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X(7)		       Miscellaneous Information Manual			  X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is	a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and	graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively  straightforward to build	the X Consortium software distribution
       on most ANSI C and POSIX	compliant systems.  Commercial implementations
       are also	available for a	wide range of platforms.

       The  X Consortium requests that the following names be used when	refer-
       ring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window	System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

       X Window	System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to	and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of	different interprocess	commu-
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common	case is	for the	client
       programs	to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other	machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and	operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color	displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib -	C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core	X Consortium distribution include: a terminal emulator,	xterm;
       a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redirect pro-
       gram, xconsole;	a  mail	 interface,  xmh;  a  bitmap  editor,  bitmap;
       resource	 listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres;	access control
       programs, xauth,	xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, (xfd; utilities for listing information about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,	 xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance	measurement utility, x11perf; a	font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font	server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;	 a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont-
       dir; remote execution utilities,	rstart and xon;	a  clipboard  manager,
       xclipboard;  keyboard  description compiler and related utilities, xkb-
       comp, xkbprint, xkbbell,	xkbevd,	xkbvleds, and xkbwatch;	a  utility  to
       terminate  clients,  xkill;  an optimized X protocol proxy, lbxproxy; a
       firewall	security proxy,	xfwp; a	proxy manager to control them, proxym-
       ngr;  a	utility	 to find proxies, xfindproxy; Netscape Navigator Plug-
       ins, and; an RX MIME-type helper	program,  xrx;
       and  a  utility	to cause part or all of	the screen to be redrawn, xre-

       Many other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc.  are
       included	as user-contributed software in	the X Consortium distribution,
       or are available	using anonymous	ftp on the Internet.   See  your  site
       administrator for details.

       There  are  two main ways of getting the	X server and an	initial	set of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       xdm (the	X Display Manager)
	       If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
	       administrator can set your machine up to	use the	X Display Man-
	       ager xdm.  This program is typically started by the  system  at
	       boot time and takes care	of keeping the server running and get-
	       ting users logged in.  If you are running xdm, you will	see  a
	       window on the screen welcoming you to the system	and asking for
	       your username and password.  Simply type	them in	as  you	 would
	       at  a  normal terminal, pressing	the Return key after each.  If
	       you make	a mistake, xdm will display an error message  and  ask
	       you  to	try again.  After you have successfully	logged in, xdm
	       will start up your X environment.  By default, if you  have  an
	       executable  file	 named	.xsession  in your home	directory, xdm
	       will treat it as	a program (or shell script) to run to start up
	       your  initial  clients  (such  as terminal emulators, clocks, a
	       window manager, user settings for things	like  the  background,
	       the  speed  of the pointer, etc.).  Your	site administrator can
	       provide details.

       xinit (run manually from	the shell)
	       Sites that support more than one	window system might choose  to
	       use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
	       for your	machine, your site administrator  will	probably  have
	       provided	a program named	"x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
	       do site-specific	initialization	(such  as  loading  convenient
	       default	resources,  running  a	window	manager,  displaying a
	       clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
	       If  not,	 you  can build	such a script using the	xinit program.
	       This utility simply runs	one user-specified  program  to	 start
	       the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
	       then waits for either to	finish.	 Since either or both  of  the
	       user-specified  programs	may be a shell script, this gives sub-
	       stantial	flexibility at the expense of a	nice  interface.   For
	       this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name	of the


       This information	is used	by the application to determine	how it	should
       connect	to  the	 server	 and which screen it should use	by default (on
       displays	with multiple monitors):

	       The hostname specifies the name of the  machine	to  which  the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the	hostname is not	given,
	       the most	efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The  phrase "display" is	usually	used to	refer to collection of
	       monitors	that share  a  common  keyboard	 and  pointer  (mouse,
	       tablet,	etc.).	 Most  workstations tend to only have one key-
	       board, and therefore, only  one	display.   Larger,  multi-user
	       systems,	however, frequently have several displays so that more
	       than one	person can be doing graphics work at once.   To	 avoid
	       confusion, each display on a machine is assigned	a display num-
	       ber (beginning at 0) when the X	server	for  that  display  is
	       started.	  The display number must always be given in a display

