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Storable(3)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		   Storable(3)

       Storable	- persistence for Perl data structures

	use Storable;
	store \%table, 'file';
	$hashref = retrieve('file');

	use Storable qw(nstore store_fd	nstore_fd freeze thaw dclone);

	# Network order
	nstore \%table,	'file';
	$hashref = retrieve('file');   # There is NO nretrieve()

	# Storing to and retrieving from an already opened file
	store_fd \@array, \*STDOUT;
	nstore_fd \%table, \*STDOUT;
	$aryref	= fd_retrieve(\*SOCKET);
	$hashref = fd_retrieve(\*SOCKET);

	# Serializing to memory
	$serialized = freeze \%table;
	%table_clone = %{ thaw($serialized) };

	# Deep (recursive) cloning
	$cloneref = dclone($ref);

	# Advisory locking
	use Storable qw(lock_store lock_nstore lock_retrieve)
	lock_store \%table, 'file';
	lock_nstore \%table, 'file';
	$hashref = lock_retrieve('file');

       The Storable package brings persistence to your Perl data structures
       containing SCALAR, ARRAY, HASH or REF objects, i.e. anything that can
       be conveniently stored to disk and retrieved at a later time.

       It can be used in the regular procedural	way by calling "store" with a
       reference to the	object to be stored, along with	the file name where
       the image should	be written.

       The routine returns "undef" for I/O problems or other internal error, a
       true value otherwise. Serious errors are	propagated as a	"die"

       To retrieve data	stored to disk,	use "retrieve" with a file name.  The
       objects stored into that	file are recreated into	memory for you,	and a
       reference to the	root object is returned. In case an I/O	error occurs
       while reading, "undef" is returned instead. Other serious errors	are
       propagated via "die".

       Since storage is	performed recursively, you might want to stuff
       references to objects that share	a lot of common	data into a single
       array or	hash table, and	then store that	object.	That way, when you
       retrieve	back the whole thing, the objects will continue	to share what
       they originally shared.

       At the cost of a	slight header overhead,	you may	store to an already
       opened file descriptor using the	"store_fd" routine, and	retrieve from
       a file via "fd_retrieve". Those names aren't imported by	default, so
       you will	have to	do that	explicitly if you need those routines.	The
       file descriptor you supply must be already opened, for read if you're
       going to	retrieve and for write if you wish to store.

	       store_fd(\%table, *STDOUT) || die "can't	store to stdout\n";
	       $hashref	= fd_retrieve(*STDIN);

       You can also store data in network order	to allow easy sharing across
       multiple	platforms, or when storing on a	socket known to	be remotely
       connected. The routines to call have an initial "n" prefix for network,
       as in "nstore" and "nstore_fd". At retrieval time, your data will be
       correctly restored so you don't have to know whether you're restoring
       from native or network ordered data.  Double values are stored
       stringified to ensure portability as well, at the slight	risk of
       loosing some precision in the last decimals.

       When using "fd_retrieve", objects are retrieved in sequence, one	object
       (i.e. one recursive tree) per associated	"store_fd".

       If you're more from the object-oriented camp, you can inherit from
       Storable	and directly store your	objects	by invoking "store" as a
       method. The fact	that the root of the to-be-stored tree is a blessed
       reference (i.e. an object) is special-cased so that the retrieve	does
       not provide a reference to that object but rather the blessed object
       reference itself. (Otherwise, you'd get a reference to that blessed

       The Storable engine can also store data into a Perl scalar instead, to
       later retrieve them. This is mainly used	to freeze a complex structure
       in some safe compact memory place (where	it can possibly	be sent	to
       another process via some	IPC, since freezing the	structure also
       serializes it in	effect). Later on, and maybe somewhere else, you can
       thaw the	Perl scalar out	and recreate the original complex structure in

       Surprisingly, the routines to be	called are named "freeze" and "thaw".
       If you wish to send out the frozen scalar to another machine, use
       "nfreeze" instead to get	a portable image.

       Note that freezing an object structure and immediately thawing it
       actually	achieves a deep	cloning	of that	structure:

	   dclone(.) = thaw(freeze(.))

       Storable	provides you with a "dclone" interface which does not create
       that intermediary scalar	but instead freezes the	structure in some
       internal	memory space and then immediately thaws	it out.

