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adb(1)			    General Commands Manual			adb(1)

NAME
       adb - absolute debugger

SYNOPSIS
       path] kernelfile	memfile

       path] kernelfile	crashdir

       path] crashdir

       path] [objfile] [corefile]

       path] pid [execfile]

DESCRIPTION
       The command executes a general-purpose debugging	program	that is	sensi-
       tive to the underlying architecture of the processor and	operating sys-
       tem  on	which  it runs.	 It can	be used	to examine files and provide a
       controlled environment for executing HP-UX programs.

       inspects	exactly	one object file, referred to as	 the  and  one	memory
       file,  referred	to  as the Either of these files can be	the NULL file,
       specified by the	argument, which	is a file with no contents.   The  ob-
       ject  file  and the memory file are specified using the following argu-
       ments:

       kernelfile  An HP-UX kernel, usually

       memfile	   or memfile is assumed to be on an HP-UX system running ker-
		   nelfile if kernelfile is specified.

       crashdir	   A directory containing an HP-UX system crash	dump, which is
		   assumed to be produced from	kernelfile  if	kernelfile  is
		   specified.

       objfile	   Normally  an	executable program file.  It can also be a re-
		   locatable object file, shared library file or a  DLKM  mod-
		   ule.	 The default for objfile is

       corefile	   A  core  image  file	produced after executing objfile.  The
		   default for corefile	is

       execfile	   The executable file corresponding to	pid, the process ID of
		   the process to be adopted for debugging by

       The  current  object  file  may	be  any	one of kernelfile, the file in
       crashdir, objfile, or execfile.	The  current  object  file  preferably
       should contain a	symbol table; if it does not, the symbolic features of
       cannot be used, although	the file can still be examined.	  The  current
       memory  file  may  be  any  one	of  memfile, the system	memory dump in
       crashdir, corefile, or the memory of process pid.

       Requests	to are read from standard input	and responds on	standard  out-
       put.   If  the  flag  is	present, objfile is created (if	necessary) and
       opened for reading and writing, to be modified using ignores QUIT;  IN-
       TERRUPT causes return to	the next command.

       There  are  two	modes of operation for backward	compatibility mode and
       normal mode.  Backward compatibility mode is the	default	on PA systems.
       Normal mode is the default on Itanium systems.

   Options
       recognizes  the following command-line options, which can appear	in any
       order but must appear before any	file arguments:

       Print a usage summary and exit.
		 If this option	is used, all other options and	arguments  are
		 ignored.

       path	 specifies a list of directories where files read with or (see
		 below)	are sought.  This list has the	same  syntax  as,  and
		 similar semantics to, the shell variable; the default is

       Specify the normal mode.	 This is the default on	Itanium	systems.  This
       option is mutually exclusive with the
		 option.  The last one specified takes effect.

       Specify backward	compatibility mode. This is the	default	on PA systems.
       This option is mutually exclusive with the
		 option.  The last one specified takes effect.

       Adopt process with process ID
		 pid  as  a ``traced'' process;	see ttrace(2).	This option is
		 helpful for debugging processes that were not originally  run
		 under the control of

       This option must	be specified to	enable the file	write commands of
		 Objfile  is  opened for reading and writing.  It also enables
		 writes	to memfile if it is a kernel memory file.

       The following command-line options to are obsolete and  are  no	longer
       required.  (If used they	generate a warning.)

       Previously
	      required this option to recognize	HP-UX crash dumps or

       Previously
	      required	this  option  to  recognize  multiple file HP-UX crash
	      dumps.

       Requests	to follow either the traditional form:

	      [address]	[ ] [command-char] [command-arguments]

       or the new form:

	      keyword [command-arguments]

       Only the	traditional form is available in backward compatibility	mode.

       If address is present, is set to	address.  is the state variable	 which
       keeps  track  of	 the current address.  is another state	variable which
       keeps track of increments to as steps through a format string; see  be-
       low.   Initially	 and are set to	For most commands, count specifies the
       number of times the command is to be executed.  The  default  count  is
       address and count are expressions.

       The  interpretation of an address depends on the	context	in which it is
       used.  If a subprocess is being debugged, addresses are interpreted  in
       the address space of the	subprocess.  (For further details see below.)

       The command-char	and command-arguments specify the command to run.  See
       below.