	       Some displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two  or
	       more  monitors.	Since each monitor has its own set of windows,
	       each screen is assigned a screen	number (beginning at  0)  when
	       the X server for	that display is	started.  If the screen	number
	       is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX	systems, the default display name is stored  in	 your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is	set automatically by the xterm
       terminal	emulator.  However, when you log into  another	machine	 on  a
       network,	you will need to set DISPLAY by	hand to	point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The xon script can be used to start an X	program	on a  remote  machine;
       it automatically	sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,	 most X	programs accept	a command line option of -display dis-
       playname	to temporarily override	the contents of	DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly	used to	pop windows on another person's	screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm	pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica-
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,	etc.).	 Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
       name part of the	display	name is	used to	determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a	transport layer) to be used.  X	servers	generally sup-
       port the	following types	of connections:

	       The hostname part of the	 display  name	should	be  the	 empty
	       string.	 For  example:	 :0, :1, and :0.1.  The	most efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The hostname part of the	display	 name  should  be  the	server
	       machine's  IP  address  name.  Full Internet names, abbreviated
	       names,  and  IP	addresses  are	all  allowed.	For   example:,	expo:0,, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

	       The  hostname  part  of	the  display name should be the	server
	       machine's nodename, followed by two colons instead of one.  For
	       example:	 myws::0, big::1, and hydra::0.1.

       An  X  server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms pro-
       vided in	Release	6 are:
	   Host	Access			 Simple	host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared	plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure	DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's	secure rpc system.
	   MIT-KERBEROS-5		 Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

       Xdm initializes access control for the server and  also	places	autho-
       rization	 information  in a file	accessible to the user.	 Normally, the
       list of hosts from which	connections  are  always  accepted  should  be
       empty,  so that only clients with are explicitly	authorized can connect
       to the display.	When you add entries to	the host  list	(with  xhost),
       the  server  no	longer	performs any authorization on connections from
       those machines.	Be careful with	this.

       The file	from which Xlib	extracts authorization data can	 be  specified
       with  the  environment  variable	 XAUTHORITY,  and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists	when a
       user logs in.

       If you use several machines and share a common  home  directory	across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never	really
       have to worry about authorization files,	the system  should  work  cor-
       rectly  by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
       independent, you	can simply copy	the files to share  them.   To	manage
       authorization  files,  use  xauth.   This program allows	you to extract
       records and insert them into other files.  Using	 this,	you  can  send
       authorization  to remote	machines when you login, if the	remote machine
       does not	share a	common home directory with your	local  machine.	  Note
       that  authorization  information	transmitted ``in the clear'' through a
       network file system or using ftp	or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  network
       eavesdropper,  and  as  such  may  enable unauthorized access.  In many
       environments, this level	of security is not a concern, but  if  it  is,
       you  need  to  know the exact semantics of the particular authorization
       data to know if this is actually	a problem.

       For more	information on access control, see the Xsecurity manual	page.

       One of the advantages of	using window systems instead of	hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location	on the screen.	Although the layout of	windows	 on  a
       display	is  controlled	by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF	are numbers) for specifying a preferred	size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT parts of	the geometry specification are usually
       measured	in either pixels or characters,	depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts	are measured in	pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left	or right and  top  and	bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the	indicated edge of the screen to	the corresponding edge of  the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left	edge of	the window is to be placed XOFF	pixels in from
	       the left	edge of	the screen (i.e., the X	coordinate of the win-
	       dow's  origin  will  be	XOFF).	XOFF may be negative, in which
	       case the	window's left edge will	be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
	       from  the  right	 edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has	similar	meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to	be YOFF	pixels below  the  top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
	       gin will	be YOFF).  YOFF	may be negative,  in  which  case  the
	       window's	top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window	is to be YOFF pixels above the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF	may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge	will be	off the	screen.

       Offsets	must  be  given	 as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both	must be	present.  Windows can be placed	in the
       four corners of the screen using	the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand	corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand	corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following	examples, a terminal emulator is placed	in roughly the
       center of the screen and	a load average monitor,	mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is	controlled by special programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may	choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for	example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can	be built.   The	 X  Consortium
       distribution comes with a window	manager	named twm which	supports over-
       lapping windows,	popup menus, point-and-click  or  click-to-type	 input
       models, title bars, nice	icons (and an icon manager for those who don't
       like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed	software in the	X Consortium distribution  for
       other popular window managers.

