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AB(1)				      ab				 AB(1)

       ab - Apache HTTP	server benchmarking tool

       ab [ -A auth-username:password ]	[ -b windowsize	] [ -B local-address ]
       [ -c concurrency	] [ -C cookie-name=value ] [ -d	] [ -e csv-file	] [ -E
       client-certificate  file	] [ -f protocol	] [ -g gnuplot-file ] [	-h ] [
       -H custom-header	] [ -i ] [ -k ]	[ -l ] [ -m HTTP-method	 ]  [  -n  re-
       quests  ] [ -p POST-file	] [ -P proxy-auth-username:password ] [	-q ] [
       -r ] [ -s timeout ] [ -S	] [ -t timelimit ] [ -T	content-type  ]	 [  -u
       PUT-file	] [ -v verbosity] [ -V ] [ -w ]	[ -x _table_-attributes	] [ -X
       proxy[:port] ] [	-y _tr_-attributes ] [ -z _td_-attributes ] [  -Z  ci-
       phersuite ] [http[s]://]hostname[:port]/path

       ab  is  a tool for benchmarking your Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol
       (HTTP) server. It is designed to	give you an  impression	 of  how  your
       current	Apache	installation  performs.	 This especially shows you how
       many requests per second	your Apache installation is capable  of	 serv-

       -A auth-username:password
	      Supply BASIC Authentication credentials to the server. The user-
	      name and password	are separated by a single : and	 sent  on  the
	      wire  base64  encoded.  The string is sent regardless of whether
	      the server needs	it  (i.e.,  has	 sent  an  401	authentication

       -b windowsize
	      Size of TCP send/receive buffer, in bytes.

       -B local-address
	      Address to bind to when making outgoing connections.

       -c concurrency
	      Number of	multiple requests to perform at	a time.	Default	is one
	      request at a time.

       -C cookie-name=value
	      Add a Cookie: line to the	request. The argument is typically  in
	      the form of a name=value pair. This field	is repeatable.

       -d     Do  not  display	the  "percentage served	within XX [ms] table".
	      (legacy support).

       -e csv-file
	      Write a Comma separated value (CSV) file which contains for each
	      percentage  (from	1% to 100%) the	time (in milliseconds) it took
	      to serve that percentage of the requests.	This is	 usually  more
	      useful  than  the	 'gnuplot'  file;  as  the results are already

       -E client-certificate-file
	      When connecting to an SSL	website, use the provided client  cer-
	      tificate in PEM format to	authenticate with the server. The file
	      is expected to contain the client	certificate, followed  by  in-
	      termediate  certificates,	followed by the	private	key. Available
	      in 2.4.36	and later.

       -f protocol
	      Specify SSL/TLS protocol (SSL2, SSL3, TLS1, TLS1.1,  TLS1.2,  or
	      ALL). TLS1.1 and TLS1.2 support available	in 2.4.4 and later.

       -g gnuplot-file
	      Write  all  measured values out as a 'gnuplot' or	TSV (Tab sepa-
	      rate values) file. This file can easily be imported  into	 pack-
	      ages like	Gnuplot, IDL, Mathematica, Igor	or even	Excel. The la-
	      bels are on the first line of the	file.

       -h     Display usage information.

       -H custom-header
	      Append extra headers to the request. The argument	 is  typically
	      in the form of a valid header line, containing a colon-separated
	      field-value pair (i.e., "Accept-Encoding:	zip/zop;8bit").

       -i     Do HEAD requests instead of GET.

       -k     Enable the HTTP KeepAlive	feature, i.e.,	perform	 multiple  re-
	      quests within one	HTTP session. Default is no KeepAlive.

       -l     Do  not report errors if the length of the responses is not con-
	      stant. This can be useful	for dynamic pages. Available in	 2.4.7
	      and later.

       -m HTTP-method
	      Custom  HTTP  method  for	 the requests. Available in 2.4.10 and

       -n requests
	      Number of	requests to perform for	the benchmarking session.  The
	      default  is to just perform a single request which usually leads
	      to non-representative benchmarking results.

       -p POST-file
	      File containing data to POST. Remember to	also set -T.

       -P proxy-auth-username:password
	      Supply BASIC Authentication credentials to a proxy en-route. The
	      username	and  password  are separated by	a single : and sent on
	      the wire base64  encoded.	 The  string  is  sent	regardless  of
	      whether  the proxy needs it (i.e., has sent an 407 proxy authen-
	      tication needed).

       -q     When processing more than	150 requests, ab  outputs  a  progress
	      count  on	 stderr	 every	10% or 100 requests or so. The -q flag
	      will suppress these messages.

