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ATH(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			ATH(4)

NAME
     ath -- Atheros IEEE 802.11	wireless network driver

SYNOPSIS
     To	compile	this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device ath
	   device ath_pci
	   device ath_hal
	   options AH_SUPPORT_AR5416
	   device ath_rate_sample
	   device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the	driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

	   if_ath_load="YES"
	   if_ath_pci_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION
     The ath driver provides support for wireless network adapters based on
     the Atheros AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, AR5416	and AR9300 programming APIs.
     These APIs	are used by a wide variety of chips; most all chips with a PCI
     and/or CardBus interface are supported.

     Supported features	include	802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS,	MBSS, TDMA, and	host-based access point	operation modes.  All
     host/device interaction is	via DMA.

     Please note that from FreeBSD-9.0,	the ath	driver does not	include	the
     PCI/PCIe bus glue.	 The same driver supports multiple underlying bus
     types, including PCI/PCIe,	but also embedded (AHB)	and USB	in the future.

     To	enable use for PCI/PCIe	systems, see the ath_pci(4) driver.  For
     embedded systems which use	the AHB	to connect the wireless	MAC, see the
     ath_ahb(4)	driver.

     The ath driver encapsulates all IP	and ARP	traffic	as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either	802.11 or 802.3	frames.	 Transmit speed	and
     operating mode is selectable and depends on the specific chipset.
     AR5210-based devices support 802.11a operation with transmit speeds of 6
     Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24	Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps,	and 54 Mbps.
     AR5211-based devices support 802.11a and 802.11b operation	with transmit
     speeds as above for 802.11a operation and 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and
     11Mbps for	802.11b	operation.  AR5212-based devices support 802.11a,
     802.11b, and 802.11g operation with transmit speeds appropriate to	each.
     AR5416 and	later class devices are	capable	of 802.11n operation.  Most
     chips also	support	an Atheros Turbo Mode (TM) that	operates in the	5GHz
     frequency range with 2x the transmit speeds.  Some	chips also support
     Turbo mode	in the 2.4GHz range with 802.11g though	this support is	not
     presently available due to	regulatory requirements.  (Note	that Turbo
     modes are,	however, only interoperable with other Atheros-based devices.)
     AR5212-based and AR5416-based devices also	support	half- (10MHz) and
     quarter-width (5MHz) channels.  The actual	transmit speed used is depen-
     dent on signal quality and	the ``rate control'' algorithm employed	by the
     driver.  All chips	support	WEP encryption.	 AR5212, AR5416	and later
     parts have	hardware support for the AES-CCM, TKIP,	and Michael crypto-
     graphic operations	required for WPA.  To enable encryption, use
     ifconfig(8) as shown below.

     The driver	supports station, adhoc, adhoc-demo, hostap, mesh, wds,	and
     monitor mode operation.  Multiple hostap virtual interfaces may be	con-
     figured for simultaneous use on cards that	use a 5212 or later part.
     When multiple interfaces are configured each may have a separate mac
     address that is formed by setting the U/L bits in the mac address
     assigned to the underlying	device.	 Any number of wds virtual interfaces
     may be configured together	with hostap interfaces.	 Multiple station
     interfaces	may be operated	together with hostap interfaces	to construct a
     wireless repeater device.	The driver also	support	tdma operation when
     compiled with options IEEE80211_SUPPORT_TDMA (which also enables the
     required 802.11 support).	For more information on	configuring this
     device, see ifconfig(8).

     Devices supported by the ath driver come in either	Cardbus	or mini-PCI
     packages.	Wireless cards in Cardbus slots	may be inserted	and ejected on
     the fly.

HARDWARE
     The ath driver supports all Atheros Cardbus and PCI cards,	except those
     that are based on the AR5005VL chipset.