       The "lock_store"	and "lock_nstore" routine are equivalent to "store"
       and "nstore", except that they get an exclusive lock on the file	before
       writing.	 Likewise, "lock_retrieve" does	the same as "retrieve",	but
       also gets a shared lock on the file before reading.

       As with any advisory locking scheme, the	protection only	works if you
       systematically use "lock_store" and "lock_retrieve".  If	one side of
       your application	uses "store" whilst the	other uses "lock_retrieve",
       you will	get no protection at all.

       The internal advisory locking is	implemented using Perl's flock()
       routine.	 If your system	does not support any form of flock(), or if
       you share your files across NFS,	you might wish to use other forms of
       locking by using	modules	such as	LockFile::Simple which lock a file
       using a filesystem entry, instead of locking the	file descriptor.

       The heart of Storable is	written	in C for decent	speed. Extra low-level
       optimizations have been made when manipulating perl internals, to
       sacrifice encapsulation for the benefit of greater speed.

       Normally, Storable stores elements of hashes in the order they are
       stored internally by Perl, i.e. pseudo-randomly.	 If you	set
       $Storable::canonical to some "TRUE" value, Storable will	store hashes
       with the	elements sorted	by their key.  This allows you to compare data
       structures by comparing their frozen representations (or	even the
       compressed frozen representations), which can be	useful for creating
       lookup tables for complicated queries.

       Canonical order does not	imply network order; those are two orthogonal

       Since Storable version 2.05, CODE references may	be serialized with the
       help of B::Deparse. To enable this feature, set $Storable::Deparse to a
       true value. To enable deserialization, $Storable::Eval should be	set to
       a true value. Be	aware that deserialization is done through "eval",
       which is	dangerous if the Storable file contains	malicious data.	You
       can set $Storable::Eval to a subroutine reference which would be	used
       instead of "eval". See below for	an example using a Safe	compartment
       for deserialization of CODE references.

       If $Storable::Deparse and/or $Storable::Eval are	set to false values,
       then the	value of $Storable::forgive_me (see below) is respected	while
       serializing and deserializing.

       This release of Storable	can be used on a newer version of Perl to
       serialize data which is not supported by	earlier	Perls.	By default,
       Storable	will attempt to	do the right thing, by "croak()"ing if it
       encounters data that it cannot deserialize.  However, the defaults can
       be changed as follows:

       utf8 data
	   Perl	5.6 added support for Unicode characters with code points >
	   255,	and Perl 5.8 has full support for Unicode characters in	hash
	   keys.  Perl internally encodes strings with these characters	using
	   utf8, and Storable serializes them as utf8.	By default, if an
	   older version of Perl encounters a utf8 value it cannot represent,
	   it will "croak()".  To change this behaviour	so that	Storable
	   deserializes	utf8 encoded values as the string of bytes
	   (effectively	dropping the is_utf8 flag) set $Storable::drop_utf8 to
	   some	"TRUE" value.  This is a form of data loss, because with
	   $drop_utf8 true, it becomes impossible to tell whether the original
	   data	was the	Unicode	string,	or a series of bytes that happen to be
	   valid utf8.

       restricted hashes
	   Perl	5.8 adds support for restricted	hashes,	which have keys
	   restricted to a given set, and can have values locked to be read
	   only.  By default, when Storable encounters a restricted hash on a
	   perl	that doesn't support them, it will deserialize it as a normal
	   hash, silently discarding any placeholder keys and leaving the keys
	   and all values unlocked.  To	make Storable "croak()"	instead, set
	   $Storable::downgrade_restricted to a	"FALSE"	value.	To restore the
	   default set it back to some "TRUE" value.

