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Text::Table(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	Text::Table(3)

       Text::Table - Organize Data in Tables

       version 1.132

	   use Text::Table;
	   my $tb = Text::Table->new(
	       "Planet", "Radius\nkm", "Density\ng/cm^3"
	       [ "Mercury", 2360, 3.7 ],
	       [ "Venus", 6110,	5.1 ],
	       [ "Earth", 6378,	5.52 ],
	       [ "Jupiter", 71030, 1.3 ],
	   print $tb;

       This prints a table from	the given title	and data like this:

	 Planet	 Radius	Density
		 km	g/cm^3
	 Mercury  2360	3.7
	 Venus	  6110	5.1
	 Earth	  6378	5.52
	 Jupiter 71030	1.3

       Note that two-line titles work, and that	the planet names are aligned
       differently than	the numbers.

       Organization of data in table form is a time-honored and	useful method
       of data representation.	While columns of data are trivially generated
       by computer through formatted output, even simple tasks like keeping
       titles aligned with the data columns are	not trivial, and the one-shot
       solutions one comes up with tend	to be particularly hard	to maintain.
       Text::Table allows you to create	and maintain tables that adapt to
       alignment requirements as you use them.

       The process is simple: you create a table (a Text::Table	object)	by
       describing the columns the table	is going to have.  Then	you load lines
       of data into the	table, and finally print the resulting output lines.
       Alignment of data and column titles is handled dynamically in
       dependence on the data present.

   Table Creation
       In the simplest case, if	all you	want is	a number of (untitled)
       columns,	you create an unspecified table	and start adding data to it.
       The number of columns is	taken from the first line of data.

       To specify a table you specify its columns.  A column description can
       contain a title and alignment requirements for the data,	both optional.
       Additionally, you can specify how the title is aligned with the body of
       a column, and how the lines of a	multiline title	are aligned among

       The columns are collected in the	table in the order they	are given.  On
       data entry, each	column corresponds to one data item, and in column
       selection columns are indexed left to right, starting from 0.

       Each title can be a multiline string which will be blank-filled to the
       length of the longest partial line.  The	largest	number of title	lines
       in a column determines how many title lines the table has as a whole,
       including the case that no column has any titles.

       On output, Columns are separated	by a single blank.  You	can control
       what goes between columns by specifying separators between (or before,
       or after) columns.  Separators don't contain any	data and don't count
       in column indexing.  They also don't accumulate:	in a sequence of only
       separators and no columns, only the last	one counts.

   Status Information
       The width (in characters), height (in lines), number of columns,	and
       similar data about the table is available.

   Data	Loading
       Table data is entered line-wise,	each time specifying data entries for
       all table columns.  A bulk loader for many lines	at once	is also
       available.  You can clear the data from the table for re-use (though
       you will	more likely just create	another	table).

       Data can	contain	colorizing escape sequences (as	provided by
       "Term::AnsiColor") without upsetting the	alignment.

   Table Output
       The output area of a table is divided in	the title and the body.

       The title contains the combined titles from the table columns, if any.
       Its content never changes with a	given table, but it may	be spread out
       differently on the page through alignment with the data.

       The body	contains the data lines, aligned column-wise as	specified, and
       left-aligned with the column title.

       Each of these is	arranged like a	Perl array (counting from 0) and can
       be accessed in portions by specifying a first line and the number of
       following lines.	 Also like an array, giving a negative first line
       counts from the end of the area.	 The whole table, the title followed
       by the body, can	also be	accessed in this manner.

       The subdivisions	are there so you can repeat the	title (or parts	of it)
       along with parts	of the body on output, whether for screen paging or

       A rule line is also available, which is the horizontal counterpart to
       the separator columns you specify with the table.  It is	basically a
       table line as it	would appear if	all data entries in the	line were
       empty, that is, a blank line except for where the column	separators
       have non-blank entries.	If you print it	between	data lines, it will
       not disrupt the vertical	separator structure as a plain blank line
       would.  You can also request a solid rule consisting of any character,
       and even	one with the non-blank column separators replaced by a
       character of your choice.  This way you can get the popular
       representation of line-crossings	like so:


   Warning Control
       On table	creation, some parameters are checked and warnings issued if
       you allow warnings.  You	can also turn warnings into fatal errors.