       Collections  of	characters  for	 displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as	fonts.	A font typically contains images that share  a	common
       appearance  and	look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold-
       ness, slant, and	character set).	 Similarly, collections	of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are	usually	called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are	called

       Fonts  come  in	various	 sizes.	 The X server supports scalable	fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create	a font of arbitrary size from a	single
       source  for  the	 font.	The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain	fonts from individual files stored in directo-
       ries in the file	system,	or from	one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures	 of  directories  and  font  servers.	The list of places the
       server looks when trying	to find	a font is controlled by	its font path.
       Although	 most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all	of the commonly	used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the	directory  names  are  on  the
       server's	machine, not on	the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are	 usually  created  by compiling	a textual font
       description into	binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre-
       ated  by	 running the mkfontdir program in the directory	containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database,	reset the font
       path  with  the	xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following	commands could be used:

	   % cp	newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and	xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names	tend to	be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to	uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.	However,  the  X server	supports wildcarding of	font names, so
       the full	specification


       might be	abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for	*  and	?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of	the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.	  This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base	scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific	 size,
       replace	one  of	 the  first two	zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for	the pixel size;	replace	it with	a spe-
       cific height in pixels to name a	font at	that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing	the second zero	is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size	in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width	field,
       measured	in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name	 a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The  hostname  specifies	 the  name (or decimal numeric address)	of the
       machine on which	the font server	is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the	font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a	 sepa-

       Examples: tcp/, tcp/

       One  of	the  following	forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts DECnet connections:


       The nodename specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine	on which the font server is running.  The objname is a normal,
       case-insensitive	DECnet object name.   The  cataloguelist  specifies  a
       list of catalogue names,	with '+' as a separator.

       Examples:  DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT, decnet/44.70::font$special/sym-

       Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through  resources
       or  command  line arguments) the	colors of various elements in the text
       and graphics they display.  A color  can	 be  specified	either	by  an
       abstract	color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The	numer-
       ical specification can identify	a  color  in  either  device-dependent
       (RGB) or	device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example,	"red", "blue".
       A value for this	abstract name is obtained by  searching	 one  or  more
       color  name  databases.	 Xlib  first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location,	and  content  of  these	 databases  is
       implementation  dependent.   If	the  name  is  not found, the color is
       looked up in the	X server's database.  The text form of	this  database
       is commonly stored in the file /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

       A  numerical  color  specification consists of a	color space name and a
       set of values in	the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the	prefix "rgb:" and  has
       the following syntax:


	       _red_, _green_, _blue_ := h | hh	| hhh |	hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note  that  h indicates the value scaled	in 4 bits, hh the value	scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value	scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the	 value	scaled
       in  16  bits,  respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors	can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax  for	 RGB  Device  is  sup-
       ported, but its continued use is	not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini-
       tial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification,  in  one
       of the following	formats:

	   #RGB			     (4	bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8	bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The  R,	G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are	specified, they	represent the most-significant bits of
       the  value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in	which values are scaled).  For
       example,	#3a7 is	the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity	specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:"  and
       has the following syntax:


       The red,	green, and blue	are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They	represent linear intensity values, with	1.0 indicating
       full  intensity,	 0.5  half intensity, and so on.  These	values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the	X server.   The	 input
       format for these	values is an optional sign, a string of	numbers	possi-
       bly containing a	decimal	point, and an optional exponent	field contain-
       ing an E	or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The  standard device-independent	string specifications have the follow-
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:_X_/_Y_/_Z_		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:_u_/_v_/_Y_		  (~.6,	~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:_x_/_y_/_Y_		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:_L_/_a_/_b_		  (100,	none, none)
	   CIELuv:_L_/_u_/_v_		  (100,	none, none)
	   TekHVC:_H_/_V_/_C_		  (360,	100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H,	V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v,	 y,  x)	 are  floating
       point  values.	Some  of the values are	constrained to be between zero
       and some	upper bound; the upper bounds are given	in parentheses	above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and	an  optional  exponent
       field  consisting  of  an 'E' or	'e' followed by	an optional '+'	or '-'
       followed	by a string of digits.

       For more	information on device independent color, see the  Xlib	refer-
       ence manual.

