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XSERVER(1)		    General Commands Manual		    XSERVER(1)

       Xserver - X Window System display server

       X [option ...]

       X  is  the  generic name	for the	X Window System	display	server.	 It is
       frequently a link or a copy of the appropriate server binary for	 driv-
       ing the most frequently used server on a	given machine.

       The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
       xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
       the  system  boot  files	 and takes care	of keeping the server running,
       prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up  the  user  ses-

       Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
       xinit(1)	utility	instead	of a display manager.  However,	xinit is to be
       considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
       use by end users.  Site administrators are strongly urged to use	a dis-
       play manager, or	build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
       method is usually reserved for testing and is not recommended for  nor-
       mal  operation.	 On some platforms, the	user must have special permis-
       sion to start the X server, often because  access  to  certain  devices
       (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
       you are running on a workstation	whose console is the display, you  may
       not be able to log into the console while the server is running.

       Many X servers have device-specific command line	options.  See the man-
       ual pages for the individual  servers  for  more	 details;  a  list  of
       server-specific manual pages is provided	in the SEE ALSO	section	below.

       All  of	the X servers accept the command line options described	below.
       Some X servers may have alternative ways	of  providing  the  parameters
       described  here,	 but  the values provided via the command line options
       should override values specified	via other mechanisms.

	       The X server runs as the	given displaynumber, which by  default
	       is  0.	If  multiple  X	servers	are to run simultaneously on a
	       host, each must have a unique display number.  See the  DISPLAY
	       NAMES  section  of the X(7) manual page to learn	how to specify
	       which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
	       sets pointer acceleration (i.e. the ratio of how	 much  is  re-
	       ported to how much the user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables	 host-based access control mechanisms.	Enables	access
	       by any host, and	permits	any host to modify the access  control
	       list.   Use with	extreme	caution.  This option exists primarily
	       for running test	suites remotely.

       -audit level
	       sets the	audit trail level.  The	default	level  is  1,  meaning
	       only  connection	rejections are reported.  Level	2 additionally
	       reports all successful connections and  disconnects.   Level  4
	       enables	messages  from the SECURITY extension, if present, in-
	       cluding generation and revocation of authorizations and	viola-
	       tions  of  the  security	 policy.   Level 0 turns off the audit
	       trail.  Audit lines are sent as standard	error output.

       -auth authorization-file
	       specifies a file	which contains a collection  of	 authorization
	       records	used  to authenticate access.  See also	the xdm(1) and
	       Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -bs     disables	backing	store support on all screens.

       -br     sets the	default	root window to	solid  black  instead  of  the
	       standard	root weave pattern.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
	       sets key-click volume (allowable	range: 0-100).

       -cc class
	       sets  the  visual  class	 for the root window of	color screens.
	       The class numbers are as	specified  in  the  X  protocol.   Not
	       obeyed by all servers.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
	       specifies  the  types  of fonts for which the server should at-
	       tempt to	use deferred glyph loading.   whichfonts  can  be  all
	       (all fonts), none (no fonts), or	16 (16 bit fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
	       sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.	 To be
	       used when the server cannot determine the screen	 size(s)  from
	       the hardware.

       dpms    enables	DPMS  (display	power management services), where sup-
	       ported.	The default state is platform and  configuration  spe-

       -dpms   disables	DPMS (display power management services).  The default
	       state is	platform and configuration specific.

	       disables	named extension.   If an  unknown  extension  name  is
	       specified, a list of accepted extension names is	printed.

	       enables	named  extension.    If	 an  unknown extension name is
	       specified, a list of accepted extension names is	printed.

       -f volume
	       sets feep (bell)	volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
	       sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
	       sets the	default	font.

       -fp fontPath
	       sets the	search path for	fonts.	This path is a comma separated
	       list  of	directories which the X	server searches	for font data-
	       bases.  See the FONTS section of	this manual page for more  in-
	       formation and the default list.

       -help   prints a	usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
	       sets the	maximum	big request to size MB.