	   The cperl PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_TOP hash	strategy has a known problem
	   with	restricted hashes.

       huge objects
	   On 64bit systems some data structures may exceed the	2G (i.e.
	   I32_MAX) limit. On 32bit systems also strings between I32 and U32
	   (2G-4G).  Since Storable 3.00 (not in perl5 core) we	are able to
	   store and retrieve these objects, even if perl5 itself is not able
	   to handle them.  These are strings longer then 4G, arrays with more
	   then	2G elements and	hashes with more then 2G elements. cperl
	   forbids hashes with more than 2G elements, but this fail in cperl
	   then. perl5 itself at least until 5.26 allows it, but cannot
	   iterate over	them.  Note that creating those	objects	might cause
	   out of memory exceptions by the operating system before perl	has a
	   chance to abort.

       files from future versions of Storable
	   Earlier versions of Storable	would immediately croak	if they
	   encountered a file with a higher internal version number than the
	   reading Storable knew about.	 Internal version numbers are
	   increased each time new data	types (such as restricted hashes) are
	   added to the	vocabulary of the file format.	This meant that	a
	   newer Storable module had no	way of writing a file readable by an
	   older Storable, even	if the writer didn't store newer data types.

	   This	version	of Storable will defer croaking	until it encounters a
	   data	type in	the file that it does not recognize.  This means that
	   it will continue to read files generated by newer Storable modules
	   which are careful in	what they write	out, making it easier to
	   upgrade Storable modules in a mixed environment.

	   The old behaviour of	immediate croaking can be re-instated by
	   setting $Storable::accept_future_minor to some "FALSE" value.

       All these variables have	no effect on a newer Perl which	supports the
       relevant	feature.

       Storable	uses the "exception" paradigm, in that it does not try to
       workaround failures: if something bad happens, an exception is
       generated from the caller's perspective (see Carp and "croak()").  Use
       eval {} to trap those exceptions.

       When Storable croaks, it	tries to report	the error via the "logcroak()"
       routine from the	"Log::Agent" package, if it is available.

       Normal errors are reported by having store() or retrieve() return
       "undef".	 Such errors are usually I/O errors (or	truncated stream
       errors at retrieval).

       When Storable throws the	"Max. recursion	depth with nested structures
       exceeded" error we are already out of stack space. Unfortunately	on
       some earlier perl versions cleaning up a	recursive data structure
       recurses	into the free calls, which will	lead to	stack overflows	in the
       cleanup.	This data structure is not properly cleaned up then, it	will
       only be destroyed during	global destruction.

       Any class may define hooks that will be called during the serialization
       and deserialization process on objects that are instances of that
       class.  Those hooks can redefine	the way	serialization is performed
       (and therefore, how the symmetrical deserialization should be

       Since we	said earlier:

	   dclone(.) = thaw(freeze(.))

       everything we say about hooks should also hold for deep cloning.
       However,	hooks get to know whether the operation	is a mere
       serialization, or a cloning.

       Therefore, when serializing hooks are involved,

	   dclone(.) <>	thaw(freeze(.))

       Well, you could keep them in sync, but there's no guarantee it will
       always hold on classes somebody else wrote.  Besides, there is little
       to gain in doing	so: a serializing hook could keep only one attribute
       of an object, which is probably not what	should happen during a deep
       cloning of that same object.

       Here is the hooking interface:

       "STORABLE_freeze" obj, cloning
	   The serializing hook, called	on the object during serialization.
	   It can be inherited,	or defined in the class	itself,	like any other

	   Arguments: obj is the object	to serialize, cloning is a flag
	   indicating whether we're in a dclone() or a regular serialization
	   via store() or freeze().

	   Returned value: A LIST "($serialized, $ref1,	$ref2, ...)" where
	   $serialized is the serialized form to be used, and the optional
	   $ref1, $ref2, etc...	are extra references that you wish to let the
	   Storable engine serialize.

	   At deserialization time, you	will be	given back the same LIST, but
	   all the extra references will be pointing into the deserialized

	   The first time the hook is hit in a serialization flow, you may
	   have	it return an empty list.  That will signal the Storable	engine
	   to further discard that hook	for this class and to therefore	revert
	   to the default serialization	of the underlying Perl data.  The hook
	   will	again be normally processed in the next	serialization.

	   Unless you know better, serializing hook should always say:

	       sub STORABLE_freeze {
		   my ($self, $cloning)	= @_;
		   return if $cloning;	       # Regular default serialization

	   in order to keep reasonable dclone()	semantics.

       "STORABLE_thaw" obj, cloning, serialized, ...
	   The deserializing hook called on the	object during deserialization.
	   But wait: if	we're deserializing, there's no	object yet... right?

