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AR(1)			     GNU Development Tools			 AR(1)

       ar - create, modify, and	extract	from archives

       ar [-X32_64] [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] archive [member...]

       The  GNU	 ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.  An
       archive is a single file	holding	a  collection  of  other  files	 in  a
       structure  that	makes  it possible to retrieve the original individual
       files (called members of	the archive).

       The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
       group  are preserved in the archive, and	can be restored	on extraction.

       GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have names  of  any  length;
       however,	 depending  on how ar is configured on your system, a limit on
       member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with	 archive  for-
       mats  maintained	with other tools.  If it exists, the limit is often 15
       characters (typical of formats related to a.out)	or 16 characters (typ-
       ical of formats related to coff).

       ar  is  considered  a  binary utility because archives of this sort are
       most often used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.

       ar creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable  object  mod-
       ules  in	 the  archive  when you	specify	the modifier s.	 Once created,
       this index is updated in	the archive whenever ar	makes a	change to  its
       contents	 (save	for  the q update operation).  An archive with such an
       index speeds up linking to the library,	and  allows  routines  in  the
       library to call each other without regard to their placement in the ar-

       You may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to	list this index	table.	If  an
       archive	lacks  the table, another form of ar called ranlib can be used
       to add just the table.

       GNU ar is designed to be	compatible with	two different facilities.  You
       can control its activity	using command-line options, like the different
       varieties of ar on Unix systems;	or, if you specify the single command-
       line  option -M,	you can	control	it with	a script supplied via standard
       input, like the MRI ``librarian'' program.

       GNU ar allows you to mix	the operation code p and modifier flags	mod in
       any order, within the first command-line	argument.

       If you wish, you	may begin the first command-line argument with a dash.

       The p keyletter specifies what operation	to execute; it may be  any  of
       the following, but you must specify only	one of them:

       d   Delete  modules  from the archive.  Specify the names of modules to
	   be deleted as member...; the	archive	is untouched if	you specify no
	   files to delete.

	   If  you  specify  the  v  modifier,	ar  lists each module as it is

       m   Use this operation to move members in an archive.

	   The ordering	of members in an archive can make a difference in  how
	   programs  are  linked  using	the library, if	a symbol is defined in
	   more	than one member.

	   If no modifiers are used with "m", any members you name in the mem-
	   ber	arguments are moved to the end of the archive; you can use the
	   a, b, or i modifiers	to move	them to	a specified place instead.

       p   Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard	output
	   file.   If the v modifier is	specified, show	the member name	before
	   copying its contents	to standard output.

	   If you specify no member arguments, all the files  in  the  archive
	   are printed.

       q   Quick  append;  Historically, add the files member... to the	end of
	   archive, without checking for replacement.

	   The modifiers a, b, and i do	not affect this	operation; new members
	   are always placed at	the end	of the archive.

	   The modifier	v makes	ar list	each file as it	is appended.

	   Since  the  point  of this operation	is speed, the archive's	symbol
	   table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can use
	   ar s	or ranlib explicitly to	update the symbol table	index.

	   However,  too  many	different systems assume quick append rebuilds
	   the index, so GNU ar	implements q as	a synonym for r.

       r   Insert the files member... into archive  (with  replacement).  This
	   operation  differs  from  q in that any previously existing members
	   are deleted if their	names match those being	added.

	   If one of the files named in	member... does not exist, ar  displays
	   an  error  message,	and leaves undisturbed any existing members of
	   the archive matching	that name.

	   By default, new members are added at	the end	of the file;  but  you
	   may	use one	of the modifiers a, b, or i to request placement rela-
	   tive	to some	existing member.

	   The modifier	v used with this operation elicits a  line  of	output
	   for	each  file  inserted,  along with one of the letters a or r to
	   indicate whether the	file was appended (no old member  deleted)  or

       t   Display  a  table  listing the contents of archive, or those	of the
	   files listed	in member... that are present in  the  archive.	  Nor-
	   mally  only	the  member name is shown; if you also want to see the
	   modes (permissions),	timestamp, owner, group,  and  size,  you  can
	   request that	by also	specifying the v modifier.