   Expressions
       All expression primaries	are treated as 64-bit  unsigned	 integers  and
       the  expression	also evaluates to a 64-bit unsigned integer.  The fol-
       lowing primaries	are supported:

	      integer	  A number.  The prefixes (zero), and force  interpre-
			  tation in octal radix; the prefixes and force	inter-
			  pretation in decimal radix; the prefixes  and	 force
			  interpretation  in  hexadecimal  radix; the prefixes
			  and force interpretation in binary radix.  Thus =  =
			  =  =	sixteen.   If  no  prefix appears, the default
			  radix	is used; see the command.  The radix  is  ini-
			  tialized  to	hexadecimal.   Note that a hexadecimal
			  number whose most significant	digit would  otherwise
			  be an	alphabetic character must have a (or prefix.

	      The ASCII	value of up to 8 characters.
			  If  more  than 8 characters are specified, the value
			  is undefined.	 A backslash can be used to  escape  a
			  single quote

	      Register.	 The value of the register is obtained
			  from	the  register set corresponding	to the current
			  memory file.	Register names are implementation  de-
			  pendent; see the command.

	      symbol	  A  symbol  is	 a  sequence of	uppercase or lowercase
			  letters, underscores,	or digits, not starting	with a
			  digit.   A  backslash	 can  be  used to escape other
			  characters.  The value of the	symbol is  taken  from
			  the symbol table in the current object file.

	      variable	  A  variable  name consists of	alphabets and numerals
			  and always starts with $.  Names of registers	in the
			  target  processor are	reserved as variable names and
			  can be used to access	registers in expressions.

			  In backward compatibility mode, a variable is	a sin-
			  gle numeral or alphabet except for registers and the
			  prefix letter	is

			  Here is a list of variables supported	in both	modes.

			  The count on the last
			       command.

			  The base address of the data segment.

			  The data segment size.

			  The text segment size.

			  The entry point.

			  The stack segment size.

			  The ``magic''	number as defined in

			  On entry, b, d, and t	are set	from  the  headers  in
			  the current memory file.  If the current memory file
			  does not appear to be	valid  these  values  are  set
			  from	the  current  object  file.  e is set from the
			  current object file.

			  Note:	These are set only from	core files and	object
			  files.

       The following primaries are supported only in the normal	mode:

	      The value	of

	      The value	of
		   increased by	the value of

	      The value	of
		   decreased by	the value of

	      The last
		   address typed.

       The  following  primaries  are supported	only in	backward compatibility
       mode:

	      The value	of

	      The value	of
		   increased by	the value of

	      The value	of
		   decreased by	the value of

	      "	   The last address typed.

       The following C arithmetic, relational and logical operators  are  sup-
       ported and have the same	precedence as in C:

       The C unary sign	operators and and the operator are also	supported.

       In  addition to the above operators the following specific unary	opera-
       tors are	supported and have the same precedence as the other unary  op-
       erators:

	      The contents of the location addressed by
			  exp in the current memory file.

	      @exp	  The contents of the location addressed by exp	in the
			  current object file.

       The following adb specific binary operator has the same	precedence  as
       the operator:

	      exp1	  rounded up to	the next multiple of exp2.

       In  backward compatibility mode,	the operator has the same semantics as
       the operator.  The unary	operator is not	available in this mode.

       Sub-expressions containing any of the  following	 operators  should  be
       protected by if used in address or count	expressions:

       In  addition  to	the above, in backward compatibility mode the operator
       also should be protected.

   Commands
       As mentioned above, commands may	be specified in	the or the In backward
       compatibility mode, only	the traditional	form is	supported.

   Traditional Form Commands
       The  following  categories of commands are specified in the traditional
       command form:

       o    File commands
       o    Keyword commands
       o    Process commands
       o    Thread commands
       o    Shell commands

       In backward compatibility mode:

       o      Variable commands
       These commands operate on the current object file or the	current	memory
       file and	are used to read, write, etc.

       file_selector[ modifier]	[ | index] [arglist]

       The file_selector can be	one of these:

	      The selected file	is the current object file.

	      The selected file	is the current memory file.

	      This special symbol is only used for printing the	value of

       The modifier specifies the operation on the file; modifier can be:

	      (no modifier)
			  It  takes a single optional argument list which is a
			  format string.  prints data from the	selected  file
			  according  to	the format string.  If a format	string
			  is not present and the file selector is or then uses
			  the  format  string used by either of	these earlier.
			  If the file selector is and a	format string  is  not
			  present,  then  uses	the  format string used	by the
			  previous command.

