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AFM2PL(1)			    afm2pl			     AFM2PL(1)

       afm2pl -	convert	AFM font metrics to TeX	pl font	metrics

       afm2pl [-p encoding_file] [-o] [-e extension_factor] [-s	slant_factor]
	      [-f font_dimensions] [-k]	[-m letter_spacing] [-l	ligkern_spec]
	      [-L ligkern_spec]	[-n] input_file[.afm] [output_file[.pl]]

       afm2pl [--help] | [--version]

       afm2pl converts an afm (Adobe Font Metric) file into a pl (Property
       List) file, which in its	turn can be converted to a tfm (TeX Font
       Metric) file. It	normally preserves kerns and ligatures,	but also
       offers additional control over them.

       afm2pl is meant to be a partial replacement for afm2tfm,	on which it is
       based. With afm2tfm, preserving kerns and ligatures is possible only in
       a roundabout way, and handling of them is hard-wired.

       For text	fonts, Y&Y's texnansi is a good	encoding to be used with
       afm2pl. Its character set includes all the accented characters likely
       to be needed for	Western	languages, plus	many typographic symbols,
       without a need for either virtual fonts or a separate text companion

       Full LaTeX support for this encoding is available in the	form of	the
       texnansi	package, which is already part of TeX Live and teTeX. These
       distributions also contain the encoding file texnansi.enc.

       The distribution	contains uppercased and	lowercased versions of
       texnansi, viz. texnanuc and texnanlc, to	allow font-based rather	than
       macro-based uppercasing and lowercasing,	and the	familiar old ot1
       encoding	plus some variations in	PostScript .enc	format (I included
       these because they seem to be absent from teTeX/TeX Live). However,
       check your mapfiles if you have old afm2pl-generated fonts using	these.

       Return value: 0 if no error; a negative number indicating the number of
       missing glyphs if conversion was	otherwise successfull but glyphs are
       missing,	and 1 in case of error.

       -p encoding_file
	   The default is the encoding specified in the	afm file, which	had
	   better match	the encoding in	the fontfile (pfa or pfb). If
	   afm2pl-name.enc exists, afm2pl will use this	file instead of
	   name.enc, unless an option -n is given. The generated mapfile entry
	   (see	below) instructs pdftex	or the dvi driver to reencode the font
	   on the fly. On-the-fly reencoding does not require virtual fonts.

	   Use octal for all character codes in	the pl file.

       -e extend_factor
	   Widen or narrow characters by extend_factor.	Default	is 1.0
	   (natural width). Not	recommended[1].

       -s slant_factor
	   Oblique (slant) characters by slant_factor. Not recommended either.

       -f font_dimensions
	   The value is	either the keyword afm2tfm or a	comma-separated	list
	   of up to five integers. The parameters are listed below, with their
	   defaults and	their value when the afm2tfm keyword is	specified.
	   `Space' means the width of a	space in the target font, except of
	   course in the last row. Keep	in mind	that the design	size is	1000,
	   and that all	numbers	must be	nonnegative integers.

	   |Font dimension | Default value	 | Afm2tfm value       |
	   |stretch	   | space div 2	 | 300 x extend_factor |
	   |shrink	   | space div 3	 | 100 x extend_factor |
	   |extra space	   | space div 3	 | missing	       |
	   |quad	   | 2 x width of `0'	 | 1000	x	       |
	   |		   |			 | extend_factor       |
	   |space	   | (space source font) | (space source font) |
	   |		   | x extend_factor	 | x extend_factor     |
	   For fixed-pitch fonts, different values apply:

	   |Font dimension | Default value	 | Afm2tfm value   |
	   |stretch	   | 0			 | 0		   |
	   |shrink	   | 0			 | 0		   |
	   |extra space	   | space		 | missing	   |
	   |quad	   | 2 x character width | 1000	x	   |
	   |		   |			 | extend_factor   |
	   |space	   | character width	 | character width |
	   Specify just	a non-default stretch and shrink with e.g.  150,70 and
	   just	a non-default extra space with ,,10.

	   Keep	original ligatures. This option	only has effect	in combination
	   with	positive letterspacing;	see the	section	on letterspacing and
	   extra ligkern info.

       -m letter_spacing
	   Letterspace by letter_spacing/1000 em (integer). This is useful for
	   making all-caps typesetting look better. Try	a value	of e.g.	50 or
	   100.	But see	the section on letterspacing and extra ligkern info
	   for details.	A better alternative, though, is letting pdftex	do the
	   letterspacing. The microtype	package	gives LaTeX users access to
	   this	feature.

