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XSERVER(1)							    XSERVER(1)

       Xserver - X Window System display server

       X [option ...]

       X  is  the  generic name	for the	X Window System	display	server.	 It is
       frequently a link or a copy of the appropriate server binary for	 driv-
       ing the most frequently used server on a	given machine.

       The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
       xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
       the  system  boot  files	 and takes care	of keeping the server running,
       prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up  the  user  ses-

       Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
       xinit(1)	utility	instead	of a display manager.  However,	xinit is to be
       considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
       use by end users.  Site administrators are strongly urged to use	a dis-
       play manager, or	build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
       method is usually reserved for testing and is not recommended for  nor-
       mal  operation.	 On some platforms, the	user must have special permis-
       sion to start the X server, often because  access  to  certain  devices
       (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
       you are running on a workstation	whose console is the display, you  may
       not be able to log into the console while the server is running.

       Many X servers have device-specific command line	options.  See the man-
       ual pages for the individual  servers  for  more	 details;  a  list  of
       server-specific manual pages is provided	in the SEE ALSO	section	below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options  described	below.
       Some  X	servers	 may have alternative ways of providing	the parameters
       described here, but the values provided via the	command	 line  options
       should override values specified	via other mechanisms.

	       The  X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default
	       is 0.  If multiple X servers are	to  run	 simultaneously	 on  a
	       host,  each must	have a unique display number.  See the DISPLAY
	       NAMES section of	the X(7) manual	page to	learn how  to  specify
	       which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
	       sets  pointer  acceleration  (i.e.  the	ratio  of  how much is
	       reported	to how much the	user actually moved the	pointer).

       -ac     disables	host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables	access
	       by  any host, and permits any host to modify the	access control
	       list.  Use with extreme caution.	 This option exists  primarily
	       for running test	suites remotely.

       -audit level
	       sets  the  audit	 trail level.  The default level is 1, meaning
	       only connection rejections are reported.	 Level 2  additionally
	       reports	all  successful	 connections and disconnects.  Level 4
	       enables messages	 from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if  present,
	       including  generation and revocation of authorizations and vio-
	       lations of the security policy.	Level 0	turns  off  the	 audit
	       trail.  Audit lines are sent as standard	error output.

       -auth authorization-file
	       specifies  a  file which	contains a collection of authorization
	       records used to authenticate access.  See also the  xdm(1)  and
	       Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -background none
	       Asks  the driver	not to clear the background on startup,	if the
	       driver supports that.  May be useful for	smooth transition with
	       eg. fbdev driver.  For security reasons this is not the default
	       as the screen contents might show a previous user session.

       -br     sets the	default	root window to	solid  black  instead  of  the
	       standard	 root  weave  pattern.	  This	is  the	default	unless
	       -retro or -wr is	specified.

       -bs     disables	backing	store support on all screens.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
	       sets key-click volume (allowable	range: 0-100).

       -cc class
	       sets the	visual class for the root  window  of  color  screens.
	       The  class  numbers  are	 as  specified in the X	protocol.  Not
	       obeyed by all servers.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -displayfd fd
	       specifies a file	descriptor in the launching  process.	Rather
	       than  specify  a	 display  number, the X	server will attempt to
	       listen on successively higher display numbers, and upon finding
	       a  free	one,  will  write the display number back on this file
	       descriptor as a newline-terminated string.  The -pn  option  is
	       ignored when using -displayfd.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
	       specifies  the  types  of  fonts	 for  which  the server	should
	       attempt to use deferred glyph loading.  whichfonts can  be  all
	       (all fonts), none (no fonts), or	16 (16 bit fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
	       sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.	 To be
	       used when the server cannot determine the screen	 size(s)  from
	       the hardware.

       dpms    enables	DPMS  (display	power management services), where sup-
	       ported.	The default state is platform and  configuration  spe-

       -dpms   disables	DPMS (display power management services).  The default
	       state is	platform and configuration specific.

	       disables	named extension.   If an  unknown  extension  name  is
	       specified, a list of accepted extension names is	printed.

	       enables	named  extension.    If	 an  unknown extension name is
	       specified, a list of accepted extension names is	printed.

       -f volume
	       sets beep (bell)	volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
	       sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
	       sets the	default	font.