	      /	[ , size ] value [ mask	]
			  Search the  selected	file.	Words  of  size,  size
			  starting  at	are masked with	mask and compared with
			  value	until a	match is found.	 If found, is  set  to
			  that	address	of masked object.  If mask is omitted,
			  no mask is used.  is set to 0.  Valid	values of size
			  are 1, 2, 4, 8.  If no size is specified then	is as-
			  sumed.  value	and mask are unsigned integers of size
			  size bytes.

			  For example: Search for 4 byte value,	4 ( 6 &	5 ) in
			  the current object file, starting at expr.

	      =	[ , size ] value1 value2 ...
			  Write	a size sized value at the addressed  location.
			  is  incremented by size after	each write.  is	set to
			  0.  Values of	size and values	are same as for	/ mod-
			  ifier.   For	this  operation,  the  file  should be
			  opened with option.

			  For example: Write 6 & 5 in the current object  file
			  at  addresses	expr and expr+4	respectively, starting
			  at expr.

	      _	[ , index ] b e	f
			  Set the indexth mapping triple parameters of the se-
			  lected  file to the corresponding argument values in
			  order.  Refer	to If fewer than three	arguments  are
			  given,  remaining  maps remain unchanged.  The argu-
			  ments	are expressions.  If not specified,  index  is
			  assumed to be	0.  For	example: Set b,	e, f (index 0)
			  of the current object	file to	1, 2, 3	respectively.

       In  backward  compatibility  mode  the  following  modifiers  are  also
       present.

	      It has same behavior as that when	no modifier
			  is  present.	 However,  it  uses the	second mapping
			  triple to locate the file  address  of  data	to  be
			  printed.

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with an implicit size	of 2.  It sets to 2.

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with an implicit size	of 4.  It sets to 4.

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with	an  implicit size of 2.	 It sets to 2.	It in-
			  crements by the total	size of	all the	values written
			  minus

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with	an  implicit size of 4.	 It sets to 4.	is set
			  as for

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with an implicit index of 0.

	      It has same behavior as modifier
			  with an implicit index of 1.

       For these modifiers, no explicit	size or	index can be mentioned.	 These
       modifiers  are deprecated.  Run the Keyword Command Form	using the tra-
       ditional	command	form by	prefixing the command with Please refer	to for
       the complete list of keyword commands.  These commands deal with	manag-
       ing subprocesses.  can run an object file as a subprocess Also, it  can
       adopt  a	 subprocess  given  its	 pid.  can debug multi-threaded	and/or
       forked subprocesses.  It	can also debug	mutiple	 subprocesses  at  the
       same time.  However, at any time	it focuses on a	one subprocess and one
       of its threads called the and respectively.

       The command consists of followed	by the modifier	and an	optional  list
       of arguments.  They are:

	      r	[ objfile ]
			  Run  objfile	as  a subprocess.  If address is given
			  explicitly, the program is entered  at  this	point;
			  otherwise the	program	is entered at its standard en-
			  try point.   The  value  count  specifies  how  many
			  breakpoints  are ignored before stopping.  arguments
			  to the subprocess may	be supplied on the  same  line
			  as  the command.  Semicolon is not used as a command
			  separator.  An argument starting with	< or >	causes
			  the  standard	 input or output to be established for
			  the command.	All signals are	turned on when	enter-
			  ing  the  subprocess.	 Such a	subprocess is referred
			  to as	a

			  If there are other created subprocesses running, all
			  are  killed.	 It does not kill any attached subpro-
			  cesses.  This	becomes	the current subprocess.

	      e	[ objfile ]
			  Set up a subprocess as in no instructions  are  exe-
			  cuted.

	      a	[ objfile ]
			  Causes to adopt process with pid as a	traced subpro-
			  cess.	 If the	 objfile  is  specified,  uses	it  to
			  lookup  symbol  information.	Count has same meaning
			  as in	Such a subprocess is referred to  as  an  This
			  subprocess becomes the current subprocess.

	      k	[ pid |	* ]
			  Kills	a created subprocess.  If no argument is spec-
			  ified	it kills the current subprocess.  If a pid  is
			  given, it kills the subprocess with that pid.	 if is
			  given, it kills all created subprocesses.

