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WordNet::Similarity::vUserrContributed Perl DocuWordNet::Similarity::vector(3)

NAME
       WordNet::Similarity::vector - Perl module for computing semantic
       relatedness of word senses using	second order co-occurrence vectors of
       glosses of the word senses.

SYNOPSIS
	 use WordNet::Similarity::vector;

	 use WordNet::QueryData;

	 my $wn	= WordNet::QueryData->new();

	 my $vector = WordNet::Similarity::vector->new($wn);

	 my $value = $vector->getRelatedness("car#n#1",	"bus#n#2");

	 ($error, $errorString)	= $vector->getError();

	 die "$errorString\n" if($error);

	 print "car (sense 1) <-> bus (sense 2)	= $value\n";

DESCRIPTION
       SchA1/4tze (1998) creates what he calls context vectors (second order
       co-occurrence vectors) of pieces	of text	for the	purpose	of Word	Sense
       Discrimination. This idea is adopted by Patwardhan and Pedersen to
       represent the word senses by second-order co-occurrence vectors of
       their dictionary	(WordNet) definitions. The relatedness of two senses
       is then computed	as the cosine of their representative gloss vectors.

       $vector->setPosList()
	   This	method is internally called to determine the parts of speech
	   this	measure	is capable of dealing with.

	   Parameters: none.

	   Returns: none.

       $vector->initialize($file)
	   Overrides the initialize method in the parent class
	   (GlossFinder.pm). This method essentially initializes the measure
	   for use.

	   Parameters: $file --	configuration file.

	   Returns: none.

       $vector->traceOptions()
	   This	method is internally called to determine the extra options
	   specified by	this measure (apart from the default options specified
	   in the WordNet::Similarity base class).

	   Parameters: none.

	   Returns: none.

       $vector->getRelatedness
	   Computes the	relatedness of two word	senses using the Vector
	   Algorithm.

	   Parameters: two word	senses in "word#pos#sense" format.

	   Returns: Unless a problem occurs, the return	value is the
	   relatedness score, which is greater-than or equal-to	0. If an error
	   occurs, then	the error level	is set to non-zero and an error	string
	   is created (see the description of getError()).

   Usage
       The semantic relatedness	modules	in this	distribution are built as
       classes that define the following methods:

	   new()
	   getRelatedness()
	   getError()
	   getTraceString()

       See the WordNet::Similarity(3) documentation for	details	of these
       methods.

       Typical Usage Examples

       To create an object of the vector measure, we would have	the following
       lines of	code in	the Perl program.

	 use WordNet::Similarity::vector;
	 $measure = WordNet::Similarity::vector->new($wn, '/home/sid/vector.conf');

       The reference of	the initialized	object is stored in the	scalar
       variable	'$measure'. '$wn' contains a WordNet::QueryData	object that
       should have been	created	earlier	in the program.	The second parameter
       to the 'new' method is the path of the configuration file for the
       vector measure. If the 'new' method is unable to	create the object,
       '$measure' would	be undefined. This, as well as any other error/warning
       may be tested.

	 die "Unable to	create object.\n" if(!defined $measure);
	 ($err,	$errString) = $measure->getError();
	 die $errString."\n" if($err);

       To find the semantic relatedness	of the first sense of the noun 'car'
       and the second sense of the noun	'bus' using the	measure, we would
       write the following piece of code:

	 $relatedness =	$measure->getRelatedness('car#n#1', 'bus#n#2');

       To get traces for the above computation:

	 print $measure->getTraceString();

       However,	traces must be enabled using configuration files. By default
       traces are turned off.

CONFIGURATION FILE
       The behavior of the measures of semantic	relatedness can	be controlled
       by using	configuration files. These configuration files specify how
       certain parameters are initialized within the object. A configuration
       file may	be specified as	a parameter during the creation	of an object
       using the new method. The configuration files must follow a fixed
       format.

       Every configuration file	starts with the	name of	the module ON THE
       FIRST LINE of the file. For example, a configuration file for the
       vector module will have on the first line
       'WordNet::Similarity::vector'. This is followed by the various
       parameters, each	on a new line and having the form 'name::value'. The
       'value' of a parameter is optional (in case of boolean parameters). In
       case 'value' is omitted,	we would have just 'name::' on that line.
       Comments	are supported in the configuration file. Anything following a
       '#' is ignored till the end of the line.