   Column Specification
       Each column specification is a single scalar.  Columns can be either
       proper data columns or column separators.  Both can be specified	either
       as (possibly multi-line)	strings, or in a more explicit form as hash-
       refs.  In the string form, proper columns are given as plain strings,
       and separators are given	as scalar references to	strings.  In hash
       form, separators	have a true value in the field "is_sep"	while proper
       columns don't have this field.

       Columns as strings
	   A column is given as	a column title (any number of lines),
	   optionally followed by alignment requirements.  Alignment
	   requirements	start with a line that begins with an ampersand	"&".
	   However, only the last such line counts as such, so if you have
	   title lines that begin with "&", just append	an ampersand on	a line
	   by itself as	a dummy	alignment section if you don't have one

	   What	follows	the ampersand on its line is the alignment style (like
	   left, right,	... as described in "Alignment"), you want for the
	   data	in this	column.	 If nothing follows, the general default auto
	   is used.  If	you specify an invalid alignment style,	it falls back
	   to left alignment.

	   The lines that follow can contain sample data for this column.
	   These are considered	for alignment in the column, but never
	   actually appear in the output.  The effect is to guarantee a
	   minimum width for the column	even if	the current data doesn't
	   require it.	This helps dampen the oscillations in the appearance
	   of dynamically aligned tables.

       Columns as Hashes
	   The format is

		   title   => $title,
		   align   => $align,
		   sample  => $sample,
		   align_title => $align_title,
		   align_title_lines =>	$align_title_lines,

	   $title contains the title lines and $sample the sample data.	 Both
	   can be given	as a string or as an array-ref to the list of lines.
	   $align contains the alignment style (without	a leading ampersand),
	   usually as a	string.	 You can also give a regular expression	here,
	   which specifies regex alignment.  A regex can only be specified in
	   the hash form of a column specification.

	   In hash form	you can	also specify how the title of a	column is
	   aligned with	its body.  To do this, you specify the keyword
	   "align_title" with "left", "right" or "center".  Other alignment
	   specifications are not valid	here.  The default is "left".

	   "align_title" also specifies	how the	lines of a multiline title are
	   aligned among themselves.  If you want a different alignment, you
	   can specify it with the key "align_title_lines".  Again, only
	   "left", "right" or "center" are allowed.

	   Do not put other keys than those mentioned above (title, align,
	   align_title,	align_title_lines, and sample) into a hash that
	   specifies a column.	Most would be ignored, but some	would confuse
	   the interpreter (in particular, is_sep has to be avoided).

       Separators as strings
	   A separator must be given as	a reference to a string	(often a
	   literal, like "\' | '"), any	string that is given directly
	   describes a column.

	   It is usually just a	(short)	string that will be printed between
	   table columns on all	table lines instead of the default single
	   blank.  If you specify two separators (on two lines), the first one
	   will	be used	in the title and the other in the body of the table.

       Separators as Hashes
	   The hash representation of a	separator has the format

		   is_sep => 1,
		   title  => $title,
		   body	  => $body,

	   $title is the separator to be used in the title area	and $body the
	   one for the body.  If only one is given, the	other is used for
	   both.  If none is given, a blank is used.  If one is	shorter	than
	   the other, it is blank filled on the	right.

	   The value of	"is_sep" must be set to	a true value, this is the
	   distinguishing feature of a separator.