       -nolisten trans-type
	       disables	a transport type.  For example,	TCP/IP connections can
	       be disabled with	-nolisten tcp.	This option may	be issued mul-
	       tiple times to disable listening	to different transport types.

	       prevents	 a  server  reset  when	 the last client connection is
	       closed.	This overrides a previous -terminate command line  op-

       -p minutes
	       sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
	       all of its well-known sockets (connection points	for  clients),
	       but establishes at least	one.  This option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes  the  server to exit if it fails to establish all	of its
	       well-known sockets (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on	auto-repeat.

       -retro  starts the stipple with the classic stipple and cursor visible.
	       The  default  is	to start with a	black root window, and to sup-
	       press display of	the cursor until the first time	an application
	       calls XDefineCursor().  For the Xorg server, this also sets the
	       default for the DontZap option to FALSE.	 For  kdrive  servers,
	       this implies -zap.

       -s minutes
	       sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables	save under support on all screens.

       -t number
	       sets  pointer  acceleration threshold in	pixels (i.e. after how
	       many pixels pointer acceleration	should take effect).

	       causes the server to terminate at server	reset, instead of con-
	       tinuing	to  run.   This	 overrides a previous -noreset command
	       line option.

       -to seconds
	       sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables	all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST,  XTrap,  XTestEx-
	       tension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored,	for servers started the	ancient	way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces  the  default  backing-store  of all windows to be When-
	       Mapped.	This is	a backdoor way of getting backing-store	to ap-
	       ply  to	all  windows.	Although  all mapped windows will have
	       backing store, the backing store	attribute  value  reported  by
	       the server for a	window will be the last	value established by a
	       client.	If it has never	been set by a client, the server  will
	       report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
	       by the X	protocol,  which  allows  the  server  to  exceed  the
	       client's	 backing store expectations but	does not provide a way
	       to tell the client that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets the	default	root window to	solid  white  instead  of  the
	       standard	root weave pattern.

       -x extension
	       loads  the  specified  extension	 at init.  This	is a no-op for
	       most implementations.

	       enables(+) or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The  default
	       state is	platform and configuration specific.

       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
	       sets the	data space limit of the	server to the specified	number
	       of kilobytes.  A	value of zero makes the	data size as large  as
	       possible.   The default value of	-1 leaves the data space limit

       -lf files
	       sets the	number-of-open-files limit of the server to the	speci-
	       fied  number.  A	value of zero makes the	limit as large as pos-
	       sible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit	unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
	       sets the	stack space limit of the server	to the specified  num-
	       ber  of	kilobytes.   A	value  of zero makes the stack size as
	       large as	possible.  The default value of	-1  leaves  the	 stack
	       space limit unchanged.

       -logo   turns  on the X Window System logo display in the screen-saver.
	       There is	currently no way to change this	from a client.

       nologo  turns off the X Window System logo display in the screen-saver.
	       There is	currently no way to change this	from a client.

       -render default|mono|gray|color	sets  the color	allocation policy that
	       will be used by the render extension.

	       default selects the default  policy  defined  for  the  display
		       depth of	the X server.

	       mono    don't use any color cell.

	       gray    use  a  gray map	of 13 color cells for the X render ex-

	       color   use a color cube	of at most 4*4*4 colors	 (that	is  64
		       color cells).

	       disables	 smart	scheduling on platforms	that support the smart

       -schedInterval interval
	       sets the	smart scheduler's scheduling interval to interval mil-

       X  servers  that	 support  XDMCP	have the following options.  See the X
       Display Manager Control Protocol	specification for more information.

       -query hostname
	       enables XDMCP and sends Query packets to	 the  specified	 host-

	       enable  XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets to the net-
	       work.  The first	responding display manager will	be chosen  for
	       the session.

       -multicast [address [hop	count]]
	       Enable  XDMCP and multicast BroadcastQuery packets to the  net-
	       work.  The first	responding display manager is chosen  for  the
	       session.	  If an	address	is specified, the multicast is sent to
	       that address.  If no address is	specified,  the	 multicast  is
	       sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast	group.	If a hop count
	       is specified, it	is used	as the maximum hop count for the  mul-
	       ticast.	 If no hop count is specified, the multicast is	set to
	       a maximum of 1 hop, to prevent the multicast from being	routed
	       beyond the local	network.

