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URI::file(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	  URI::file(3)

       URI::file - URI that maps to local file names

	use URI::file;

	$u1 = URI->new("file:/foo/bar");
	$u2 = URI->new("foo/bar", "file");

	$u3 = URI::file->new($path);
	$u4 = URI::file->new("c:\\windows\\", "win32");


       The "URI::file" class supports "URI" objects belonging to the file URI
       scheme.	This scheme allows us to map the conventional file names found
       on various computer systems to the URI name space.  An old
       specification of	the file URI scheme is found in	RFC 1738.  Some	older
       background information is also in RFC 1630. There are no	newer
       specifications as far as	I know.

       If you simply want to construct file URI	objects	from URI strings, use
       the normal "URI"	constructor.  If you want to construct file URI
       objects from the	actual file names used by various systems, then	use
       one of the following "URI::file"	constructors:

       $u = URI::file->new( $filename, [$os] )
	   Maps	a file name to the file: URI name space, creates a URI object
	   and returns it.  The	$filename is interpreted as belonging to the
	   indicated operating system ($os), which defaults to the value of
	   the $^O variable.  The $filename can	be either absolute or
	   relative, and the corresponding type	of URI object for $os is

       $u = URI::file->new_abs(	$filename, [$os] )
	   Same	as URI::file->new, but makes sure that the URI returned
	   represents an absolute file name.  If the $filename argument	is
	   relative, then the name is resolved relative	to the current
	   directory, i.e. this	constructor is really the same as:


       $u = URI::file->cwd
	   Returns a file URI that represents the current working directory.
	   See Cwd.

       The following methods are supported for file URI	(in addition to	the
       common and generic methods described in URI):

       $u->file( [$os] )
	   Returns a file name.	 It maps from the URI name space to the	file
	   name	space of the indicated operating system.

	   It might return "undef" if the name can not be represented in the
	   indicated file system.

       $u->dir(	[$os] )
	   Some	systems	use a different	form for names of directories than for
	   plain files.	 Use this method if you	know you want to use the name
	   for a directory.

       The "URI::file" module can be used to map generic file names to names
       suitable	for the	current	system.	 As such, it can work as a nice
       replacement for the "File::Spec"	module.	 For instance, the following
       code translates the UNIX-style file name	Foo/ to a	name suitable
       for the local system:

	 $file = URI::file->new("Foo/", "unix")->file;
	 die "Can't map	filename Foo/ for	$^O" unless defined $file;
	 open(FILE, $file) || die "Can't open '$file': $!";
	 # do something	with FILE

       Most computer systems today have	hierarchically organized file systems.
       Mapping the names used in these systems to the generic URI syntax
       allows us to work with relative file URIs that behave as	they should
       when resolved using the generic algorithm for URIs (specified in	RFC
       2396).  Mapping a file name to the generic URI syntax involves mapping
       the path	separator character to "/" and encoding	any reserved
       characters that appear in the path segments of the file name.  If path
       segments	consisting of the strings "." or ".." have a different meaning
       than what is specified for generic URIs,	then these must	be encoded as

       If the file system has device, volume or	drive specifications as	the
       root of the name	space, then it makes sense to map them to the
       authority field of the generic URI syntax.  This	makes sure that
       relative	URIs can not be	resolved "above" them, i.e. generally how
       relative	file names work	in those systems.

       Another common use of the authority field is to encode the host on
       which this file name is valid.  The host	name "localhost" is special
       and generally has the same meaning as a missing or empty	authority
       field.  This use	is in conflict with using it as	a device
       specification, but can often be resolved	for device specifications
       having characters not legal in plain host names.

       File name to URI	mapping	in normally not	one-to-one.  There are usually
       many URIs that map to any given file name.  For instance, an authority
       of "localhost" maps the same as a URI with a missing or empty

       Example 1: The Mac classic (Mac OS 9 and	earlier) used ":" as path
       separator, but not in the same way as a generic URI. ":foo" was a
       relative	name.  "foo:bar" was an	absolute name.	Also, path segments
       could contain the "/" character as well as the literal "." or "..".  So
       the mapping looks like this:

	 Mac classic	       URI
	 ----------	       -------------------
	 :foo:bar     <==>     foo/bar
	 :	      <==>     ./
	 ::foo:bar    <==>     ../foo/bar
	 :::	      <==>     ../../
	 foo:bar      <==>     file:/foo/bar
	 foo:bar:     <==>     file:/foo/bar/
	 ..	      <==>     %2E%2E
	 <undef>      <==      /
	 foo/	      <==      file:/foo%2F
	 ./foo.txt    <==      file:/.%2Ffoo.txt

       Note that if you	want a relative	URL, you *must*	begin the path with a
       :.  Any path that begins	with [^:] is treated as	absolute.

       Example 2: The UNIX file	system is easy to map, as it uses the same
       path separator as URIs, has a single root, and segments of "." and ".."
       have the	same meaning.  URIs that have the character "\0" or "/"	as
       part of any path	segment	can not	be turned into valid UNIX file names.

	 UNIX		       URI
	 ----------	       ------------------
	 foo/bar      <==>     foo/bar
	 /foo/bar     <==>     file:/foo/bar
	 /foo/bar     <==      file://localhost/foo/bar
	 file:	       ==>     ./file:
	 <undef>      <==      file:/fo%00/bar
	 /	      <==>     file:/

       The following configuration variables influence how the class and its
       methods behave:

	   This	hash maps OS identifiers to implementation classes.  You might
	   want	to add or modify this if you want to plug in your own file
	   handler class.  Normally the	keys should match the $^O values in

	   If there is no mapping then the "Unix" implementation is used.

	   This	determine what "authority" string to include in	absolute file
	   URIs.  It defaults to "".  If you prefer verbose URIs you might set
	   it to be "localhost".

	   Setting this	value to "undef" force behaviour compatible to URI
	   v1.31 and earlier.  In this mode host names in UNC paths and	drive
	   letters are mapped to the authority component on Windows, while we
	   produce authority-less URIs on Unix.

       URI, File::Spec,	perlport

       Copyright 1995-1998,2004	Gisle Aas.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.32.0			  2019-01-09			  URI::file(3)


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