       -fp fontPath
	       sets the	search path for	fonts.	This path is a comma separated
	       list  of	directories which the X	server searches	for font data-
	       bases.  See the FONTS section of	 this  manual  page  for  more
	       information and the default list.

       -help   prints a	usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -iglx   Prohibit	 creating  indirect  GLX contexts.  Indirect GLX is of
	       limited use, since it lacks support for many modern OpenGL fea-
	       tures  and extensions; it's slower than direct contexts;	and it
	       opens a large attack surface for	protocol parsing errors.  This
	       is the default unless +iglx is specified.

       +iglx   Allow creating indirect GLX contexts.

       -maxbigreqsize size
	       sets the	maximum	big request to size MB.

	       disable the display of the pointer cursor.

       -nolisten trans-type
	       disables	a transport type.  For example,	TCP/IP connections can
	       be disabled with	-nolisten tcp.	This option may	be issued mul-
	       tiple  times to disable listening to different transport	types.

       -listen trans-type
	       enables a transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections  can
	       be  enabled with	-listen	tcp.  This option may be issued	multi-
	       ple times to enable listening to	different transport types.

	       prevents	a server reset when  the  last	client	connection  is
	       closed.	 This  overrides  a  previous  -terminate command line

       -p minutes
	       sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
	       all  of its well-known sockets (connection points for clients),
	       but establishes at least	one.  This option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to	establish all  of  its
	       well-known sockets (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on	auto-repeat.

       -retro  starts  the server with the classic stipple and cursor visible.
	       The default is to start with a black root window, and  to  sup-
	       press display of	the cursor until the first time	an application
	       calls XDefineCursor(). For kdrive servers, this implies -zap.

       -s minutes
	       sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables	save under support on all screens.

       -seat seat
	       seat to run on. Takes a string identifying a seat in a platform
	       specific	 syntax.  On platforms which support this feature this
	       may be used to limit the	server to expose only a	specific  sub-
	       set of devices connected	to the system.

       -t number
	       sets  pointer  acceleration threshold in	pixels (i.e. after how
	       many pixels pointer acceleration	should take effect).

	       causes the server to terminate at server	reset, instead of con-
	       tinuing	to  run.   This	 overrides a previous -noreset command
	       line option.

       -to seconds
	       sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables	all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST,  XTrap,  XTestEx-
	       tension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored,	for servers started the	ancient	way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces  the  default  backing-store  of all windows to be When-
	       Mapped.	This is	a backdoor way	of  getting  backing-store  to
	       apply  to  all  windows.	 Although all mapped windows will have
	       backing store, the backing store	attribute  value  reported  by
	       the server for a	window will be the last	value established by a
	       client.	If it has never	been set by a client, the server  will
	       report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
	       by the X	protocol,  which  allows  the  server  to  exceed  the
	       client's	 backing store expectations but	does not provide a way
	       to tell the client that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets the	default	root window to	solid  white  instead  of  the
	       standard	root weave pattern.

       -x extension
	       loads  the  specified  extension	 at init.  This	is a no-op for
	       most implementations.

	       enables(+) or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The  default
	       state is	platform and configuration specific.

       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
	       sets the	data space limit of the	server to the specified	number
	       of kilobytes.  A	value of zero makes the	data size as large  as
	       possible.   The default value of	-1 leaves the data space limit

       -lf files
	       sets the	number-of-open-files limit of the server to the	speci-
	       fied  number.  A	value of zero makes the	limit as large as pos-
	       sible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit	unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
	       sets the	stack space limit of the server	to the specified  num-
	       ber  of	kilobytes.   A	value  of zero makes the stack size as
	       large as	possible.  The default value of	-1  leaves  the	 stack
	       space limit unchanged.

       -render default|mono|gray|color	sets  the color	allocation policy that
	       will be used by the render extension.

	       default selects the default  policy  defined  for  the  display
		       depth of	the X server.

	       mono    don't use any color cell.

	       gray    use  a  gray  map  of  13  color	cells for the X	render

	       color   use a color cube	of at most 4*4*4 colors	 (that	is  64
		       color cells).

	       disables	 smart	scheduling on platforms	that support the smart

       -schedInterval interval
	       sets the	smart scheduler's scheduling interval to interval mil-

       X  servers  that	 support  XDMCP	have the following options.  See the X
       Display Manager Control Protocol	specification for more information.