			  The current subprocess is chosen from	the  remaining
			  subprocesses.

	      de [ pid | * ]
			  The  arguments  can be a pid or a Same as however it
			  applies to  attached	subprocesses.	detaches  from
			  them.

	      c	[ signal ]
			  Continues the	current	subprocess with	signal signal.
			  It continues all the threads of the subprocess.   If
			  no signal is specified, the signal that caused it to
			  stop is sent.	 If address is specified, the  current
			  thread  continues at this address.  Breakpoint skip-
			  ping is the same as for

	      s	[ signal | arg1	arg2 ... ]
			  Step the current thread count	times.	If address  is
			  given,  then	the  thread continues at that address,
			  else from the	address	where it had stopped.	If  no
			  signal  is  specified,  the signal that caused it to
			  stop is sent.	 If there is  no  current  subprocess,
			  object  file	is  run	as a subprocess	as for In this
			  case no signal can be	sent;  the  remainder  of  the
			  line is treated as arguments to the subprocess.

	      b	[ command ]
			  Sets breakpoint at address in	the current subprocess
			  The breakpoint  is  executed	count-1	 times	before
			  causing a stop.  Each	time the breakpoint is encoun-
			  tered, the command is	executed.  This	breakpoint  is
			  a  subprocess	breakpoint.  If	any of the thread exe-
			  cutes	the instruction	at this	address, it will stop.
			  Multiple breakpoints can be set at the same address.

	      d	[ num |	* ]
			  Deletes  all	breakpoints  at	address	in the current
			  subprocess, if it is specified.  If is specified, it
			  deletes  all the current subprocess breakpoints.  If
			  num is specified,  breakpoint	 with  number  num  is
			  deleted.

	      en [ num | * ]
			  Enables  all	breakpoints  at	address	in the current
			  subprocess, if it is specified.  If is specified, it
			  enables  all the current subprocess breakpoints.  If
			  num is specified, breakpoint with number num is  en-
			  abled.

	      di [ num | * ]
			  Disables  all	 breakpoints at	address	in the current
			  subprocess, if it is specified.  If is specified, it
			  disables all the current subprocess breakpoints.  If
			  num is specified, breakpoint with number num is dis-
			  abled.

	      z	signum [ +s | -s | +r |	-r | +d	| -d ]
			  Changes  signal  handling for	a specified signum for
			  all the threads of the current subprocess.  Disposi-
			  tion can be specified	as:

			       Stop subprocess when signum is received.

			       Do not stop
				    subprocess when signum is received.

			       Report when
				    signum is received.

			       Do not report when
				    signum is received.

			       Deliver
				    signum to the target subprocess.

			       Do not deliver
				    signal to the target subprocess.

	      w	[ pid ]	  Switches  from the current subprocess	to the subpro-
			  cess with process ID pid.  This process becomes  the
			  current  subprocess.	This subprocess	must be	an al-
			  ready	attached or created subprocess.	 Both  subpro-
			  cesses are in	stopped	state after this command.

	      wc [ pid ]  Same	as  however the	previous current subprocess is
			  not stopped.
       These commands manage the threads in the	current	subprocess.  The  com-
       mand  consists  of  a  followed	by a modifier and an optional argument
       list.

       s [ signum ]   Same as However it is strictly for  the  current	thread
		      only.

       c [ signum ]   Same  as	However	 it continues only the current thread.
		      And count	refers to the breakpoint to skip for the  cur-
		      rent thread.

       b [ command ]  Same as However it applies to the	current	thread only.

       d [ num | * ]  Same as However it applies to current thread only.

       en [ num	| * ] Same as However it applies to the	current	thread only.

       di [ num	| * ] Same as However it applies to the	current	thread only.

       z signum	[ +s | -s | +r | -r | +d | -d ]
		      Same as However it is meant for the current thread only.
		      If a signum occurs in the	context	of  this  thread  this
		      disposition value	is used	instead	of that	of the subpro-
		      cess.

       es [ signum ]  Sets the flag for	this signum for	 the  current  thread.
		      It  means	 that if this signal signum occurs in the con-
		      text of this thread's signal disposition value  is  used
		      instead of that of the subprocess.

       w [ pid ]      Switch  from  the	 current  thread to some other thread.
		      Both the threads are in stopped state after this and the
		      thread with threadid becomes the current thread.
       This  action  consists of a character followed by a string.  The	string
       is passed unchanged to the shell	defined	by the environment variable or
       to  This	is supported in	backward compatibility mode only.  It consists
       of a followed by	a variable, var	and an optional	 value.	  This	action
       assigns value to	the variable or	register named by var.