	   Wrong: the Storable engine creates an empty one for you.  If	you
	   know	Eiffel,	you can	view "STORABLE_thaw" as	an alternate creation

	   This	means the hook can be inherited	like any other method, and
	   that	obj is your blessed reference for this particular instance.

	   The other arguments should look familiar if you know
	   "STORABLE_freeze": cloning is true when we're part of a deep	clone
	   operation, serialized is the	serialized string you returned to the
	   engine in "STORABLE_freeze",	and there may be an optional list of
	   references, in the same order you gave them at serialization	time,
	   pointing to the deserialized	objects	(which have been processed
	   courtesy of the Storable engine).

	   When	the Storable engine does not find any "STORABLE_thaw" hook
	   routine, it tries to	load the class by requiring the	package
	   dynamically (using the blessed package name), and then re-attempts
	   the lookup.	If at that time	the hook cannot	be located, the	engine
	   croaks.  Note that this mechanism will fail if you define several
	   classes in the same file, but perlmod warned	you.

	   It is up to you to use this information to populate obj the way you

	   Returned value: none.

       "STORABLE_attach" class,	cloning, serialized
	   While "STORABLE_freeze" and "STORABLE_thaw" are useful for classes
	   where each instance is independent, this mechanism has difficulty
	   (or is incompatible)	with objects that exist	as common process-
	   level or system-level resources, such as singleton objects,
	   database pools, caches or memoized objects.

	   The alternative "STORABLE_attach" method provides a solution	for
	   these shared	objects. Instead of "STORABLE_freeze" -->
	   "STORABLE_thaw", you	implement "STORABLE_freeze" -->
	   "STORABLE_attach" instead.

	   Arguments: class is the class we are	attaching to, cloning is a
	   flag	indicating whether we're in a dclone() or a regular de-
	   serialization via thaw(), and serialized is the stored string for
	   the resource	object.

	   Because these resource objects are considered to be owned by	the
	   entire process/system, and not the "property" of whatever is	being
	   serialized, no references underneath	the object should be included
	   in the serialized string. Thus, in any class	that implements
	   "STORABLE_attach", the "STORABLE_freeze" method cannot return any
	   references, and "Storable" will throw an error if "STORABLE_freeze"
	   tries to return references.

	   All information required to "attach"	back to	the shared resource
	   object must be contained only in the	"STORABLE_freeze" return
	   string.  Otherwise, "STORABLE_freeze" behaves as normal for
	   "STORABLE_attach" classes.

	   Because "STORABLE_attach" is	passed the class (rather than an
	   object), it also returns the	object directly, rather	than modifying
	   the passed object.

	   Returned value: object of type "class"

       Predicates are not exportable.  They must be called by explicitly
       prefixing them with the Storable	package	name.

	   The "Storable::last_op_in_netorder()" predicate will	tell you
	   whether network order was used in the last store or retrieve
	   operation.  If you don't know how to	use this, just forget about

	   Returns true	if within a store operation (via STORABLE_freeze

	   Returns true	if within a retrieve operation (via STORABLE_thaw

       With hooks comes	the ability to recurse back to the Storable engine.
       Indeed, hooks are regular Perl code, and	Storable is convenient when it
       comes to	serializing and	deserializing things, so why not use it	to
       handle the serialization	string?

       There are a few things you need to know,	however:

       o   From	Storable 3.05 to 3.13 we probed	for the	stack recursion	limit
	   for references, arrays and hashes to	a maximal depth	of
	   ~1200-35000,	otherwise we might fall	into a stack-overflow.	On
	   JSON::XS this limit is 512 btw.  With references not	immediately
	   referencing each other there's no such limit	yet, so	you might fall
	   into	such a stack-overflow segfault.

	   This	probing	and the	checks we performed have some limitations:

	   o   the stack size at build time might be different at run time,
	       eg. the stack size may have been	modified with ulimit(1).  If
	       it's larger at run time Storable	may fail the freeze() or
	       thaw() unnecessarily.  If it's larger at	build time Storable
	       may segmentation	fault when processing a	deep structure at run

	   o   the stack size might be different in a thread.

	   o   array and hash recursion	limits are checked separately against
	       the same	recursion depth, a frozen structure with a large
	       sequence	of nested arrays within	many nested hashes may exhaust
	       the processor stack without triggering Storable's recursion

	   So these now	have simple defaults rather than probing at build-

	   You can control the maximum array and hash recursion	depths by
	   modifying $Storable::recursion_limit	and
	   $Storable::recursion_limit_hash respectively.  Either can be	set to
	   "-1"	to prevent any depth checks, though this isn't recommended.