       -query hostname
	       enables XDMCP and sends Query packets to	 the  specified	 host-

	       enable  XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets to the net-
	       work.  The first	responding display manager will	be chosen  for
	       the session.

       -multicast [address [hop	count]]
	       Enable  XDMCP and multicast BroadcastQuery packets to the  net-
	       work.  The first	responding display manager is chosen  for  the
	       session.	  If an	address	is specified, the multicast is sent to
	       that address.  If no address is	specified,  the	 multicast  is
	       sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast	group.	If a hop count
	       is specified, it	is used	as the maximum hop count for the  mul-
	       ticast.	 If no hop count is specified, the multicast is	set to
	       a maximum of 1 hop, to prevent the multicast from being	routed
	       beyond the local	network.

       -indirect hostname
	       enables	XDMCP  and send	IndirectQuery packets to the specified

       -port port-number
	       uses the	specified port-number for XDMCP	 packets,  instead  of
	       the  default.  This option must be specified before any -query,
	       -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.

       -from local-address
	       specifies the local address to connect from (useful if the con-
	       necting	host  has  multiple  network  interfaces).  The	local-
	       address may be expressed	in any form  acceptable	 to  the  host
	       platform's gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes  the  server  to	terminate (rather than reset) when the
	       XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
	       XDMCP has an additional	display	 qualifier  used  in  resource
	       lookup  for  display-specific  options.	 This option sets that
	       value, by default it is "MIT-unspecified" (not  a  very	useful

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
	       When  testing  XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1,  a	private	 key is	shared
	       between the server and the manager.  This option	sets the value
	       of that private data (not that it is very private, being	on the
	       command line!).

       -displayID display-id
	       Yet another XDMCP specific value, this one allows  the  display
	       manager	to  identify  each  display  so	that it	can locate the
	       shared key.

       X servers that support the XKEYBOARD (a.k.a.  "XKB")  extension	accept
       the  following options.	All layout files specified on the command line
       must be located in the XKB base directory or a subdirectory, and	speci-
       fied as the relative path from the XKB base directory.  The default XKB
       base directory is /usr/local/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ]	] ] ]
	       enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
	       base directory for keyboard layout files.  This option  is  not
	       available  for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server's real
	       and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay	milliseconds
	       sets the	autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds  that
	       a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
	       sets  the  autorepeat  interval (length of time in milliseconds
	       that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
	       loads keyboard description in filename on server	startup.

       The X server supports client connections	via a platform-dependent  sub-
       set  of the following transport types: TCP/IP, Unix Domain sockets, and
       several varieties of SVR4 local connections.   See  the	DISPLAY	 NAMES
       section of the X(7) manual page to learn	how to specify which transport
       type clients should try to use.

       The X server implements a platform-dependent subset  of	the  following
       authorization  protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, XDM-
       AUTHORIZATION-2,	SUN-DES-1, and MIT-KERBEROS-5.	See  the  Xsecurity(7)
       manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.

       Authorization  data  required  by  the above protocols is passed	to the
       server in a private file	named with  the	 -auth	command	 line  option.
       Each  time  the	server is about	to accept the first connection after a
       reset (or when the server is starting), it reads	this  file.   If  this
       file contains any authorization records,	the local host is not automat-
       ically allowed access to	the server, and	only clients which send	one of
       the authorization records contained in the file in the connection setup
       information will	be allowed access.  See	the  Xau  manual  page	for  a
       description  of the binary format of this file.	See xauth(1) for main-
       tenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote	hosts.

       The  X  server  also uses a host-based access control list for deciding
       whether or not to accept	 connections  from  clients  on	 a  particular
       machine.	  If no	other authorization mechanism is being used, this list
       initially consists of the host on which the server is running  as  well
       as  any	machines listed	in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the dis-
       play number of the server.  Each	line of	the file should	contain	either
       an  Internet hostname (e.g. or	a complete name	in the
       format family:name as described in the  xhost(1)	 manual	 page.	 There
       should be no leading or trailing	spaces on any lines.  For example:


       Users  can  add	or  remove  hosts from this list and enable or disable
       access control using the	xhost command from the	same  machine  as  the

       If  the	X  FireWall  Proxy  (xfwp) is being used without a sitepolicy,
       host-based authorization	must be	turned on for clients to  be  able  to
       connect to the X	server via the xfwp.  If xfwp is run without a config-
       uration file and	thus no	sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is using	 an  X
       server  where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based authorization
       checks, when a client tries to connect to this X	server via xfwp, the X
       server  will  deny  the	connection.   See xfwp(1) for more information
       about this proxy.