       -indirect hostname
	       enables	XDMCP  and send	IndirectQuery packets to the specified

       -port port-number
	       uses the	specified port-number for XDMCP	 packets,  instead  of
	       the  default.  This option must be specified before any -query,
	       -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.

       -from local-address
	       specifies the local address to connect from (useful if the con-
	       necting	host  has multiple network interfaces).	 The local-ad-
	       dress may be expressed in any form acceptable to	the host plat-
	       form's gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes  the  server  to	terminate (rather than reset) when the
	       XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
	       XDMCP has an additional	display	 qualifier  used  in  resource
	       lookup  for  display-specific  options.	 This option sets that
	       value, by default it is "MIT-Unspecified" (not  a  very	useful

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
	       When  testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1, a private key is shared be-
	       tween the server	and the	manager.  This option sets  the	 value
	       of that private data (not that it is very private, being	on the
	       command line!).

       -displayID display-id
	       Yet another XDMCP specific value, this one allows  the  display
	       manager	to  identify  each  display  so	that it	can locate the
	       shared key.

       X servers that support the XKEYBOARD (a.k.a.  "XKB")  extension	accept
       the  following options.	All layout files specified on the command line
       must be located in the XKB base directory or a subdirectory, and	speci-
       fied as the relative path from the XKB base directory.  The default XKB
       base directory is /usr/local/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ]	] ] ]
	       enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
	       base directory for keyboard layout files.  This option  is  not
	       available  for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server's real
	       and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay	milliseconds
	       sets the	autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds  that
	       a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
	       sets  the  autorepeat  interval (length of time in milliseconds
	       that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
	       loads keyboard description in filename on server	startup.

       The X server supports client connections	via a platform-dependent  sub-
       set  of the following transport types: TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets, DEC-
       net, and	several	varieties of SVR4 local	connections.  See the  DISPLAY
       NAMES  section  of  the	X(7) manual page to learn how to specify which
       transport type clients should try to use.

       The X server implements a platform-dependent subset  of	the  following
       authorization  protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, XDM-
       AUTHORIZATION-2,	SUN-DES-1, and MIT-KERBEROS-5.	See  the  Xsecurity(7)
       manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.

       Authorization  data  required  by  the above protocols is passed	to the
       server in a private file	named with  the	 -auth	command	 line  option.
       Each  time  the	server is about	to accept the first connection after a
       reset (or when the server is starting), it reads	this  file.   If  this
       file contains any authorization records,	the local host is not automat-
       ically allowed access to	the server, and	only clients which send	one of
       the authorization records contained in the file in the connection setup
       information will	be allowed access.  See	the Xau	manual page for	a  de-
       scription  of the binary	format of this file.  See xauth(1) for mainte-
       nance of	this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.

       The X server also uses a	host-based access control  list	 for  deciding
       whether	or  not	to accept connections from clients on a	particular ma-
       chine.  If no other authorization mechanism is being  used,  this  list
       initially  consists  of the host	on which the server is running as well
       as any machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is  the  dis-
       play number of the server.  Each	line of	the file should	contain	either
       an Internet hostname (e.g. or a  DECnet  hostname  in
       double  colon  format  (e.g.  hydra::) or a complete name in the	format
       family:name as described	in the xhost(1)	manual page.  There should  be
       no leading or trailing spaces on	any lines.  For	example:


       Users  can add or remove	hosts from this	list and enable	or disable ac-
       cess control using the xhost command  from  the	same  machine  as  the

       If  the	X  FireWall  Proxy  (xfwp) is being used without a sitepolicy,
       host-based authorization	must be	turned on for clients to  be  able  to
       connect to the X	server via the xfwp.  If xfwp is run without a config-
       uration file and	thus no	sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is using	 an  X
       server  where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based authorization
       checks, when a client tries to connect to this X	server via xfwp, the X
       server  will  deny  the	connection.   See xfwp(1) for more information
       about this proxy.