	   If you want to test what the	limits are, the	stacksize tool is
	   included in the "Storable" distribution.

       o   You can create endless loops	if the things you serialize via
	   freeze() (for instance) point back to the object we're trying to
	   serialize in	the hook.

       o   Shared references among objects will	not stay shared: if we're
	   serializing the list	of object [A, C] where both object A and C
	   refer to the	SAME object B, and if there is a serializing hook in A
	   that	says freeze(B),	then when deserializing, we'll get [A',	C']
	   where A' refers to B', but C' refers	to D, a	deep clone of B'.  The
	   topology was	not preserved.

       o   The maximal stack recursion limit for your system is	returned by
	   "stack_depth()" and "stack_depth_hash()". The hash limit is usually
	   half	the size of the	array and ref limit, as	the Perl hash API is
	   not optimal.

       That's why "STORABLE_freeze" lets you provide a list of references to
       serialize.  The engine guarantees that those will be serialized in the
       same context as the other objects, and therefore	that shared objects
       will stay shared.

       In the above [A,	C] example, the	"STORABLE_freeze" hook could return:

	       ("something", $self->{B})

       and the B part would be serialized by the engine.  In "STORABLE_thaw",
       you would get back the reference	to the B' object, deserialized for

       Therefore, recursion should normally be avoided,	but is nonetheless

   Deep	Cloning
       There is	a Clone	module available on CPAN which implements deep cloning
       natively, i.e. without freezing to memory and thawing the result.  It
       is aimed	to replace Storable's dclone() some day.  However, it does not
       currently support Storable hooks	to redefine the	way deep cloning is

Storable magic
       Yes, there's a lot of that :-) But more precisely, in UNIX systems
       there's a utility called	"file",	which recognizes data files based on
       their contents (usually their first few bytes).	For this to work, a
       certain file called magic needs to taught about the signature of	the
       data.  Where that configuration file lives depends on the UNIX flavour;
       often it's something like /usr/share/misc/magic or /etc/magic.  Your
       system administrator needs to do	the updating of	the magic file.	 The
       necessary signature information is output to STDOUT by invoking
       Storable::show_file_magic().  Note that the GNU implementation of the
       "file" utility, version 3.38 or later, is expected to contain support
       for recognising Storable	files out-of-the-box, in addition to other
       kinds of	Perl files.

       You can also use	the following functions	to extract the file header
       information from	Storable images:

       $info = Storable::file_magic( $filename )
	   If the given	file is	a Storable image return	a hash describing it.
	   If the file is readable, but	not a Storable image return "undef".
	   If the file does not	exist or is unreadable then croak.

	   The hash returned has the following elements:

	       This returns the	file format version.  It is a string like

	       Note that this version number is	not the	same as	the version
	       number of the Storable module itself.  For instance Storable
	       v0.7 create files in format v2.0	and Storable v2.15 create
	       files in	format v2.7.  The file format version number only
	       increment when additional features that would confuse older
	       versions	of the module are added.

	       Files older than	v2.0 will have the one of the version numbers
	       "-1", "0" or "1".  No minor number was used at that time.

	       This returns the	file format version as number.	It is a	string
	       like "2.007".  This value is suitable for numeric comparisons.

	       The constant function "Storable::BIN_VERSION_NV"	returns	a
	       comparable number that represents the highest file version
	       number that this	version	of Storable fully supports (but	see
	       discussion of $Storable::accept_future_minor above).  The
	       constant	"Storable::BIN_WRITE_VERSION_NV" function returns what
	       file version is written and might be less than
	       "Storable::BIN_VERSION_NV" in some configurations.

	   "major", "minor"
	       This also returns the file format version.  If the version is
	       "2.7" then major	would be 2 and minor would be 7.  The minor
	       element is missing for when major is less than 2.