EXAMPLES
     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join/create an 802.11b IBSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode adhoc
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.22 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mode	11b

     Create an 802.11g host-based access point:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
		   mode	11g

     Create an 802.11a mesh station:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode mesh
	   ifconfig wlan0 meshid my_mesh mode 11a inet 192.168.0.10/24

     Create two	virtual	802.11a	host-based access points, one with WEP enabled
     and one with no security, and bridge them to the fxp0 (wired) device:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap \
		   ssid	paying-customers wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890	\
		   mode	11a up
	   ifconfig wlan1 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap bssid \
		   ssid	freeloaders up
	   ifconfig bridge0 create addm	wlan0 addm wlan1 addm fxp0 up

     Create a master node in a two slot	TDMA BSS configured to use 2.5 mil-
     lisecond slots.

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode tdma \
		   ssid	tdma-test tmdaslot 0 tdmaslotlen 2500 \
		   channel 36 up

DIAGNOSTICS
     ath%d: unable to attach hardware; HAL status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	configure the hardware as requested.  The sta-
     tus code is explained in the HAL include file sys/dev/ath/ath_hal/ah.h.

     ath%d: failed to allocate descriptors: %d	The driver was unable to allo-
     cate contiguous memory for	the transmit and receive descriptors.  This
     usually indicates system memory is	scarce and/or fragmented.

     ath%d: unable to setup a data xmit	queue!	The request to the HAL to set
     up	the transmit queue for normal data frames failed.  This	should not
     happen.

     ath%d: unable to setup a beacon xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to
     set up the	transmit queue for 802.11 beacon frames	failed.	 This should
     not happen.

     ath%d: 802.11 address: %s	The MAC	address	programmed in the EEPROM is
     displayed.

     ath%d: hardware error; resetting  An unrecoverable	error in the hardware
     occurred.	Errors of this sort include unrecoverable DMA errors.  The
     driver will reset the hardware and	continue.

     ath%d: rx FIFO overrun; resetting	The receive FIFO in the	hardware over-
     flowed before the data could be transferred to the	host.  This typically
     occurs because the	hardware ran short of receive descriptors and had no
     place to transfer received	data.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.

     ath%d: unable to reset hardware; hal status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to	reset the hardware as requested.  The status
     code is explained in the HAL include file sys/dev/ath/ath_hal/ah.h.  This
     should not	happen.

     ath%d: unable to start recv logic	The driver was unable to restart frame
     reception.	 This should not happen.

     ath%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware	and
     continue.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: bogus xmit rate 0x%x  An invalid transmit rate was specified for
     an	outgoing frame.	 The frame is discarded.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: ath_chan_set: unable to reset channel %u (%u MHz)  The Atheros
     Hardware Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware when switching
     channels during scanning.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable memory mapping  The driver	was unable to enable
     memory-mapped I/O to the PCI device registers.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable bus mastering  The	driver was unable to enable
     the device	as a PCI bus master for	doing DMA.  This should	not happen.

     ath%d: cannot map register	space  The driver was unable to	map the	device
     registers into the	host address space.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not map interrupt  The driver	was unable to allocate an IRQ
     for the device interrupt.	This should not	happen.

     ath%d: could not establish	interrupt  The driver was unable to install
     the device	interrupt handler.  This should	not happen.

SEE ALSO
     ath_hal(4), cardbus(4), intro(4), pcic(4),	wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4),
     wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4),	wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8),
     wpa_supplicant(8)

HISTORY
     The ath device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.

CAVEATS
     Revision A1 of the	D-LINK DWL-G520	and DWL-G650 are based on an Intersil
     PrismGT chip and are not supported	by this	driver.

BUGS
     The driver	does not fully enable power-save operation of the chip in sta-
     tion mode;	consequently power use is suboptimal (e.g. on a	laptop).

     The AR5210	can only do WEP	in hardware; consequently hardware assisted
     WEP is disabled in	order to allow software	implementations	of TKIP	and
     CCMP to function.	Hardware WEP can be re-enabled by modifying the
     driver.

FreeBSD	11.0			April 14, 2014			  FreeBSD 11.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | CAVEATS | BUGS

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