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URI::Escape(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	URI::Escape(3)

NAME
       URI::Escape - Percent-encode and	percent-decode unsafe characters

SYNOPSIS
	use URI::Escape;
	$safe =	uri_escape("10%	is enough\n");
	$verysafe = uri_escape("foo", "\0-\377");
	$str  =	uri_unescape($safe);

DESCRIPTION
       This module provides functions to percent-encode	and percent-decode URI
       strings as defined by RFC 3986. Percent-encoding	URI's is informally
       called "URI escaping".  This is the terminology used by this module,
       which predates the formalization	of the terms by	the RFC	by several
       years.

       A URI consists of a restricted set of characters.  The restricted set
       of characters consists of digits, letters, and a	few graphic symbols
       chosen from those common	to most	of the character encodings and input
       facilities available to Internet	users.	They are made up of the
       "unreserved" and	"reserved" character sets as defined in	RFC 3986.

	  unreserved	= ALPHA	/ DIGIT	/ "-" /	"." / "_" / "~"
	  reserved	= ":" /	"/" / "?" / "#"	/ "[" /	"]" / "@"
			  "!" /	"$" / "&" / "'"	/ "(" /	")"
			/ "*" /	"+" / "," / ";"	/ "="

       In addition, any	byte (octet) can be represented	in a URI by an escape
       sequence: a triplet consisting of the character "%" followed by two
       hexadecimal digits.  A byte can also be represented directly by a
       character, using	the US-ASCII character for that	octet.

       Some of the characters are reserved for use as delimiters or as part of
       certain URI components.	These must be escaped if they are to be
       treated as ordinary data.  Read RFC 3986	for further details.

       The functions provided (and exported by default)	from this module are:

       uri_escape( $string )
       uri_escape( $string, $unsafe )
	   Replaces each unsafe	character in the $string with the
	   corresponding escape	sequence and returns the result.  The $string
	   argument should be a	string of bytes.  The uri_escape() function
	   will	croak if given a characters with code above 255.  Use
	   uri_escape_utf8() if	you know you have such chars or/and want chars
	   in the 128 .. 255 range treated as UTF-8.

	   The uri_escape() function takes an optional second argument that
	   overrides the set of	characters that	are to be escaped.  The	set is
	   specified as	a string that can be used in a regular expression
	   character class (between [ ]).  E.g.:

	     "\x00-\x1f\x7f-\xff"	   # all control and hi-bit characters
	     "a-z"			   # all lower case characters
	     "^A-Za-z"			   # everything	not a letter

	   The default set of characters to be escaped is all those which are
	   not part of the "unreserved"	character class	shown above as well as
	   the reserved	characters.  I.e. the default is:

	       "^A-Za-z0-9\-\._~"

       uri_escape_utf8(	$string	)
       uri_escape_utf8(	$string, $unsafe )
	   Works like uri_escape(), but	will encode chars as UTF-8 before
	   escaping them.  This	makes this function able to deal with
	   characters with code	above 255 in $string.  Note that chars in the
	   128 .. 255 range will be escaped differently	by this	function
	   compared to what uri_escape() would.	 For chars in the 0 .. 127
	   range there is no difference.

	   Equivalent to:

	       utf8::encode($string);
	       my $uri = uri_escape($string);

	   Note: JavaScript has	a function called escape() that	produces the
	   sequence "%uXXXX" for chars in the 256 .. 65535 range.  This
	   function has	really nothing to do with URI escaping but some	folks
	   got confused	since it "does the right thing"	in the 0 .. 255	range.
	   Because of this you sometimes see "URIs" with these kind of
	   escapes.  The JavaScript encodeURIComponent() function is similar
	   to uri_escape_utf8().

       uri_unescape($string,...)
	   Returns a string with each %XX sequence replaced with the actual
	   byte	(octet).

	   This	does the same as:

	      $string =~ s/%([0-9A-Fa-f]{2})/chr(hex($1))/eg;

	   but does not	modify the string in-place as this RE would.  Using
	   the uri_unescape() function instead of the RE might make the	code
	   look	cleaner	and is a few characters	less to	type.

	   In a	simple benchmark test I	did, calling the function (instead of
	   the inline RE above)	if a few chars were unescaped was something
	   like	40% slower, and	something like 700% slower if none were.  If
	   you are going to unescape a lot of times it might be	a good idea to
	   inline the RE.

	   If the uri_unescape() function is passed multiple strings, then
	   each	one is returned	unescaped.

       The module can also export the %escapes hash, which contains the
       mapping from all	256 bytes to the corresponding escape codes.  Lookup
       in this hash is faster than evaluating "sprintf("%%%02X", ord($byte))"
       each time.

SEE ALSO
       URI

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 1995-2004 Gisle Aas.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.32.1			  2020-10-21			URI::Escape(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

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