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VirtualBindings(3)	   Library Functions Manual	    VirtualBindings(3)

       VirtualBindings -- Bindings for virtual mouse and key events

       The Motif reference pages describe key translations in terms of virtual
       bindings, based on those	described in the Motif Style Guide.

   Bindings for	osf Keysyms
       Keysym strings that begin with <osf> are	not part  of  the  X  server's
       keyboard	 mapping.   Instead,  these keysyms are	produced on the	client
       side at run time.  They are interpreted by the routine  XmTranslateKey,
       and are used by the translation manager when the	server delivers	an ac-
       tual key	event.	For each application, a	mapping	is maintained  between
       <osf> keysyms and keysyms that correspond to actual keys.  This mapping
       is based	on information obtained	at application startup from one	of the
       following sources, listed in order of precedence:

	  o  The XmNdefaultVirtualBindings resource from Display.

	  o  A	property  on  the  root	 window,  which	 can  be set by	mwm on
	     startup, or by the	xmbind client, or on prior startup of a	 Motif

	  o  The file .motifbind in the	user's home directory.

	  o  A	set  of	bindings based on the vendor string and	optionally the
	     vendor release of the X server.  Motif searches for  these	 bind-
	     ings in the following steps:

		0. If  the  file xmbind.alias exists in	the user's home	direc-
		   tory, Motif searches	this file for  a  pathname  associated
		   with	the vendor string or with the vendor string and	vendor
		   release.  If	it finds such a	pathname and if	that file  ex-
		   ists, Motif loads the bindings contained in that file.

		1. If  it has found no bindings, Motif next looks for the file
		   xmbind.alias	in the directory specified by the  environment
		   variable  XMBINDDIR,	 if XMBINDDIR is set, or in the	direc-
		   tory	/usr/lib/Xm/bindings if	XMBINDDIR is not set.  If this
		   file	 exists	 Motif	searches  it for a pathname associated
		   with	the vendor string or with the vendor string and	vendor
		   release.   If it finds such a pathname and if that file ex-
		   ists, Motif loads the bindings contained in that file.

		2. If it still has found no bindings, Motif  loads  a  set  of
		   hard-coded fallback bindings.

       The  xmbind.alias  file	contains  zero	or more	lines of the following

       "vendor_string[ vendor_release]"	   bindings_file

       where vendor_string is the X server vendor name as returned  by	the  X
       client  xdpyinfo	or the Xlib function XServerVendor, and	must appear in
       double quotes.  If vendor_release is included, it is the	X server  ven-
       dor  release  number  as	 returned by the X client xdpyinfo or the Xlib
       function	XVendorRelease,	and must also be contained within  the	double
       quotes  separated  by one space from vendor_string.  The	vendor_release
       argument	is provided to allow support of	changes	in  keyboard  hardware
       from  a	vendor,	assuming that the vendor increments the	release	number
       to flag such changes.  Alternatively,  the  vendor  may	simply	use  a
       unique vendor string for	each different keyboard.

       The  bindings_file  argument is the pathname of the file	containing the
       bindings	themselves.  It	can be a relative or absolute pathname.	 If it
       it  is  a  relative pathname, it	is relative to the location of the xm-
       bind.alias file.

       Comment lines in	 the  xmbind.alias  file  begin	 with  !  (exclamation

       The  bindings found in either the .motifbind file or the	vendor mapping
       are placed in a property	on the root window.  This property is used  to
       determine the bindings for subsequent Motif applications.

       On  startup mwm attempts	to load	the file .motifbind in the user's home
       directory.  If this is unsuccessful, it loads the  vendor  bindings  as
       described previously.  It places	the bindings it	loads in a property on
       the root	window for use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The xmbind function loads bindings from a file if that file  is	speci-
       fied on the command line.  If no	file is	specified on the command line,
       it attempts to load the file .motifbind in the user's  home  directory.
       If  this	 fails,	 it loads the vendor bindings as described previously.
       It places the bindings it loads in a property on	the  root  window  for
       use by subsequent Motif applications.

       The  format  of	the  specification for mapping <osf> keysyms to	actual
       keysyms is similar to that of a specification for an event translation.
       (See  below)  The syntax	is specified (and below) here in EBNF notation
       using the following conventions:

       [a]    Means either nothing or a
       {a}    Means zero or more occurrences of	a
       (a|b)	Means either a or b.