       The original documentation to Text::Aligner contains all	the details on
       alignment specification,	but here is the	rundown:

       The possible alignment specifications are left, right, center, num and
       point (which are	synonyms), and auto.  The first	three explain

       num (and	point) align the decimal point in the data, which is assumed
       to the right if none is present.	 Strings that aren't numbers are
       treated the same	way, that is, they appear aligned with the integers
       unless they contain a ".".  Instead of the decimal point	".", you can
       also specify any	other string in	the form num(,), for instance.	The
       string in parentheses is	aligned	in the data.  The synonym point	for
       num may be more appropriate in contexts that deal with arbitrary
       strings,	as in point(=_)	(which might be	used to	align certain bits of
       Perl code).

       regex alignment is a more sophisticated form of point alignment.	 If
       you specify a regular expression, as delivered by "qr//", the start of
       the match is used as the	alignment point.  If the regex contains
       capturing parentheses, the last submatch	counts.	 [The usefulness of
       this feature is under consideration.]

       auto alignment combines numeric alignment with left alignment.  Data
       items that look like numbers, and those that don't, form	two virtual
       columns and are aligned accordingly: "num" for numbers and "left" for
       other strings.  These columns are left-aligned with each	other (i.e.
       the narrower one	is blank-filled) to form the final alignment.

       This way, a column that happens to have only numbers in the data	gets
       num alignment, a	column with no numbers appears left-aligned, and mixed
       data is presented in a reasonable way.

   Column Selection
       Besides creating	tables from scratch, they can be created by selecting
       columns from an existing	table.	Tables created this way	contain	the
       data from the columns they were built from.

       This is done by specifying the columns to select	by their index (where
       negative	indices	count backward from the	last column).  The same	column
       can be selected more than once and the sequence of columns can be
       arbitrarily changed.  Separators	don't travel with columns, but can be
       specified between the columns at	selection time.

       You can make the	selection of one or more columns dependent on the data
       content of one of them.	If you specify some of the columns in angle
       brackets	[...], the whole group is only included	in the selection if
       the first column	in the group contains any data that evaluates to
       boolean true.  That way you can de-select parts of a table if it
       contains	no interesting data.  Any column separators given in brackets
       are selected or deselected along	with the rest of it.

   Table Creation
	       my $tb =	Text::Table->new( $column, ... );

	   creates a table with	the columns specified.	A column can be	proper
	   column which	contains and displays data, or a separator which tells
	   how to fill the space between columns.  The format of the
	   parameters is described under "Column Specification". Specifying an
	   invalid alignment for a column results in a warning if these	are

	   If no columns are specified,	the number of columns is taken from
	   the first line of data added	to the table.  The effect is as	if you
	   had specified "Text::Table->new( ( '') x $n)", where	$n is the
	   number of columns.

	       my $sub = $tb->select( $column, ...);

	   creates a table from	the listed columns of the table	$tb, including
	   the data.  Columns are specified as integer indices which refer to
	   the data columns of $tb.  Columns can be repeated and specified in
	   any order.  Negative	indices	count from the last column.  If	an
	   invalid index is specified, a warning is issued, if allowed.

	   As with "new()", separators can be interspersed among the column
	   indices and will be used between the	columns	of the new table.

	   If you enclose some of the arguments	(column	indices	or separators)
	   in angle brackets "[...]" (technically, you specify them inside an
	   arrayref), they form	a group	for conditional	selection.  The	group
	   is only included in the resulting table if the first	actual column
	   inside the group contains any data that evaluate to a boolean true.
	   This	way you	can exclude groups of columns that wouldn't contribute
	   anything interesting.  Note that separators are selected and	de-
	   selected with their group.  That way, more than one separator can
	   appear between adjacent columns.  They don't	add up,	but only the
	   rightmost separator is used.	 A group that contains only separators
	   is never selected.  [Another	feature	whose usefulness is under

   Status Information

	   returns the number of columns in the	table.


	   returns the width (in characters) of	the table.  All	table lines
	   have	this length (not counting a final "\n" in the line), as	well
	   as the separator lines returned by $tb->rule() and $b->body_rule().
	   The width of	a table	can potentially	be influenced by any data item
	   in it.


	   returns the total number of lines in	a table, including title lines
	   and body lines. For orthogonality, the synonym table_height() also

	   Same	as "$table->height()".


	   returns the number of title lines in	a table.


	   returns the number of lines in the table body.