	   If  you  do	not  specify  a	 member,  all files in the archive are

	   If there is more than one file with the same	name (say, fie)	in  an
	   archive  (say  b.a),	ar t b.a fie lists only	the first instance; to
	   see them all, you must ask for a complete listing---in our example,
	   ar t	b.a.

       x   Extract members (named member) from the archive.  You can use the v
	   modifier with this operation, to request that ar list each name  as
	   it extracts it.

	   If  you  do	not  specify  a	 member,  all files in the archive are

       A number	of modifiers (mod) may immediately follow the p	keyletter,  to
       specify variations on an	operation's behavior:

       a   Add	new files after	an existing member of the archive.  If you use
	   the modifier	a, the name of an  existing  archive  member  must  be
	   present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.

       b   Add new files before	an existing member of the archive.  If you use
	   the modifier	b, the name of an  existing  archive  member  must  be
	   present  as	the relpos argument, before the	archive	specification.
	   (same as i).

       c   Create the archive.	The specified archive is always	created	if  it
	   did not exist, when you request an update.  But a warning is	issued
	   unless you specify in advance that you  expect  to  create  it,  by
	   using this modifier.

       f   Truncate  names  in	the archive.  GNU ar will normally permit file
	   names of any	length.	 This will cause it to create  archives	 which
	   are	not compatible with the	native ar program on some systems.  If
	   this	is a concern, the f modifier may  be  used  to	truncate  file
	   names when putting them in the archive.

       i   Insert  new files before an existing	member of the archive.	If you
	   use the modifier i, the name	of an existing archive member must  be
	   present  as	the relpos argument, before the	archive	specification.
	   (same as b).

       l   This	modifier is accepted but not used.

       N   Uses	the count parameter.  This  is	used  if  there	 are  multiple
	   entries  in	the  archive  with  the	 same name.  Extract or	delete
	   instance count of the given name from the archive.

       o   Preserve the	original dates of members when	extracting  them.   If
	   you	do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
	   are stamped with the	time of	extraction.

       P   Use the full	path name when matching	names in the archive.  GNU  ar
	   can	not create an archive with a full path name (such archives are
	   not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can.  This	option
	   will	 cause	GNU ar to match	file names using a complete path name,
	   which can be	convenient when	extracting a single file from  an  ar-
	   chive created by another tool.

       s   Write  an object-file index into the	archive, or update an existing
	   one,	even if	no other change	is made	to the archive.	 You  may  use
	   this	modifier flag either with any operation, or alone.  Running ar
	   s on	an archive is equivalent to running ranlib on it.

       S   Do not generate an archive symbol table.  This can speed up	build-
	   ing	a  large  library in several steps.  The resulting archive can
	   not be used with the	linker.	 In order to build a symbol table, you
	   must	 omit  the S modifier on the last execution of ar, or you must
	   run ranlib on the archive.

       u   Normally, ar	r... inserts all files listed into  the	 archive.   If
	   you	would like to insert only those	of the files you list that are
	   newer than existing members of the same names, use  this  modifier.
	   The	u  modifier is allowed only for	the operation r	(replace).  In
	   particular, the combination qu is not allowed, since	 checking  the
	   timestamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation	q.

       v   This	 modifier  requests the	verbose	version	of an operation.  Many
	   operations display additional information, such as  filenames  pro-
	   cessed, when	the modifier v is appended.

       V   This	modifier shows the version number of ar.

       ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64, for compatibility with AIX.
       The behaviour produced by this option is	the default for	 GNU  ar.   ar
       does  not  support  any of the other -X options;	in particular, it does
       not support -X32	which is the default for AIX ar.

       nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

       Copyright (c) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000,  2001,	 2002,
       2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy,	distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with	no Front-Cover Texts, and with	no  Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is	included in the	section	entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

binutils-2.14.91		  2004-04-09				 AR(1)


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