       The module parses the configuration file	and recognizes the following
       parameters:

       trace
	   The value of	this parameter specifies the level of tracing that
	   should be employed for generating the traces. This value is an
	   integer equal to 0, 1, or 2.	If the value is	omitted, then the
	   default value, 0, is	used. A	value of 0 switches tracing off. A
	   value of 1 or 2 switches tracing on.	 A value of 1 displays as
	   traces only the gloss overlaps found. A value of 2 displays as
	   traces all the text being compared.

       cache
	   The value of	this parameter specifies whether or not	caching	of the
	   relatedness values should be	performed.  This value is an integer
	   equal to  0 or 1.  If the value is omitted, then the	default	value,
	   1, is used. A value of 0 switches caching 'off', and	a value	of 1
	   switches caching 'on'.

       maxCacheSize
	   The value of	this parameter indicates the size of the cache,	used
	   for storing the computed relatedness	value. The specified value
	   must	be a non-negative integer.  If the value is omitted, then the
	   default value, 5,000, is used. Setting maxCacheSize to zero has the
	   same	effect as setting cache	to zero, but setting cache to zero is
	   likely to be	more efficient.	 Caching and tracing at	the same time
	   can result in excessive memory usage	because	the trace strings are
	   also	cached.	 If you	intend to perform a large number of
	   relatedness queries,	then you might want to turn tracing off.

       relation
	   The value of	this parameter is the path to a	file that contains a
	   list	of WordNet relations.  The path	may be either an absolute path
	   or a	relative path.

	   The vector module combines the glosses of synsets related to	the
	   target synsets by these relations and forms the gloss-vector	from
	   this	combined gloss.

	   WARNING: the	format of the relation file is different for the
	   vector and lesk measures.

       stop
	   The value of	this parameter the path	of a file containing a list of
	   stop	words that should be ignored in	the glosses.  The path may be
	   either an absolute path or a	relative path.

       stem
	   The value of	this parameter indicates whether or not	stemming
	   should be performed.	 The value must	be an integer equal to 0 or 1.
	   If the value	is omitted, then the default value, 0, is used.	 A
	   value of 1 switches 'on' stemming, and a value of 0 switches
	   stemming 'off'. When	stemming is enabled, all the words of the
	   glosses are stemmed before their vectors are	created	for the	vector
	   measure or their overlaps are compared for the lesk measure.

       vectordb
	   The value of	this parameter is the path to a	file containing	word
	   vectors, i.e. co-occurrence vectors for all the words in the
	   WordNet glosses.  The value of this parameter may not be omitted,
	   and the vector measure will not run without a vectors file being
	   specified in	a configuration	file.

RELATION FILE FORMAT
       The relation file starts	with the string	"VectorRelationFile" on	the
       first line of the file. Following this, on each consecutive line, a
       relation	is specified in	the form --

	func(func(func... (func)...)) [weight]

       Where "func" can	be any one of the following functions:

	hype() = Hypernym of
	hypo() = Hyponym of
	holo() = Holonym of
	mero() = Meronym of
	attr() = Attribute of
	also() = Also see
	sim() =	Similar
	enta() = Entails
	caus() = Causes
	part() = Particle
	pert() = Pertainym of
	glos = gloss (without example)
	example	= example (from	the gloss)
	glosexample = gloss + example
	syns = the synset of the concept

       Each of these specifies a WordNet relation. And the outermost function
       in the nesting can only be one of glos, example,	glosexample or syns.
       The functions specify which glosses to use for forming the gloss	vector
       of the synset. An optional weight can be	specified to weigh the
       contribution of that relation in	the overall score.

       For example,

	glos(hype(hypo)) 0.5

       means that the gloss of the hypernym of the hyponym of the synset is
       used to form the	gloss vector of	the synset, and	the values in this
       vector are weighted by 0.5. If one of "glos", "example",	"glosexample"
       or "syns" is not	specified as the outermost function in the nesting,
       then "glosexample" is assumed by	default. This implies that

	glosexample(hypo(also))

       and

	hypo(also)

       are equivalent as far as	the measure is concerned.

SEE ALSO
       perl(1),	WordNet::Similarity(3),	WordNet::QueryData(3)

       http://www.cs.utah.edu/~sidd

       http://wordnet.princeton.edu

       http://www.ai.mit.edu/~jrennie/WordNet

       http://groups.yahoo.com/group/wn-similarity

AUTHORS
	Ted Pedersen, University of Minnesota, Duluth
	tpederse at d.umn.edu

	Siddharth Patwardhan, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
	sidd at	cs.utah.edu

	Satanjeev Banerjee, Carnegie Mellon University,	Pittsburgh
	banerjee+ at cs.cmu.edu

BUGS
       To report bugs, go to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/wn-similarity/ or
       send an e-mail to "tpederseA atA	d.umn.edu".

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       Copyright (c) 2005, Ted Pedersen, Siddharth Patwardhan and Satanjeev
       Banerjee

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either	version	2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A	PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program; if not, write	to

	   The Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
	   59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
	   Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

       Note: a copy of the GNU General Public License is available on the web
       at <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.txt>	and is included	in this
       distribution as GPL.txt.

perl v5.24.1			  2008-03-27	WordNet::Similarity::vector(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CONFIGURATION FILE | RELATION FILE FORMAT | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | BUGS | COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

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