       The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of	window	opera-
       tion  permissions or place any restrictions on what a client can	do; if
       a program can connect to	a display, it has full run of the  screen.   X
       servers that support the	SECURITY extension fare	better because clients
       can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to  connect;
       see  the	xauth(1) manual	page for details.  Restrictions	are imposed on
       untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they	can do.	 See the SECU-
       RITY extension specification for	a complete list	of these restrictions.

       Sites  that  have better	authentication and authorization systems might
       wish to make use	of the hooks in	the libraries and the server  to  pro-
       vide additional security	models.

       The X server attaches special meaning to	the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This  signal  causes  the  server to close all existing connec-
	       tions, free all resources, and restore  all  defaults.	It  is
	       sent  by	 the display manager whenever the main user's main ap-
	       plication (usually an xterm or window manager) exits  to	 force
	       the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to	exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the	above.
	       When the	server starts, it checks to see	if  it	has  inherited
	       SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.	 In this case,
	       the server sends	a SIGUSR1 to its parent	process	after  it  has
	       set  up	the various connection schemes.	 Xdm uses this feature
	       to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.

       The X server  can  obtain  fonts	 from  directories  and/or  from  font
       servers.	  The  list  of	directories and	font servers the X server uses
       when trying to open a font is controlled	by the font path.

       The  default  font  path	 is  /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/misc/,  /usr/lo-
       cal/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/,	    /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/OTF,     /usr/lo-
       cal/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/,  /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/,   /usr/lo-
       cal/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/	.

       A  special kind of directory can	be specified using the catalogue: pre-
       fix. Directories	specified this way can contain	symlinks  pointing  to
       the real	font directories. See the FONTPATH.D section for details.

       The  font  path	can be set with	the -fp	option or by xset(1) after the
       server has started.

       You can specify	a  special  kind  of  font  path  in  the  form	 cata-
       logue:<dir>.   The directory specified after the	catalogue: prefix will
       be scanned for symlinks and each	symlink	destination will be added as a
       local fontfile FPE.

       The  symlink  can  be  suffixed by attributes such as 'unscaled', which
       will be passed through to the underlying	fontfile FPE. The only	excep-
       tion  is	 the  newly introduced 'pri' attribute,	which will be used for
       ordering	the font paths specified by the	symlinks.

       An example configuration:

	   75dpi:unscaled:pri=20 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi
	   ghostscript:pri=60 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
	   misc:unscaled:pri=10	-> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
	   type1:pri=40	-> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
	   type1:pri=50	-> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1

       This will add /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc as the first FPE	with  the  at-
       tribute	the attribute unscaled etc. This is functionally equivalent to
       setting the following font path:


       /etc/Xn.hosts		     Initial access control list  for  display
				     number n

				     Bitmap font directories

				     Outline font directories

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn	     Unix domain socket	for display number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs		     Error log file for	display	 number	 n  if
				     run from init(8)

				     Default  error  log file if the server is
				     run from xdm(1)

       General information: X(7)

       Protocols: X Window System Protocol, The	X  Font	 Service  Protocol,  X
       Display Manager Control Protocol

       Fonts:  bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1), xlsfonts(1),
       xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Security: Xsecurity(7), xauth(1), Xau(1),  xdm(1),  xhost(1),  xfwp(1),
       Security	Extension Specification

       Starting	the server: startx(1), xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1)

       Server-specific	man  pages:  Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),	 Xephyr(1),  Xnest(1),
       Xvfb(1),	XDarwin(1), XWin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the	Porting	Layer for  the
       X v11 Sample Server

       The  sample server was originally written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond
       Drewry, Philip Karlton, and Todd	Newman,	from Digital Equipment	Corpo-
       ration,	with support from a large cast.	 It has	since been extensively
       rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.	 Dave  Wiggins
       took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.

X Version 11		       xorg-server 1.7.5		    XSERVER(1)


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