       -r     Don't exit on socket receive errors.

       -s timeout
	      Maximum number of	seconds	to wait	before the socket  times  out.
	      Default is 30 seconds. Available in 2.4.4	and later.

       -S     Do  not  display	the  median and	standard deviation values, nor
	      display the warning/error	messages when the average  and	median
	      are more than one	or two times the standard deviation apart. And
	      default to the min/avg/max values. (legacy support).

       -t timelimit
	      Maximum number of	seconds	to spend for  benchmarking.  This  im-
	      plies  a	-n  50000 internally. Use this to benchmark the	server
	      within a fixed total amount of time. Per	default	 there	is  no

       -T content-type
	      Content-type header to use for POST/PUT data, eg.	application/x-
	      www-form-urlencoded. Default is text/plain.

       -u PUT-file
	      File containing data to PUT. Remember to also set	-T.

       -v verbosity
	      Set verbosity level - 4 and above	prints information on headers,
	      3	 and above prints response codes (404, 200, etc.), 2 and above
	      prints warnings and info.

       -V     Display version number and exit.

       -w     Print out	results	in HTML	tables.	Default	table is  two  columns
	      wide, with a white background.

       -x _table_-attributes
	      String to	use as attributes for <table>. Attributes are inserted
	      <table here >.

       -X proxy[:port]
	      Use a proxy server for the requests.

       -y _tr_-attributes
	      String to	use as attributes for <tr>.

       -z _td_-attributes
	      String to	use as attributes for <td>.

       -Z ciphersuite
	      Specify SSL/TLS cipher suite (See	openssl	ciphers)

       The following list describes the	values returned	by ab:

       Server Software
	      The value, if any, returned in the server	 HTTP  header  of  the
	      first  successful	 response. This	includes all characters	in the
	      header from beginning to the  point  a  character	 with  decimal
	      value of 32 (most	notably: a space or CR/LF) is detected.

       Server Hostname
	      The DNS or IP address given on the command line

       Server Port
	      The  port	 to which ab is	connecting. If no port is given	on the
	      command line, this will default to  80  for  http	 and  443  for

       SSL/TLS Protocol
	      The  protocol  parameters	 negotiated  between  the  client  and
	      server. This will	only be	printed	if SSL is used.

       Document	Path
	      The request URI parsed from the command line string.

       Document	Length
	      This is the size in bytes	of  the	 first	successfully  returned
	      document.	If the document	length changes during testing, the re-
	      sponse is	considered an error.

       Concurrency Level
	      The number of concurrent clients used during the test

       Time taken for tests
	      This is the time taken from the moment the first socket  connec-
	      tion is created to the moment the	last response is received

       Complete	requests
	      The number of successful responses received

       Failed requests
	      The  number  of  requests	that were considered a failure.	If the
	      number is	greater	than zero, another line	will be	printed	 show-
	      ing  the number of requests that failed due to connecting, read-
	      ing, incorrect content length, or	exceptions.

       Write errors
	      The number of errors that	failed during write (broken pipe).

       Non-2xx responses
	      The number of responses that were	not in the 200 series  of  re-
	      sponse  codes.  If  all  responses  were	200, this field	is not

       Keep-Alive requests
	      The number of connections	that resulted in Keep-Alive requests

       Total body sent
	      If configured to send data as part of the	test, this is the  to-
	      tal number of bytes sent during the tests. This field is omitted
	      if the test did not include a body to send.

       Total transferred
	      The total	number of bytes	received from the server. This	number
	      is essentially the number	of bytes sent over the wire.

       HTML transferred
	      The  total  number  of  document bytes received from the server.
	      This number excludes bytes received in HTTP headers

       Requests	per second
	      This is the number of requests per second. This value is the re-
	      sult of dividing the number of requests by the total time	taken

       Time per	request
	      The  average  time  spent	per request. The first value is	calcu-
	      lated with the formula concurrency * timetaken  *	 1000  /  done
	      while  the second	value is calculated with the formula timetaken
	      *	1000 / done

       Transfer	rate
	      The rate of transfer as calculated by the	 formula  totalread  /
	      1024 / timetaken

       There are various statically declared buffers of	fixed length. Combined
       with the	lazy parsing of	the command line arguments, the	response head-
       ers from	the server and other external inputs, this might bite you.

       It  does	 not  implement	 HTTP/1.x  fully; only accepts some 'expected'
       forms of	responses. The rather heavy use	of strstr(3) shows up  top  in
       profile,	 which	might  indicate	a performance problem; i.e., you would
       measure the ab performance rather than the server's.

Apache HTTP Server		  2018-10-10				 AB(1)


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