       If  not specified, value	is assumed to be the value of This behavior is
       deprecated.

   Keyword Form	Commands
       All commands in this form consist of a keyword followed by  a  variable
       number of arguments.

       In  backward compatibility mode,	a must precede these keyword form com-
       mands.

	      _	filename  Reads	commands from filename.	 If  this  command  is
			  executed in a	file, further commands in the file are
			  not seen.

			  In backward compatibility mode, if a count is	given,
			  it  is placed	in variable 9 before the first command
			  in the file is executed.  This  behavior  is	depre-
			  cated.

	      __ filename Similar  to  except it can be	used in	a file of com-
			  mands	without	causing	the file to be closed.

			  In backward compatibility mode, variable 9 is	 saved
			  when	the  command  executes and is restored when it
			  completes.  This behavior is deprecated.

	      _	filename  It sends output to filename, which is	created	if  it
			  does not already exist.

			  In  backward	compatibility  mode, the output	is ap-
			  pended to filename.

	      __ filename Similar to except that the  output  is  appended  to
			  filename.

	      Print the	process	ID and register	values.

	      Print the	general	registers and the instruction
			  addressed by the process counter.

	      Print all	the registers.

	      Print the	floating-point registers.

	      Print the	double precision floating-point	registers.

	      Print  all  breakpoints,	their number, associated counts, state
	      and
			  commands of the current subprocess.

	      Print information	about all the
			  subprocesses being traced by that is,	their  process
			  IDs,	their types (created or	attached), counts, and
			  threadids.

	      Print information	about the
			  current subprocess (process ID, type,	count).	 Also,
			  print	 information  about  each  thread  (thread ID,
			  count, signal) of the	current	subprocess.

	      Print information	about the
			  current thread (thread ID, count, signal).

	      The arguments can	be
			  address and count.  Print C stack backtrace.	If ad-
			  dress	 is  given,  it	is taken as the	address	of the
			  current frame	(instead of  the  normal  stack	 frame
			  pointer).   If  count	is given, only the first count
			  frames are printed.

			  In backward compatibility mode, this command	has  a
			  non-standard	deprecated behavior.  If arguments are
			  not mentioned, it uses address and count.

	      w	[ width	] Set the page width for output	to  width.   (The  de-
			  fault	is 80.)

			  In  backward	compatibility mode, this command has a
			  non-standard deprecated behavior.  If	width  is  not
			  mentioned, address is	taken as width.

	      s	[ offset ]
			  Set to offset.

			  In  backward	compatibility mode, this command has a
			  non-standard deprecated behavior.  If	offset is  not
			  mentioned, address is	taken as offset.

	      The default radix	for all	integers input is set to octal.

	      d	[ radix	] Set the default radix	to radix.

			  In  backward	compatibility mode, this command has a
			  non-standard deprecated behavior.  If	radix  is  not
			  mentioned, address is	taken as radix.

	      The default radix	for all	integers input is set to hexadecimal.

	      Quit

	      Print the	value of all
			  variables.

	      Print the	address	map.
			  This	includes both the initial and default maps for
			  a valid corefile with	an indication of which is cur-
			  rently active.

	      Print a list of
			  signals  and	how  they  are handled for the current
			  subprocess.

	      Print a list of
			  signals, their associated flags, and	how  they  are
			  handled for the current thread.

	      Print all	DLKM modules or	shared libraries.

	      n	[ nodenumber ]
			  Without arguments print node information on a	CCNUMA
			  machine.  With a nodenumber argument,	change to that
			  node.

	      p	traditional_cmd
			  This	keyword	command	takes a	traditional command as
			  argument and interprets it.

	      a	var value Assign value to variable var.

       The following commands can run only in backward compatibility mode.

	      newline	  Print	the process ID and register values.

	      Toggle the address mapping of memfile between  the  initial  map
	      set up
			  or  a	valid memory file and the default mapping pair
			  which	the user can modify with the file action modi-
			  fier	If  the	 memory	file was invalid, only the de-
			  fault	mapping	is available.

	      N	[ nodenumber ]
			  Print	the number of nodes on V-class	multinode  ma-
			  chines  and  the  current node number.  To switch to
			  another node,	enter $N nodenumber.

	      Print double precision floating point registers.

	      Print all	registers.

	      Print unwind tables.