	       $tb->colrange( $i)

	   returns the start position and width	of the $i-th column (counting
	   from	0) of the table.  If $i	is negative, counts from the end of
	   the table.  If $i is	larger than the	greatest column	index, an
	   imaginary column of width 0 is assumed right	of the table.

   Data	Loading
	       $tb->add( $col1,	..., $colN)

	   adds	a data line to the table, returns the table.

	   $col1, ..., $colN are scalars that correspond to the	table columns.
	   Undefined entries are converted to '', and extra data beyond	the
	   number of table columns is ignored.

	   Data	entries	can be multi-line strings.  The	partial	strings	all go
	   into	the same column.  The corresponding fields of other columns
	   remain empty	unless there is	another	multi-line entry in that
	   column that fills the fields.  Adding a line	with multi-line
	   entries is equivalent to adding multiple lines.

	   Every call to "add()" increases the body height of the table	by the
	   number of effective lines, one in the absence of multiline entries.

	       $tb->load( $line, ...)

	   loads the data lines	given into the table, returns the table.

	   Every argument to "load()" represents a data	line to	be added to
	   the table.  The line	can be given as	an array(ref) containing the
	   data	items, or as a string, which is	split on whitespace to
	   retrieve the	data.  If an undefined argument	is given, it is
	   treated as an empty line.


	   deletes all data from the table and resets it to the	state after
	   creation.  Returns the table.  The body height of a table is	0
	   after "clear()".

   Table Output
       The three methods "table()", "title()", and "body()" are	very similar.
       They access different parts of the printable output lines of a table
       with similar methods.  The details are described	with the "table()"

	   The "table()" method	returns	lines from the entire table, starting
	   with	the first title	line and ending	with the last body line.

	   In array context, the lines are returned separately,	in scalar
	   context they	are joined together in a single	string.

	       my @lines = $tb->table;
	       my $line	 = $tb->table( $line_number);
	       my @lines = $tb->table( $line_number, $n);

	   The first call returns all the lines	in the table.  The second call
	   returns one line given by $line_number.  The	third call returns $n
	   lines, starting with	$line_number.  If $line_number is negative, it
	   counts from the end of the array.  Unlike the "select()" method,
	   "table()" (and its sister methods "title()" and "body()") is
	   protected against large negative line numbers, it truncates the
	   range described by $line_number and $n to the existing lines.  If
	   $n is 0 or negative,	no lines are returned (an empty	string in
	   scalar context).

	   Returns a string representation of the table. This method is	called
	   for stringification by overload.

	       my @table_strings = map { $_->stringify() } @tables;

	   Returns lines from the title	area of	a table, where the column
	   titles are rendered.	 Parameters and	response to context are	as
	   with	"table()", but no lines	are returned from outside the title

	   Returns lines from the body area of a table,	that is	the part where
	   the data content is rendered, so that $tb->body( 0) is the first
	   data	line.  Parameters and response to context are as with

	       $tb->rule( $char);
	       $tb->rule( $char, $char1);
	       $tb->rule( sub {	my ($index, $len) = @_;	},
			  sub {	my ($index, $len) = @_;	},

	   Returns a rule for the table.

	   A rule is a line of table width that	can be used between table
	   lines to provide visual horizontal divisions, much like column
	   separators provide vertical visual divisions.  In its basic form
	   (returned by	the first call)	it looks like a	table line with	no
	   data, hence a blank line except for the non-blank parts of any
	   column-separators.  If one character	is specified (the second
	   call), it replaces the blanks in the	first form, but	non-blank
	   column separators are retained.  If a second	character is
	   specified, it replaces the non-blank	parts of the separators.  So
	   specifying the same character twice gives a solid line of table
	   width.  Another useful combo	is "$tb->rule( '-', '+')", together
	   with	separators that	contain	a single nonblank "|", for a popular
	   representation of line crossings.