       Terminals are enclosed in double	quotation marks.

       The syntax of an	<osf> keysym binding specification is as follows:

       binding_spec    =       {line "\n"} [line]
       line	       =       virtual_keysym ":" list_of_key_event
       list_of_key_event=      key_event { "," key_event}
       key_event       =       {modifier_name} "<Key>" actual_keysym
       virtual_keysym  =       keysym
       actual_keysym   =       keysym
       keysym	       =       A valid X11 keysym name that is
			       mapped by XStringToKeysym

       As with event translations, more	specific event descriptions must  pre-
       cede less specific descriptions.	 For example, an event description for
       a key with a modifier must precede a description	for the	same key with-
       out the same modifier.

       Following  is an	example	of a specification for the defaultVirtualBind-
       ings resource in	a resource file:

       *defaultVirtualBindings:	\
	       osfBackSpace:	   <Key>BackSpace	\n\
	       osfInsert:	<Key>InsertChar	     \n\
	       osfDelete:	<Key>DeleteChar	     \n\
	       osfLeft:	      <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The format of a .motifbind file or of a file containing vendor bindings
       is  the	same, except that the binding specification for	each keysym is
       placed on a separate line.  The previous	example	specification  appears
       as follows in a .motifbind or vendor bindings file:

       osfBackSpace:	   <Key>BackSpace
       osfInsert:	<Key>InsertChar
       osfDelete:	<Key>DeleteChar
       osfLeft:	      <Key>left, Ctrl<Key>H

       The following table lists the fixed fallback default bindings for <osf>

       |       Fallback	DefaultBindings for osf Keysyms	 |
       |<osf Keysym>	      |	Fallback Default Binding	 |
       |<osfActivate>:	      |	<Key>KP_Enter, <Key>Execute	 |
       |<osfAddMode>:	      |	Shift<Key>F8			 |
       |<osfBackSpace>:	      |	<Key>BackSpace			 |
       |<osfBeginLine>:	      |	<Key>Home, <Key>Begin		 |
       |<osfCancel>:	      |	<Key>Escape, <Key>Cancel	 |
       |<osfClear>:	      |	<Key>Clear			 |
       |<osfCopy>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfCut>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfDelete>:	      |	<Key>Delete			 |
       |<osfDeselectAll>:     |	unbound				 |
       |<osfDown>:	      |	<Key>Down			 |
       |<osfEndLine>:	      |	<Key>End			 |
       |<osfHelp>:	      |	<Key>F1, <Key>Help		 |
       |<osfInsert>:	      |	<Key>Insert			 |
       |<osfLeft>:	      |	<Key>Left			 |
       |<osfLeftLine>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfMenu>:	      |	Shift<Key>F10, <Key>Menu	 |
       |<osfMenuBar>:	      |	<Key>F10, Shift<Key>Menu	 |
       |<osfNextMinor>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfPageDown>:	      |	<Key>Next			 |
       |<osfPageLeft>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfPageRight>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfPageUp>:	      |	<Key>Prior			 |
       |<osfPaste>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfPrimaryPaste>:    |	unbound				 |
       |<osfPriorMinor>:      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfReselect>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfRestore>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfRight>:	      |	<Key>Right			 |
       |<osfRightLine>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfSelect>:	      |	<Key>Select			 |
       |<osfSelectAll>:	      |	unbound				 |
       |<osfSwitchDirection>: |	Alt<Key>Return,	Alt<Key>KP_Enter |
       |<osfUndo>:	      |	<Key>Undo			 |
       |<osfUp>:	      |	<Key>Up				 |
   Changes in the Handling of Shifted Keys
       In conjunction with MIT X11R5 Patch 24, this version  of	 Motif	intro-
       duces  a	change in the way that keys involving the <Shift> modifier are
       processed. This change allows the numeric keypad	to be used to generate
       numbers	using the standard X mechanisms. Since the default behavior is
       now to honor the	xmodmap	keymap bindings, translations and virtual  key
       bindings	 that  use <Shift> may behave differently. A common symptom is
       that unshifted keypad and function keys (with or	 without  other	 modi-
       fiers) produce the expected results, but	shifted	ones do	not.