   Format String
       A is used to specify the	formatting to be done before data  is  printed
       by There	are two	types of format	strings	supported by and A traditional
       style format string is a	sequence of A format string is always preceded
       by a comma and enclosed within double quotes (""), and is a sequence of
       format specifiers and other characters.	Each format  specifier	should
       be  preceded  by	 a character.  Characters other	than format specifiers
       are printed as is.  If needed, should be	escaped	by It supports C  lan-
       guage style character escape sequences.

       While  processing a format string, scans	the format string from left to
       right and applies each encountered to the object	addressed by  the  sum
       of  and After each conversion specifier is processed, is	incremented by
       count times size	(implicit or explicit) of that	conversion  specifier.
       If  the	format	string is used to print	the value of (using action and
       remain unchanged.  For operator,	is updated appropriately.

       In backward compatibility  mode,	 only  the  traditional	 style	format
       string is supported.  A can be a	or a

       Each  conversion	 specifier consists of an optional count or pspec fol-
       lowed by	an optional size specifier character, followed by a conversion
       specifier character.

       count This  is  available only for the traditional style	format string.
	     The count specifies the number of times this conversion specifier
	     is	to be repeated.	 If not	specified, count is assumed to be 1.

       pspec This  is  available only for the format string.  It is a sequence
	     of	flags, fieldwidth and precision	as in the  printf(3S)  library
	     function.

       size specifier character
	     This specifies the	size of	object to which	this is	applied.  Size
	     can be specified in two ways.  One	is using absolute size	speci-
	     fier  and other is	relative size specifier.  Absolute size	speci-
	     fiers are as follows.

	     The size of the object is 1 byte.

	     The size of the object is 2 bytes.

	     The size of the object is 4 bytes.

	     The size of the object is 8 bytes.

	     The size of the object is 16 bytes.

	     Relative size specifiers are as follows

	     The size of the object is the size	of a machine word of the  tar-
	     get processor.

	     The  size of the object is	half the size of a machine word	of the
	     target processor.

	     The size of the object is double the size of a  machine  word  of
	     the target
		  processor.

	     The  size	of  the	 object	is the size of a pointer on the	target
	     processor.	 This will
		  be different for wide	files and narrow files.

	     The size of the object is the size	of an instruction of the  tar-
	     get processor.  This
		  will be supported only on processors where this is constant.

       Conversion Specifier Character

	     The following characters are supported

	     The value of dot is printed in symbolic form.

	     The object	is printed as a	character.

	     The object	is printed as an unsigned octal	number.

	     The object	is printed as a	signed decimal number.

	     The object	is printed as an unsigned decimal number.

	     The object	is disassembled	as an instruction and printed.

	     The object	is printed in a	floating point format according	to its
	     size.

	     The object	is printed in symbolic form.

	     The object	is assumed to be a null	terminated string and printed.
	     This cannot
		  be used to print

	     The object	is cast	to type
		  and printed in the ctime(3C) format.

	     Here  the	format	strings	support	only and If the	size specifier
	     character is not specified, it is assumed to  be  for  conversion
	     character	for  conversion	 characters and	for for	and for	every-
	     thing else.

       For example.

       A dot operator consists of an optional count, optional  size  specifier
       character, and a	dot operator character.

	      count count  specifies  the number of times this dot operator is
		    to be repeated.  If	not specified, count is	assumed	to  be
		    1.	The count is always 1 for format strings.

	      Size Specifier Character
		    Same as size specifier character of	conversion specifier.

	      Dot operator character
		    This can be	one of these

		    Increment
			 by count times	size.

		    Decrement
			 by count times	size.

	      For example:
       In  backward compatibility mode,	the can	be a conversion	specifier, dot
       operator, spacing specifier, or a literal string.

       A conversion specifier consists of an optional count followed by	a con-
       version specifier character.

	      count Specify  the  number of times this conversion specifier is
		    to be repeated.  If	not specified, count is	assumed	to  be
		    1.

	      Conversion Specifier Character
		    These  have	 an implicit size.  No explicit	size is	recog-
		    nized.  The	following  format  characters  are  available:
		    (Their implicit sizes are mentioned	next to	them.)

		    The	object is printed as an	unsigned octal number.

		    The	object is printed as an	unsigned octal number.

		    The	object is printed as a signed octal number.

		    The	object is printed as a signed octal number.

		    The	object is printed as a signed decimal number.

