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as(1)			     GNU Development Tools			 as(1)

       GNU as -	the portable GNU assembler.

       as [-a|-al|-as] [-D] [-f] [-I path] [-k]	[-L] [-o objfile] [-R] [-v]
       [-w] [--	| files...]

       i960-only options:
       [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|-AKC|-AMC] [-b]	[-norelax]

       m680x0-only options:
       [-l] [-mc68000|-mc68010|-mc68020]

       GNU as is really	a family of assemblers.	 If you	use (or	have used) the
       GNU  assembler  on  one	architecture, you should find a	fairly similar
       environment when	you use	it on another architecture.  Each version  has
       much  in	 common	 with  the others, including object file formats, most
       assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

       For information on the syntax and pseudo-ops used by GNU	as,  see  `as'
       entry in	info (or the manual Using as: The GNU Assembler).

       as  is  primarily intended to assemble the output of the	GNU C compiler
       gcc for use by the linker ld.  Nevertheless, we've  tried  to  make  as
       assemble	 correctly  everything	that the native	assembler would.  This
       doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as  another	assembler  for
       the  same  architecture;	 for  example, we know of several incompatible
       versions	of 680x0 assembly language syntax.

       Each time you run as it assembles  exactly  one	source	program.   The
       source program is made up of one	or more	files.	(The standard input is
       also a file.)

       If as is	given no file names it attempts	to read	one  input  file  from
       the  as	standard input,	which is normally your terminal.  You may have
       to type ctl-D to	tell as	there is no more  program  to  assemble.   Use
       `--'  if	 you  need  to explicitly name the standard input file in your
       command line.

       as may write warnings and error messages	to  the	 standard  error  file
       (usually	 your  terminal).  This	should not happen when as is run auto-
       matically by a compiler.	 Warnings report an assumption made so that as
       could  keep  assembling a flawed	program; errors	report a grave problem
       that stops the assembly.

	      Turn on assembly listings; `-al',	listing	only,  `-as',  symbols
	      only, `-a', everything.

       -D     This option is accepted only for script compatibility with calls
	      to other assemblers; it has no effect on as.

       -f     ``fast''--skip preprocessing (assume source is compiler output).

       -I path
	      Add path to the search list for .include directives.

       -k     Handle position independent code,	generated by gcc -fpic.

       -L     Keep (in symbol table) local symbols, starting with `L'

       -o objfile
	      Name the object-file output from as

       -R     Fold data	section	into text section

       -v     Announce as version

       -W     Suppress warning messages

       -- | files...
	      Source files to assemble,	or standard input (--)

       -Avar  (When  configured	 for Intel 960.)  Specify which	variant	of the
	      960 architecture is the target.

       -b     (When configured for Intel 960.)	Add code to collect statistics
	      about branches taken.

	      (When  configured	 for  Intel  960.)   Do	not alter compare-and-
	      branch instructions for long displacements; error	if  necessary.

       -l     (When configured for Motorola 68000).
	      Shorten  references to undefined symbols,	to one word instead of

	      (When configured for Motorola 68000).
	      Specify what  processor  in  the	68000  family  is  the	target
	      (default 68020)

       Options	may be in any order, and may be	before,	after, or between file
       names.  The order of file names is significant.

       `--' (two hyphens) by itself names the standard input file  explicitly,
       as one of the files for as to assemble.

       Except  for  `--'  any  command line argument that begins with a	hyphen
       (`-') is	an option.  Each option	changes	the behavior of	as.  No	option
       changes	the  way another option	works.	An option is a `-' followed by
       one or more letters; the	case of	the letter is important.   All options
       are optional.

       The `-o'	option expects exactly one file	name to	follow.	 The file name
       may either immediately follow  the  option's  letter  (compatible  with
       older  assemblers)  or  it  may be the next command argument (GNU stan-

       These two command lines are equivalent:
       as  -o  my-object-file.o	 mumble.s
       as  -omy-object-file.o  mumble.s

       `as' entry in info; Using as: The GNU Assembler;	gcc(1),	ld(1).

       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992	Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to	make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided	 the  copyright	 notice	and this permission notice are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual  under  the  conditions  for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting	derived	work is	distributed under the terms of a  per-
       mission notice identical	to this	one.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute translations of this man-
       ual into	another	language, under	the above conditions for modified ver-
       sions,  except  that this permission notice may be included in transla-
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the	origi-
       nal English.

cygnus support			21 January 1992				 as(1)


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