	       The is the number of bytes that the Storable header occupies.

	       This is TRUE if the image store data in network order.  This
	       means that it was created with nstore() or similar.

	       This is only present when "netorder" is FALSE.  It is the
	       $Config{byteorder} string of the	perl that created this image.
	       It is a string like "1234" (32 bit little endian) or "87654321"
	       (64 bit big endian).  This must match the current perl for the
	       image to	be readable by Storable.

	   "intsize", "longsize", "ptrsize", "nvsize"
	       These are only present when "netorder" is FALSE.	These are the
	       sizes of	various	C datatypes of the perl	that created this
	       image.  These must match	the current perl for the image to be
	       readable	by Storable.

	       The "nvsize" element is only present for	file format v2.2 and

	       The name	of the file.

       $info = Storable::read_magic( $buffer )
       $info = Storable::read_magic( $buffer, $must_be_file )
	   The $buffer should be a Storable image or the first few bytes of
	   it.	If $buffer starts with a Storable header, then a hash
	   describing the image	is returned, otherwise "undef" is returned.

	   The hash has	the same structure as the one returned by
	   Storable::file_magic().  The	"file" element is true if the image is
	   a file image.

	   If the $must_be_file	argument is provided and is TRUE, then return
	   "undef" unless the image looks like it belongs to a file dump.

	   The maximum size of a Storable header is currently 21 bytes.	 If
	   the provided	$buffer	is only	the first part of a Storable image it
	   should at least be this long	to ensure that read_magic() will
	   recognize it	as such.

       Here are	some code samples showing a possible usage of Storable:

	use Storable qw(store retrieve freeze thaw dclone);

	%color = ('Blue' => 0.1, 'Red' => 0.8, 'Black' => 0, 'White' =>	1);

	store(\%color, 'mycolors') or die "Can't store %a in mycolors!\n";

	$colref	= retrieve('mycolors');
	die "Unable to retrieve	from mycolors!\n" unless defined $colref;
	printf "Blue is	still %lf\n", $colref->{'Blue'};

	$colref2 = dclone(\%color);

	$str = freeze(\%color);
	printf "Serialization of %%color is %d bytes long.\n", length($str);
	$colref3 = thaw($str);

       which prints (on	my machine):

	Blue is	still 0.100000
	Serialization of %color	is 102 bytes long.

       Serialization of	CODE references	and deserialization in a safe

	use Storable qw(freeze thaw);
	use Safe;
	use strict;
	my $safe = new Safe;
	       # because of opcodes used in "use strict":
	$safe->permit(qw(:default require));
	local $Storable::Deparse = 1;
	local $Storable::Eval =	sub { $safe->reval($_[0]) };
	my $serialized = freeze(sub { 42 });
	my $code = thaw($serialized);
	$code->() == 42;

       Do not accept Storable documents	from untrusted sources!

       Some features of	Storable can lead to security vulnerabilities if you
       accept Storable documents from untrusted	sources	with the default
       flags. Most obviously, the optional (off	by default) CODE reference
       serialization feature allows transfer of	code to	the deserializing
       process.	Furthermore, any serialized object will	cause Storable to
       helpfully load the module corresponding to the class of the object in
       the deserializing module.  For manipulated module names,	this can load
       almost arbitrary	code.  Finally,	the deserialized object's destructors
       will be invoked when the	objects	get destroyed in the deserializing
       process.	Maliciously crafted Storable documents may put such objects in
       the value of a hash key that is overridden by another key/value pair in
       the same	hash, thus causing immediate destructor	execution.

       To disable blessing objects while thawing/retrieving remove the flag
       "BLESS_OK" = 2 from $Storable::flags or set the 2nd argument for
       thaw/retrieve to	0.

       To disable tieing data while thawing/retrieving remove the flag
       "TIE_OK"	= 4 from $Storable::flags or set the 2nd argument for
       thaw/retrieve to	0.

       With the	default	setting	of $Storable::flags = 6, creating or
       destroying random objects, even renamed objects can be controlled by an
       attacker.  See CVE-2015-1592 and	its metasploit module.