       To  obtain  the	old behavior you can remove the	shifted	interpretation
       from problematic	keys using  the	 xmodmap  utility.  Each  entry	 in  a
       xmodmap	keymap	table  contains	up to four keysym bindings. The	second
       and fourth keysyms are for shifted keys.	If an expression contains only
       two  keysyms,  simply  remove  the  second keysym. If an	entry contains
       three or	more keysyms, replace the second keysym	with NoSymbol and  re-
       move the	fourth keysym.

   Action Translations
       The  translation	 table syntax used by Motif is completely specified in
       the X11R5 Toolkit Intrinsics Documentation. For the complete syntax de-
       scription,  and	for  general instructions about	writing	or modifying a
       translation table, please refer to this document. A  brief  summary  of
       the translation table format, however, is included below.

       The  syntax  is	defined	 as in the binding syntax specification	above.
       Informal	descriptions are contained in angle brackets (<>).

       TranslationTable=       [ directive ] { production }
       directive       =       ( "#replace" | "#override" | "#augment")	"\n"
       production      =       lhs ":" rhs "\n"
       lhs	       =       ( event | keyseq) {"," (	event |	keyseq)	}
       keyseq	       =       """ keychar { keychar } """
       keychar	       =       ( "^" | "$" | "\\") <ISO	Latin 1	character>
       event	       =       [ modifier_list ] "<" event_type	">" [ count ] {detail}
       modifier_list   =       ( ["!"][":"] { modifier } | "None")
       modifier	       =       [ "~" ] ( "@" <keysym> |	<name from table below>)
       count	       =       "(" <positive integer> [	"+" ] ")"
       rhs	       =       { action_name "(" [params] ")" }
       params	       =       string {	"," string }

       The string field	need not be quoted unless it includes a	space  or  tab
       character,  or  any  comma, newline, or parenthesis. The	entire list of
       string values making up the params field	will ba	passed	to  the	 named
       action routine.

       The  details field may be used to specify a keysym that will identify a
       particular key event. For example, <Key>	is  the	 name  of  a  type  of
       event,  but it must be modified by the details field to name a specific
       event, such as <Key>A.

       Modifier	Names The modifier list, which may be  empty,  consists	 of  a
       list  of	 modifier keys that must be pressed with the key sequence. The
       modifier	keys may abbreviated with single letters, as in	the  following
       list of the familiar modifiers:

       s	 Shift

       c or ^	 Ctrl (Control)

       m or $	 Meta

       a	 Alt

       Other modifiers are available, such as "Mod5" and "Button2." These have
       no abbreviation (although the "Button" modifiers	may be abbreviated  in
       combination  with events, as outlined below). If	a modifier list	has no
       entries,	and is not "None", it means the	position of the	modifier  keys
       is  irrelevant. If modifiers are	listed,	the designated keys must be in
       the specified position, but the unlisted	modifier keys are  irrelevant.
       If the list begins with an exclamation point (!), however, the unlisted
       modifiers may not be asserted. In addition, if a	modifier name is  pre-
       ceded by	a tilde	(~), the corresponding key must	not be pressed.

       If a modifier list begins with a	colon (:), X tries to use the standard
       modifiers (Shift	and Lock), if present, to map the key event code  into
       a recognized keysym.

       Event Types These are a few of the recognized event types.

       Key or KeyDown
		 A keyboard key	was pressed.

       KeyUp	 A keyboard key	was released.

       BtnDown	 A mouse button	was pressed.

       BtnUp	 A mouse button	was released.

       Motion	 The mouse pointer moved.

       Enter	 The pointer entered the widget's window.

       Leave	 The pointer left the widget's window.

       FocusIn	 The widget has	received focus.

       FocusOut	 The widget has	lost focus.

       There are some event abbreviations available. For example, <Btn1Motion>
       is actually a "Motion" event,  modified	with  the  "Button1"  modifier
       (Button1<Motion>). Similarly, <Btn3Up> is actually a "BtnUp" event with
       the "Button3" modifier. These abbreviations are used extensively	in the
       Motif translation tables.




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