       -l ligkern_spec,	-L ligkern_spec
	   See the section on extra ligkern info for details.

	   No prefix. For .enc-	and .lig files,	the program normally first
	   prefixes the	name with `afm2pl-'. Only if the prefixed filename is
	   not found, will it search for the original filename.	This option
	   prevents searching for the prefixed filename.

	   Verbose. If turned on, it reports the number	of missing glyphs to
	   stderr and their names to stdout.

	   Display a short usage message.

	   Display the version number of afm2pl.

       afm2pl writes a mapfile entry to	a file with the	same basename as the
       pl output file, but with	extension .map.	It can be used for the dvips
       mapfile and for the pdftex mapfile. It is assumed that the pfb file has
       the same	basename as the	afm file and must be downloaded.  You may have
       to hand-edit this entry.

       You can configure dvips and pdftex to read this additional mapfile or
       otherwise add the entry to an existing mapfile.

       Check your mapfiles!  To	reduce the likelihood of name conflicts, the
       .enc- files which are part of afm2pl (ot1, ot1csc, ot1ital, ot1tt,
       texnanlc	and texnanuc) have now been prepended with afm2pl-. The	.enc
       files are referenced in mapfiles. If you	have old afm2pl-generated .tfm
       files using these, then you should update their mapfile fragments and
       rerun updmap or updmap-sys. Or you can copy the relevant	enc files to
       your personal or	local texmf tree under their previous non-prefixed

       Most users are well-advised to leave this mess alone and	to accept the
       default behavior.

       The ligatures and kerns present in the afm file can be modified in
       various ways. Default, the encoding file	is scanned for extra ligkern
       specifications, whose format will be described below. If	there are no
       ligkern specifications in the encoding file, then extra ligkern
       specifications will be read from	a file [afm2pl-]default.lig. A value
       of 0 for	ligkern_spec means that	the ligatures and kerns	from the afm
       file won't be tampered with and a value of 1 specifies default
       behavior. One can also specify a	comma-separated	list of	files with
       extra ligkerns specs.

       If afm2pl is compiled with the kpathsea library,	then these files will
       be searched for under $TEXMF/fonts/lig.

       Note that ligatures and kerns are hints for the typesetting
       application; there is no	need to	download this information to the
       printer or to make it available to a dvi	driver.

       The parser for ligkern info has been inherited from afm2tfm virtually
       without change. A ligkern specification can have	one of the following

	   glyph_name1 glyph_name2 lig_op glyph_name3 ;

       This specifies a	ligature. Possible values for lig_op are =:, |=:,
       |=:>, =:|, =:|>,	|=:|, |=:|> and	|=:|>>.	These correspond to LIG, /LIG,
       /LIG>, LIG/, LIG/>, /LIG/, /LIG/>, /LIG/>> in .pl syntax; see the
       pltotf documentation and	the .lig files in the distribution.

	   glyph_name1 <> glyph_name2 ;

       Kern glyph_name1	as glyph_name2.

	   glyph_name1 {} glyph_name2 ;

       Remove the kern between glyph_name1 and glyph_name2. A value of * for
       either glyph name is interpreted	as a wildcard.

	   || =	glyph ;

       Set the (right) boundary	character to glyph.  glyph may be either a
       glyphname or a slot in the encoding vector. Choosing a glyph which
       doesn't occur in	the output encoding is equivalent to not specifying a
       boundarychar at all. It is ok to	pick an	encoded	glyphname which	does
       not occur in the	afm. In	fact, this is what default.lig does: ||	= cwm

       You can copy the	kerns of an unencoded character	to the boundarychar.
       Below, space is the unencoded character:

	   || <> space ;

       This ligkern specification should occur before the one that deletes
       space kerns.

       A ligkern specification should be contained within one line. One	line
       may contain several ligkern specifications, separated by	spaces.	Note
       that ; (space followed by semicolon) is considered part of the ligkern
       specification. See the lig files	included in this distribution.

	   one {} * ; *	{} one ; two {}	* ; * {} two ;

       Lines with ligkern specifications inside	an encoding file should	start
       with % LIGKERN. Ligkern specifications in a lig file may	optionally
       start this way.

       Letterspacing has various side-effects for ligkern info.	Instead	of
       simply applying the extra ligkern info (see previous section), the
       following is done:

       1.     In case of positive letterspacing, native	ligatures are removed,
	      unless the -k option is specified.

       2.     Extra ligkern info is applied as usual, except that in case of
	      positive letterspacing different defaults	apply: -l 0 is quietly
	      ignored, ligkern comments	in the encoding	file are ignored, and
	      defpre.lig is read instead of default.lig.