       If your application requires accepting data from	untrusted sources, you
       are best	off with a less	powerful and more-likely safe serialization
       format and implementation. If your data is sufficiently simple,
       Cpanel::JSON::XS, Data::MessagePack or Sereal are the best choices and
       offer maximum interoperability, but note	that Sereal is unsafe by

       If you're using references as keys within your hash tables, you're
       bound to	be disappointed	when retrieving	your data. Indeed, Perl
       stringifies references used as hash table keys. If you later wish to
       access the items	via another reference stringification (i.e. using the
       same reference that was used for	the key	originally to record the value
       into the	hash table), it	will work because both references stringify to
       the same	string.

       It won't	work across a sequence of "store" and "retrieve" operations,
       however,	because	the addresses in the retrieved objects,	which are part
       of the stringified references, will probably differ from	the original
       addresses. The topology of your structure is preserved, but not hidden
       semantics like those.

       On platforms where it matters, be sure to call "binmode()" on the
       descriptors that	you pass to Storable functions.

       Storing data canonically	that contains large hashes can be
       significantly slower than storing the same data normally, as temporary
       arrays to hold the keys for each	hash have to be	allocated, populated,
       sorted and freed.  Some tests have shown	a halving of the speed of
       storing -- the exact penalty will depend	on the complexity of your
       data.  There is no slowdown on retrieval.

       Storable	now has	experimental support for storing regular expressions,
       but there are significant limitations:

       o   perl	5.8 or later is	required.

       o   regular expressions with code blocks, ie "/(?{ ... })/" or "/(??{
	   ... })/" will throw an exception when thawed.

       o   regular expression syntax and flags have changed over the history
	   of perl, so a regular expression that you freeze in one version of
	   perl	may fail to thaw or behave differently in another version of

       o   depending on	the version of perl, regular expressions can change in
	   behaviour depending on the context, but later perls will bake that
	   behaviour into the regexp.

       Storable	will throw an exception	if a frozen regular expression cannot
       be thawed.

       You can't store GLOB, FORMLINE, etc.... If you can define semantics for
       those operations, feel free to enhance Storable so that it can deal
       with them.

       The store functions will	"croak"	if they	run into such references
       unless you set $Storable::forgive_me to some "TRUE" value. In that
       case, the fatal message is converted to a warning and some meaningless
       string is stored	instead.

       Setting $Storable::canonical may	not yield frozen strings that compare
       equal due to possible stringification of	numbers. When the string
       version of a scalar exists, it is the form stored; therefore, if	you
       happen to use your numbers as strings between two freezing operations
       on the same data	structures, you	will get different results.

       When storing doubles in network order, their value is stored as text.
       However,	you should also	not expect non-numeric floating-point values
       such as infinity	and "not a number" to pass successfully	through	a
       nstore()/retrieve() pair.

       As Storable neither knows nor cares about character sets	(although it
       does know that characters may be	more than eight	bits wide), any
       difference in the interpretation	of character codes between a host and
       a target	system is your problem.	 In particular,	if host	and target use
       different code points to	represent the characters used in the text
       representation of floating-point	numbers, you will not be able be able
       to exchange floating-point data,	even with nstore().

       "Storable::drop_utf8" is	a blunt	tool.  There is	no facility either to
       return all strings as utf8 sequences, or	to attempt to convert utf8
       data back to 8 bit and "croak()"	if the conversion fails.

       Prior to	Storable 2.01, no distinction was made between signed and
       unsigned	integers on storing.  By default Storable prefers to store a
       scalars string representation (if it has	one) so	this would only	cause
       problems	when storing large unsigned integers that had never been
       converted to string or floating point.  In other	words values that had
       been generated by integer operations such as logic ops and then not
       used in any string or arithmetic	context	before storing.

   64 bit data in perl 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
       This section only applies to you	if you have existing data written out
       by Storable 2.02	or earlier on perl 5.6.0 or 5.6.1 on Unix or Linux
       which has been configured with 64 bit integer support (not the default)
       If you got a precompiled	perl, rather than running Configure to build
       your own	perl from source, then it almost certainly does	not affect
       you, and	you can	stop reading now (unless you're	curious). If you're
       using perl on Windows it	does not affect	you.