       The  X keyboard model is	broken into two	layers:	 server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys,  and  server-inde-
       pendent	symbols	 (called keysyms) which	represent the letters or words
       that appear on the keys.	 Two tables are	kept in	the  server  for  con-
       verting keycodes	to keysyms:

       modifier	list
	       Some  keys (such	as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
	       modifier	and are	used to	 select	 different  symbols  that  are
	       attached	 to  a single key (such	as Shift-a generates a capital
	       A, and Control-l	generates a control character ^L).  The	server
	       keeps  a	list of	keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is	pressed	or released, the server	gener-
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated	key as
	       well as a mask that specifies which of the  modifier  keys  are
	       currently  pressed.  Most servers set up	this list to initially
	       contain the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on  the

       keymap table
	       Applications  translate	event keycodes and modifier masks into
	       keysyms using a keysym table which contains one	row  for  each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.   The  exact  semantics of how the table is	inter-
	       preted to produce keysyms depends on  the  particular  program,
	       libraries,  and	language  input	method used, but the following
	       conventions for the first four keysyms in each row  are	gener-
	       ally adhered to:

       The  first  four	 elements  of  the  list  are split into two groups of
       keysyms.	 Group 1 contains the first and	second keysyms;	Group  2  con-
       tains  the  third  and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second	element	is the special	keysym
       NoSymbol,  then	the group is treated as	equivalent to a	group in which
       the first element is the	lowercase letter and the second	element	is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups	is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym	to some	key and	attaching that key to any  one
       of  the	modifiers  Mod1	 through  Mod5.	  This	modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group  modifier  is  off,
       and Group 2 is used when	the group modifier is on.

       Within a	group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers  are  off.   The
       second keysym is	used when the Shift modifier is	on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier is	on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when  the
       Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted	as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when
       the Lock	modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock,	the  state  of
       the  Shift  modifier  is	 applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the	corresponding uppercase	keysym
       is used instead.

       Most  X programs	attempt	to use the same	names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications	written	with the X Toolkit  Intrinsics
       automatically accept the	following options:

       -display	display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either option specifies the color to use	for the	 window	 back-

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use	for the	window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth	number
	       Either  option specifies	the width in pixels of the window bor-

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use	for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font	to use for displaying text.

	       This option indicates that  the	user  would  prefer  that  the
	       application's  windows  initially not be	visible	as if the win-
	       dows had	be immediately iconified by the	user.  Window managers
	       may choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This  option  specifies	the name under which resources for the
	       application should be found.  This option is  useful  in	 shell
	       aliases	to  distinguish	between	invocations of an application,
	       without resorting to creating links  to	alter  the  executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either  option  indicates  that	the  program  should  simulate
	       reverse video if	possible, often	by swapping the	foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This option indicates that  the	program	 should	 not  simulate
	       reverse	video.	 This  is  used	to override any	defaults since
	       reverse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within	 which
	       two  communicating applications must respond to one another for
	       a selection request.

	       This option indicates that requests to the X server  should  be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get  reported  immediately after	they occur.  This option turns
	       off the buffering so that the application can be	debugged.   It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This  option  specifies	the  title to be used for this window.
	       This information	is sometimes used by a window manager to  pro-
	       vide some sort of header	identifying the	window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This  option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
	       use in resolving	resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource	name and value to override any
	       defaults.   It  is  also	very useful for	setting	resources that
	       don't have explicit command line	arguments.

       To make the tailoring of	applications to	personal preferences easier, X
       provides	 a  mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background	color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings	that  are  read	 in from various places	when an	application is
       run.  Program components	are named in a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node  in	 the hierarchy identified by a class and an instance name.  At
       the top level is	the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By  convention,	the  class  name of the	application is the same	as the
       program name, but with  the first letter	capitalized  (e.g.  Bitmap  or
       Emacs)  although	 some  programs	 that begin with the letter ``x'' also
       capitalize the second letter for	historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources	is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec	| <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName	WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component	Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements	separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.	 Curly	braces
       ({...})	indicate  zero	or  more repetitions of	the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate	that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing	the line with the con-
       tents of	the specified file.  The word "include"	must be	in  lowercase.
       The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory	of the file in
       which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no	direc-
       tory or contains	a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence	of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence	will be	replaced with single "." character  if
       the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with	a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than  one  entry	 for  a	 given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character	before	or  after  the	name  or  colon	 in  a
       ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to	begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash	followed by space)  is
       recognized  and	replaced  by  a	space character, and the two-character
       sequence	``\tab'' (backslash followed by	horizontal tab)	is  recognized
       and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con-
       tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''  is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the	two-character sequence
       ``\newline''  (backslash	followed by newline) is	recognized and removed
       from the	value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character	codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each	n is a digit character
       in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with  a	single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized	and  replaced  with  a
       single backslash.