	   "rule()" uses the column separators for the title section if	there
	   is a	difference.

	   If callbacks	are specified instead of the characters, then they
	   receive the index of	the section of the rule	they need to render
	   and its desired length in characters, and should return the string
	   to put there. The indexes given are 0 based (where 0	is either the
	   left	column separator or the	leftmost cell) and the strings will be
	   trimmed or extended in the replacement.

	   "body_rule()" works like <rule()>, except the rule is generated
	   using the column separators for the table body.

   Warning Control
	       Text::Table->warnings( 'on');
	       Text::Table->warnings( 'off'):
	       Text::Table->warnings( 'fatal'):

	   The "warnings()" method is used to control the appearance of
	   warning messages while tables are manipulated.  When	Text::Table
	   starts, warnings are	disabled.  The default action of "warnings()"
	   is to turn warnings on.  The	other possible arguments are self-
	   explanatory.	 "warnings()" can also be called as an object method
	   ("$tb->warnings( ...)").

       This document pertains to Text::Table version 1.127

       o   auto	alignment doesn't support alternative characters for the
	   decimal point.  This	is actually a bug in the underlying
	   Text::Aligner by the	same author.

       Shlomi Fish, <> - CPAN	ID: "SHLOMIF".

	   Anno	Siegel

       Copyright (c) 2002 Anno Siegel. All rights reserved.  This program is
       free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
       of the ISC license.

       (This program had been licensed under the same terms as Perl itself up
       to version 1.118	released on 2011, and was relicensed by	permission of
       its originator).

       The full	text of	the license can	be found in the	LICENSE	file included
       with this module.

       Text::Aligner, perl(1) .

       Shlomi Fish <>

       This software is	Copyright (c) 2002 by Anno Siegel and others.

       This is free software, licensed under:

	 The ISC License

       Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website or by email to

       When submitting a bug or	request, please	include	a test-file or a patch
       to an existing test-file	that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

       You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

	 perldoc Text::Table

       The following websites have more	information about this module, and may
       be of help to you. As always, in	addition to those websites please use
       your favorite search engine to discover more resources.

       o   MetaCPAN

	   A modern, open-source CPAN search engine, useful to view POD	in
	   HTML	format.


       o   Search CPAN

	   The default CPAN search engine, useful to view POD in HTML format.


       o   RT: CPAN's Bug Tracker

	   The RT ( Request Tracker ) website is the default bug/issue
	   tracking system for CPAN.


       o   AnnoCPAN

	   The AnnoCPAN	is a website that allows community annotations of Perl
	   module documentation.


       o   CPAN	Ratings

	   The CPAN Ratings is a website that allows community ratings and
	   reviews of Perl modules.


       o   CPAN	Forum

	   The CPAN Forum is a web forum for discussing	Perl modules.


       o   CPANTS

	   The CPANTS is a website that	analyzes the Kwalitee (	code metrics )
	   of a	distribution.


       o   CPAN	Testers

	   The CPAN Testers is a network of smokers who	run automated tests on
	   uploaded CPAN distributions.


       o   CPAN	Testers	Matrix

	   The CPAN Testers Matrix is a	website	that provides a	visual
	   overview of the test	results	for a distribution on various


       o   CPAN	Testers	Dependencies

	   The CPAN Testers Dependencies is a website that shows a chart of
	   the test results of all dependencies	for a distribution.


   Bugs	/ Feature Requests
       Please report any bugs or feature requests by email to "bug-text-table
       at",	or through the web interface at
       <>. You will
       be automatically	notified of any	progress on the	request	by the system.

   Source Code
       The code	is open	to the world, and available for	you to hack on.	Please
       feel free to browse it and play with it,	or whatever. If	you want to
       contribute patches, please send me a diff or prod me to pull from your
       repository :)


	 git clone ssh://

perl v5.24.1			  2016-11-28			Text::Table(3)


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