		    The	object is printed as a signed decimal number.

		    The	object is printed as a unsigned	hexadecimal number.

		    The	object is printed as a unsigned	hexadecimal number.

		    The	object is printed as a unsigned	hexadecimal number.

		    The	object is printed as a unsigned	decimal	number.

		    The	object is printed as a unsigned	decimal	number.

		    The	object is printed as a floating	point number.

		    The	object is printed as a double precision	floating point
		    number.

		    The	object is printed as a hexadecimal number.

		    The	object is printed as an	octal number.

		    The	object is printed as a character (the sign bit is  ig-
		    nored).

		    The	 object	 is printed as a character using the following
		    escape convention.
			    First, the sign bit	is discarded,  then  character
			    values  000	 to 040	are printed as followed	by the
			    corresponding character in the range 0100 to 0140.
			    The	character is represented as

		    The	object is assumed to be	a sequence of bytes terminated
		    with a n as	an instruction and printed.  The value of
			    n is the number of bytes occupied by the  instruc-
			    tion.  This	cannot be used to print

		    The	object is assumed to be	a sequence of bytes terminated
		    with a null	byte.
			    These bytes	of the object are  printed  as	a  se-
			    quence  of characters using	the escape convention.
			    The	value of n is the number of bytes in  the  ob-
			    ject including the null byte.  This	cannot be used
			    to print

		    The	object is printed in the date format (see
			    ctime(3C)).

		    The	object is disassembled as an instruction and  printed.
		    The	value of
			    n  is the number of	bytes occupied by the instruc-
			    tion.

		    The	value of dot is	printed	in symbolic form.

		    The	object is printed in symbolic form.  The value of
			    n s	machine-dependent.

	      For example:

       A dot operator consists of an optional count followed by	a dot operator
       character.

	      count Same as that of count of conversion	specifier.

	      Dot operator character
		    A dot operator character is	one of these:

		    is decreased by count times	size corresponding to the pre-
		    vious
			 conversion specifier character.

		    is increased by count.

		    is decreased by count.

       For example:

       A spacing specifier consists of an optional count or an	optional  tab-
       stop followed by	a

	      count Same as that of count of conversion	specifier.

	      tabstop
		    Same as that of count of conversion	specifier.  However it
		    is used only with the t spacing specifier.	If no value is
		    mentioned, it is assumed to	be 1.

	      spacing specifier	character
		    A spacing specifier	character can be one of	these:

		    Move  to  the  next	tab stop appropriate for tabstop.  For
		    example,
			 moves to the next 8-space tab stop.

		    Print a space.

		    Print a newline character.

       For example:

       A literal string	is any number of  characters  enclosed	within	double
       quotes

       For example:

   Address Maps
       In files	like object files and application core files, the virtual mem-
       ory address is the not the same as the file offset.  So keeps an	 array
       of for these files to map a given virtual memory	address	to a file off-
       set.  Each address map is a triple: start virtual address (b), end vir-
       tual  address (e) and start file	offset (f).  The triple	specifies that
       all addresses from b to e - 1 occupy a contiguous region	 in  the  file
       starting	 at f.	Given a	virtual	address	a such that b<=	a< e, the file
       offset of a can be computed as f+ a- b.

   State variables
       There are several variables which define	the state of at	any instant in
       time.  They are:

       Current address.	 Initial value is 0.

       Current address increment.  Initial value is 0.

       Prompt string used by adb.  Initial value is ``

       The  current input radix.  Initial value	is as in the assembly language
       of the
		      target processor.

       The maximum width of the	display.  Initial value	is 80.

       If an address is	within this limit from a known symbol,
		      prints the address as symbol_name+offset,	else  the  ad-
		      dress is printed.	 Initial value is

       List of directories to be searched for
		      macros.  Initial value is

       Pager command used by adb.
		      Initial value is

       Set to 1	if    is  in  backward	compatibility mode.  Initial value de-
		      pends on the host	processor.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character	code sets are supported.

RETURN VALUE
       comments	about inaccessible files, syntax errors, abnormal  termination
       of commands, etc.  Exit status is unless	the last command failed	or re-
       turned non-zero status.

AUTHOR
       was developed by	HP.

FILES
SEE ALSO
       ttrace(2), crt0(3), ctime(3C), end(3C), a.out(4), core(4), signal(5).

									adb(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | RETURN VALUE | AUTHOR | FILES | SEE ALSO

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