       The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of	window	opera-
       tion  permissions or place any restrictions on what a client can	do; if
       a program can connect to	a display, it has full run of the  screen.   X
       servers that support the	SECURITY extension fare	better because clients
       can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to  connect;
       see  the	xauth(1) manual	page for details.  Restrictions	are imposed on
       untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they	can do.	 See the SECU-
       RITY extension specification for	a complete list	of these restrictions.

       Sites that have better authentication and authorization	systems	 might
       wish  to	 make use of the hooks in the libraries	and the	server to pro-
       vide additional security	models.

       The X server attaches special meaning to	the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This signal causes the server to	 close	all  existing  connec-
	       tions,  free  all  resources,  and restore all defaults.	 It is
	       sent by the display  manager  whenever  the  main  user's  main
	       application (usually an xterm or	window manager)	exits to force
	       the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to	exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the	above.
	       When  the  server  starts, it checks to see if it has inherited
	       SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.	 In this case,
	       the  server  sends a SIGUSR1 to its parent process after	it has
	       set up the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses	 this  feature
	       to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.

       The  X  server  can  obtain  fonts  from	 directories  and/or from font
       servers.	 The list of directories and font servers the  X  server  uses
       when trying to open a font is controlled	by the font path.

       The     default	   font	   path	   is	 /usr/local/share/fonts/misc/,
       /usr/local/share/fonts/TTF/,		  /usr/local/share/fonts/OTF/,
       /usr/local/share/fonts/Type1/,	       /usr/local/share/fonts/100dpi/,
       /usr/local/share/fonts/75dpi/ .

       A special kind of directory can be specified using the catalogue:  pre-
       fix.  Directories  specified  this way can contain symlinks pointing to
       the real	font directories. See the FONTPATH.D section for details.

       The font	path can be set	with the -fp option or by  xset(1)  after  the
       server has started.

       You  can	 specify  a  special  kind  of	font  path  in	the form cata-
       logue:<dir>.  The directory specified after the catalogue: prefix  will
       be scanned for symlinks and each	symlink	destination will be added as a
       local fontfile FPE.

       The symlink can be suffixed by attributes  such	as  'unscaled',	 which
       will  be	passed through to the underlying fontfile FPE. The only	excep-
       tion is the newly introduced 'pri' attribute, which will	 be  used  for
       ordering	the font paths specified by the	symlinks.

       An example configuration:

	   75dpi:unscaled:pri=20 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi
	   ghostscript:pri=60 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
	   misc:unscaled:pri=10	-> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
	   type1:pri=40	-> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
	   type1:pri=50	-> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1

       This  will  add	/usr/share/X11/fonts/misc  as  the  first FPE with the
       attribute 'unscaled', second FPE	 will  be  /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi,
       also with the attribute 'unscaled' etc. This is functionally equivalent
       to setting the following	font path:


       /etc/Xn.hosts		     Initial access control list  for  display
				     number n

				     Bitmap font directories

				     Outline font directories

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn	     Unix domain socket	for display number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs		     Error  log	 file  for display number n if
				     run from init(8)

				     Default error log file if the  server  is
				     run from xdm(1)

       General information: X(7)

       Protocols:  X  Window  System  Protocol,	The X Font Service Protocol, X
       Display Manager Control Protocol

       Fonts: bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1),  xlsfonts(1),
       xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Keyboards: xkeyboard-config(7)

       Security:  Xsecurity(7),	 xauth(1),  Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1), xfwp(1),
       Security	Extension Specification

       Starting	the server: startx(1), xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started:  xset(1),  xsetroot(1),  xhost(1),
       xinput(1), xrandr(1)

       Server-specific	man  pages:  Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),	 Xephyr(1),  Xnest(1),
       Xvfb(1),	Xquartz(1), XWin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the	Porting	Layer for  the
       X v11 Sample Server

       The  sample server was originally written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond
       Drewry, Philip Karlton, and Todd	Newman,	from Digital Equipment	Corpo-
       ration,	with support from a large cast.	 It has	since been extensively
       rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.	 Dave  Wiggins
       took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.

X Version 11		      xorg-server 1.17.4		    XSERVER(1)


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