       Storable	writes a file header which contains the	sizes of various C
       language	types for the C	compiler that built Storable (when not writing
       in network order), and will refuse to load files	written	by a Storable
       not on the same (or compatible) architecture.  This check and a check
       on machine byteorder is needed because the size of various fields in
       the file	are given by the sizes of the C	language types,	and so files
       written on different architectures are incompatible.  This is done for
       increased speed.	 (When writing in network order, all fields are
       written out as standard lengths,	which allows full interworking,	but
       takes longer to read and	write)

       Perl 5.6.x introduced the ability to optional configure the perl
       interpreter to use C's "long long" type to allow	scalars	to store 64
       bit integers on 32 bit systems.	However, due to	the way	the Perl
       configuration system generated the C configuration files	on non-Windows
       platforms, and the way Storable generates its header, nothing in	the
       Storable	file header reflected whether the perl writing was using 32 or
       64 bit integers,	despite	the fact that Storable was storing some	data
       differently in the file.	 Hence Storable	running	on perl	with 64	bit
       integers	will read the header from a file written by a 32 bit perl, not
       realise that the	data is	actually in a subtly incompatible format, and
       then go horribly	wrong (possibly	crashing) if it	encountered a stored
       integer.	 This is a design failure.

       Storable	has now	been changed to	write out and read in a	file header
       with information	about the size of integers.  It's impossible to	detect
       whether an old file being read in was written with 32 or	64 bit
       integers	(they have the same header) so it's impossible to
       automatically switch to a correct backwards compatibility mode.	Hence
       this Storable defaults to the new, correct behaviour.

       What this means is that if you have data	written	by Storable 1.x
       running on perl 5.6.0 or	5.6.1 configured with 64 bit integers on Unix
       or Linux	then by	default	this Storable will refuse to read it, giving
       the error Byte order is not compatible.	If you have such data then you
       should set $Storable::interwork_56_64bit	to a true value	to make	this
       Storable	read and write files with the old header.  You should also
       migrate your data, or any older perl you	are communicating with,	to
       this current version of Storable.

       If you don't have data written with specific configuration of perl
       described above,	then you do not	and should not do anything.  Don't set
       the flag	- not only will	Storable on an identically configured perl
       refuse to load them, but	Storable a differently configured perl will
       load them believing them	to be correct for it, and then may well	fail
       or crash	part way through reading them.

       Thank you to (in	chronological order):

	       Jarkko Hietaniemi <>
	       Ulrich Pfeifer <>
	       Benjamin	A. Holzman <>
	       Andrew Ford <>
	       Gisle Aas <>
	       Jeff Gresham <>
	       Murray Nesbitt <>
	       Marc Lehmann <>
	       Justin Banks <>
	       Jarkko Hietaniemi <> (AGAIN, as perl 5.7.0 Pumpkin!)
	       Salvador	Ortiz Garcia <>
	       Dominic Dunlop <>
	       Erik Haugan <>
	       Benjamin	A. Holzman <>
	       Reini Urban <>
	       Todd Rinaldo <>
	       Aaron Crane <>

       for their bug reports, suggestions and contributions.

       Benjamin	Holzman	contributed the	tied variable support, Andrew Ford
       contributed the canonical order for hashes, and Gisle Aas fixed a few
       misunderstandings of mine regarding the perl internals, and optimized
       the emission of "tags" in the output streams by simply counting the
       objects instead of tagging them (leading	to a binary incompatibility
       for the Storable	image starting at version 0.6--older images are, of
       course, still properly understood).  Murray Nesbitt made	Storable
       thread-safe.  Marc Lehmann added	overloading and	references to tied
       items support.  Benjamin	Holzman	added a	performance improvement	for
       overloaded classes; thanks to Grant Street Group	for footing the	bill.
       Reini Urban took	over maintenance from p5p, and added security fixes
       and huge	object support.

       Storable	was written by Raphael Manfredi	_Raphael_Manfredi@pobox.com_
       Maintenance is now done by cperl	<>

       Please e-mail us	with problems, bug fixes, comments and complaints,
       although	if you have compliments	you should send	them to	Raphael.
       Please don't e-mail Raphael with	problems, as he	no longer works	on
       Storable, and your message will be delayed while	he forwards it to us.


perl v5.35.11			  2022-03-27			   Storable(3)


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