       When  an	 application looks for the value of a resource,	it specifies a
       complete	path in	the hierarchy, with both  class	 and  instance	names.
       However,	 resource  values are usually given with only partially	speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a	loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is	a tight	binding	and is
       used  to	separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
       is used to match	any single component name or class.  A database	 entry
       cannot  end  in	a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
       "?") must be specified.	The lookup  algorithm  searches	 the  resource
       database	for the	entry that most	closely	matches	(is most specific for)
       the full	name and class being queried.  When  more  than	 one  database
       entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
       select just one.

       The full	name and class are scanned from	left to	 right	(from  highest
       level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a	time.  At each
       level, the corresponding	component  and/or  binding  of	each  matching
       entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
       compared	according to precedence	rules.	Each of	the rules  is  applied
       at  each	level, before moving to	the next level,	until a	rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules	(in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component	(whether name,	class,
	    or	"?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
	    is,	entries	that match the level in	a loose	binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes	precedence over	 both  entries
	    with  a matching class and entries that match using	"?".  An entry
	    with a matching class takes	precedence  over  entries  that	 match
	    using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by	a loose	binding.

       Programs	based on the X Tookit Intrinsics  obtain  resources  from  the
       following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER	root window property
	       Any global resources that should	be available to	clients	on all
	       machines	 should	 be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
	       the root	window of the first screen  using  the	xrdb  program.
	       This  is	 frequently  taken  care  of when the user starts up X
	       through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES	root window property
	       Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.	 colors)  that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be	stored
	       in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property	on the	root  window  of  that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as	appro-

       application-specific files
	       Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH-
	       PATH or the environment variable	 XAPPLRESDIR  (which  names  a
	       single  directory  and should end with a	'/' on POSIX systems),
	       plus  directories  in   a   standard   place   (usually	 under
	       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/, but	this can be overridden with the	XFILE-
	       SEARCHPATH environment variable)	are searched for for  applica-
	       tion-specific  resources.   For	example,  application  default
	       resources are usually kept in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/.
	       See  the	X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for

	       Any user- and machine-specific resources	may  be	 specified  by
	       setting	the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
	       resource	file to	be loaded by all applications.	If this	 vari-
	       able  is	not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
	       looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name	 of  the  host
	       where the application is	executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources  can  also  be	 specified from	the command line.  The
	       resourcestring is a single resource name	 and  value  as	 shown
	       above.  Note that if the	string contains	characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must	be quoted.  Any	number
	       of -xrm arguments may be	given on the command line.

       Program	resources  are	organized  into	groups called classes, so that
       collections  of	individual  resources  (each  of  which	  are	called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a	lowercase letter and class name	with an	 upper
       case  letter.   Multiple	word resources are concatenated	with the first
       letter of the succeeding	words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics	will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back-

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use	for the	window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics	also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics	within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of	color displays will frequently
       want  to	 set Background	and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific	color instances	such as	text cursors can  then	be  overridden
       without having to define	all of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in  the
       server with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is	 frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe-
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All	sites  are  encouraged
       to  set	up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

	      This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must	 point
	      to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default  is  $HOME/.Xauthority.  See   Xsecurity(7),   xauth(1),
	      xdm(1), Xau(3).

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

	      The first	non-empty value	among these three determines the  cur-
	      rent  locale's  facet  for character handling, and in particular
	      the  default  text  encoding.   See   locale(7),	 setlocale(3),

	      This  variable  can  be  set  to	contain	additional information
	      important	for the	 current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
	      @im=_input-method_  to  enable  a	 particular  input method. See

	      This must	point to a directory containing	the locale.alias  file
	      and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
	      default value is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/locale.