       3.     Letterspacing is applied.	This adds a lot	of kerns, and modifies
	      existing kerns.

       4.     The extra	ligkern	info specified with -L is applied. The only
	      ligkern specs which are allowed here, are	removals of kerning
	      pairs (with the {} operator). Values 0 and 1 have	a similar
	      meaning as for the -l parameter.	The tfm	format has room	for
	      only about 180x180 ligatures and kerning pairs.  This is enough
	      for OT1 encoding,	but for	texnansi encoding quite	a few ligkern
	      specifications have to be	removed. The pltotf program will
	      remove all ligkern info if too many ligatures and	kerns remain.
	      The default lig file is defpost.lig. This	file throws out
	      kerning pairs which are unlikely to be involved in
	      letterspacing, such as kerns involving accents or	kerns with a
	      punctuation character or right bracket at	the left. It does not
	      add letterspacing	kerns involving	boundarychars. Instead,
	      fontspace	is increased by	twice the letterspacing. defpost.lig
	      throws out enough	kerns in case of texnansi encoding. With other
	      encodings, you may have to throw out additional kerning pairs.

       The distribution	includes encoding vectors texnanuc.enc and
       texnanlc.enc which produce all-uppercase	and all-lowercase fonts

       The principal uses for an all-uppercase font are	page headers and
       section heads. If these contain math, then macro-based uppercasing
       would create unpleasant complications. Example:

	   afm2pl -p texnanuc ptmr8a ptmup8y
	   pltotf ptmup8y

       For best	results, you should add	some letterspacing. In LaTeX, this is
       best done with the microtype package; see the documentation of that
       package.	But it can also	be done	with afm2pl:

	   afm2pl -p texnanuc -m 100 ptmr8a ptmup8y

       This requires caution; see above.

       You can use this	new font within	the context of LaTeX font selection as

	   <preamble commands>
	   \DeclareFontShape{LY1}{ptm}{m}{upp}{<-> ptmup8y}{}}
	   {\fontshape{upp}\selectfont uppercase text}

       Note that upp is	simply a newly made-up shape name.

   The sz ligature ss
       Note that the texnanuc encoding provides	no glyph for the sz ligature
       ss; you'll either have to substitute ss or provide a macro-based
       solution. The following code uses either	the usual glyph	or substitutes
       the letters ss, depending on whether the	glyph exists in	the current

	     \ifnum\wd0=0 ss\else\box0\fi

       In LaTeX, this code appears to work well	enough,	although on occasion
       you may need to insert \protect.	A better solution might	involve	the
       sixth parameter of the \DeclareFontShape	macro, but I failed to get
       that to work.

       Afm2pl doesn't do virtual fonts.	That means that	for things such	as
       artificial smallcaps you	have to	turn elsewhere,	e.g. to	the fontinst
       package,	which is part of any mainstream	TeX distribution.

       Look under texmf/tex/fontinst for fontinst support files, which allow
       you to generate a smallcaps font	(tfm and vf files) from	an
       afm2pl-generated	tfm file. This package only supports texnansi

       There should be no real problem in doing	the same for OT1 encoding.
       However,	there are several variations of	the OT1	encoding to take care
       of. Also, there are as far as I know no officially sanctioned
       PostScript names	for all	the variations of the OT1 encoding; the
       fontinst	names contain spaces and are therefore not useable as
       PostScript names.

       In order	to avoid name conflicts, the .enc- and .lig files distributed
       with afm2pl got afm2pl- prepended to their name.	The program itself now
       first searches for the thus prepended name. If the .enc-	or .lig	file
       is not found it will look for the original filename. The	renaming of
       the afm2pl .enc files may require modification of some mapfiles.

       The afm2pl homepage is

       The paper Font installation the shallow way[2] (EuroTeX 2006
       Proceedings, published as TUGboat[3] issue 27.1)	illustrates the	use of

	1. Except that arguably	a narrowed Courier is less jarring than	a
	   full-width Courier, when used in combination	with a normal
	   proportional	font. For Courier, choose .833 to match	the width of
	   cmtt. Better	yet, don't use Courier at all; most TeX	distributions
	   offer various good replacements.

	2. Font	installation the shallow way

	3. TUGboat

				   May 2009			     AFM2PL(1)


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