEP nor WPA1 are used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless
     communication, due	to serious weaknesses.	WPA1 is	disabled by default
     and may be	enabled	using the option "wpaprotos wpa1,wpa2".	 For standard
     WPA networks which	use pre-shared keys (PSK), keys	are configured using
     the "wpakey" option.  WPA-Enterprise networks require use of the wpa_sup-
     plicant package.  The athn	driver offloads	both encryption	and decryption
     to	the hardware for the CCMP cipher.

     The transmit speed	is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver	depending on the number	of hardware transmission retries.

     In	BSS mode, the driver supports powersave	mode, which can	be enabled via
     ifconfig(8).  In Host AP mode, the	driver is compatible with clients us-
     ing powersave.

     The athn driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

FILES
     For USB devices, the driver needs at least	version	1.1p4 of the following
     firmware files, which are loaded when an interface	is attached:

	   /etc/firmware/athn-open-ar7010
	   /etc/firmware/athn-open-ar9271

     A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using
     fw_update(1).  Firmware source code is available under a mix of BSD and
     GPLv2 licences.  A	port which cross-compiles the firmware can be found in
     /usr/ports/devel/open-ath9k-htc-firmware.

EXAMPLES
     The following example scans for available networks:

	   # ifconfig athn0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures athn0 to join network
     "mynwid", using WPA key "mywpakey", obtaining an IP address using DHCP:

	   nwid	mynwid wpakey mywpakey
	   dhcp

     The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on
     boot:

	   mediaopt hostap
	   nwid	mynwid wpakey mywpakey
	   inet	192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

DIAGNOSTICS
     athn0: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware.  This
     should not	happen.

     athn0: radio is disabled by hardware switch  The radio transmitter	is off
     and thus no packet	can go out.  The driver	will reset the hardware.  Make
     sure the laptop radio switch is on.

     athn0: radio switch turned	off  The radio switch has been turned off
     while the interface was up	and running.  The driver will turn the inter-
     face down.

     athn0: error N, could not read firmware ...  For some reason, the driver
     was unable	to read	the firmware file from the filesystem.	The file might
     be	missing	or corrupted.

SEE ALSO
     arp(4), cardbus(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), pci(4), usb(4),
     hostname.if(5), ifconfig(8)

HISTORY
     The athn driver first appeared in OpenBSD 4.7.  Support for USB 2.0 de-
     vices first appeared in OpenBSD 4.9.

AUTHORS
     The athn driver was written by Damien Bergamini
     <damien.bergamini@free.fr>	based on source	code licensed under the	ISC
     released in 2008 by Atheros Communications	for Linux.
     Anthony J.	Bentley	<bentley@openbsd.org> added the	open source USB
     firmware and its cross-compiler to	the ports tree.
     Stefan Sperling <stsp@openbsd.org>	implemented driver support for the
     open source USB firmware.

CAVEATS
     Support for 802.11n 40MHz channels	and Tx aggregation is not yet imple-
     mented.  Additional work is required in ieee80211(9) before those fea-
     tures can be supported.

     On	USB devices, the firmware limits Host AP mode to 7 concurrent clients.

FreeBSD	13.0			 July 13, 2020			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | CAVEATS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=athn&sektion=4&manpath=OpenBSD+6.9>

home | help