	      This must	point to a file	containing X resources.	The default is
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults-_hostname_.    Unlike   /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/Xre-
	      sources, it is consulted each time an X application starts.

	      This must	contain	a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
	      consists of


	      A	path template is transformed to	a pathname by substituting:

		  %N =>	name (basename)	being searched for
		  %T =>	type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S =>	suffix being searched for
		  %C =>	value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L =>	the locale name
		  %l =>	the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t =>	the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c =>	the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must	contain	a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will search	for user dependent resource files. The
	      default value is:


	      $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

	      A	path template is transformed to	a pathname by substituting:

		  %N =>	name (basename)	being searched for
		  %T =>	type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S =>	suffix being searched for
		  %C =>	value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L =>	the locale name
		  %l =>	the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t =>	the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c =>	the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must	point to a base	directory where	the  user  stores  his
	      application  dependent  resource	files.	The  default  value is
	      $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

	      This must	point to a file	containing nonstandard keysym  defini-
	      tions.  The default value	is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must	point to a color name database file. The default value
	      is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

	      This must	point to a configuration file for the Xft library. The
	      default value is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XftConfig.

	      This  serves  as	main identifier	for resources belonging	to the
	      program being executed. It defaults to the basename of  pathname
	      of the program.

	      Denotes  the session manager the application should connect. See
	      xsm(1), rstart(1).

	      Setting  this  variable  to  a  non-empty	 value	disables   the
	      XFree86-Bigfont  extension.  This	 extension  is	a mechanism to
	      reduce the memory	consumption of big fonts by use	of shared mem-


	      These variables influence	the X Keyboard Extension.

       The  following  is a collection of sample command lines for some	of the
       more frequently used commands.  For more	information  on	 a  particular
       command,	please refer to	that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir	/usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display	joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg	blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0	-name myxterm $*
	   %  xon filesysmachine xload

       A  wide	variety	of error messages are generated	from various programs.
       The default error handler in Xlib (also used  by	 many  toolkits)  uses
       standard	 resources to construct	diagnostic messages when errors	occur.
       The   defaults	for   these   messages	 are   usually	  stored    in
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XErrorDB.   If  this file is not present, error mes-
       sages will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When the	X Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter  errors  converting  resource
       strings	to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are usu-
       ally printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one  set
       of  resources  across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs. monochrome,
       lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can  pose	 problems  for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the	setting	the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To force	the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string  conversion
       error  messages,	 the  following	 resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded	onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
       gram  (frequently called	.Xresources or .Xres in	the user's home	direc-

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance	name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XStandards(7),	Xsecurity(7),	appres(1),   bdftopcf(1),   bitmap(1),
       editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1),	iceauth(1),  imake(1),
       lbxproxy(1),   makedepend(1),  mkfontdir(1),  oclock(1),	 proxymngr(1),
       rgb(1), resize(1), rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1), x11perf(1),  x11perf-
       comp(1),	 xauth(1),  xclipboard(1),  xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1),
       xdm(1), xdpyinfo(1), xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1),  xhost(1),
       xinit(1),  xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1),
       xkbwatch(1),  xkill(1),	xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),	 xlsclients(1),	  xls-
       fonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xon(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xre-
       fresh(1), xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1), xstdcmap(1),  xterm(1),
       xwd(1), xwininfo(1), xwud(1).  Xserver(1), Xdec(1), XmacII(1), Xsun(1),
       Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), XFree86(1), XDarwin(1), kbd_mode(1), Xlib -  C  Lan-
       guage X Interface, and X	Toolkit	Intrinsics - C Language	Interface

       X Window	System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

       A  cast	of  thousands,	literally.   The  Release  6.3 distribution is
       brought to you by X Consortium, Inc.  The names of all people who  made
       it  a  reality  will  be	 found	in the individual documents and	source
       files.  The staff members at the	 X  Consortium	responsible  for  this
       release	are:  Donna  Converse  (emeritus),  Stephen Gildea (emeritus),
       Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),	Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),	 Janet
       O'Halloran,  Bob	 Scheifler,  Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus), and
       Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was	originally developed at	the Laboratory
       for  Computer Science at	the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned	to the	X  Consortium  on  January  1,
       1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December	31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned	to the	Open  Software

XFree86				 Version 4.7.0				  X(7)


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